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Positive psychology

W C Chen, Y T Chang, S F Chen, W C Lin, Y Y Su, S D Luo
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the autonomic system can affect sinonasal physiological function and may exacerbate the symptom burden associated with rhinosinusitis. However, the association between autonomic dysfunction and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has seldom been studied. Here, we investigated the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and CRS. METHODS: Patients with CRS who failed medical treatment were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent pre-operative examinations and completed questionnaires, including the reflux symptom index (RSI) and the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22)...
March 21, 2018: Rhinology
Patrícia Couto, Paulo Almeida Pereira, Manuel Nunes, Rui Amaral Mendes
Individuals with disabilities are regarded as a highly vulnerable population group, particularly as far as oral health is concern. However, few studies have assessed the impact of the oral condition on the quality of life of these individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand knowledge on the oral health status of the Portuguese adults with mild intellectual disability, and to assess how the patient's oral health is related to their quality of life. A sample of 240 adults with mild intellectual disabilities linked to the Portuguese Federation for Intellectual Disability, were interviewed using a previously validated version of the Oral Health Impact Profile...
2018: PloS One
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
T V Shuteeva
AIM: To assess the efficacy of neipilept in treatment of asthenic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients, aged from 30 to 40 years, with functional asthenia were examined. Patients were divided into main (n=40) and control (n=15) groups. In 22% men and 56% women, the disease was precipitated by emotional stress, in 46 and 38% by physical and stressful work conditions. Both groups received standard treatment. Patients of the main group received additionally neipilept in solution (500 mg daily) during 30 days...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Xiaoxiao Lin, Christy A Itoga, Sharif Taha, Ming H Li, Ryan Chen, Kirolos Sami, Fulvia Berton, Walter Francesconi, Xiangmin Xu
Real-world stressors are complex and multimodal, involving physical, psychological, and social dimensions. However, the brain networks that mediate stress responses to these stimuli need to be further studied. We used c-Fos mapping in mice to characterize brain circuits activated by exposure to a single episode of multimodal stress (MMS), and compared these to circuits activated by electric foot shocks (EFS). We focused on characterizing c-Fos activity in stress-relevant brain regions including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Farideh Kazemi, Fatemeh Nahidi, Nourossadat Kariman
Background and objective: Pregnancy-related physiologic and psychosocial alterations can impact on the body and cause symptoms which may affect quality of life. Since qualitative studies can provide more in-depth understanding of quality of life and its determining factors, this study was conducted with the aim of exploring factors affecting pregnant women's quality of life. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study with conventional content analysis approach was made using the conventional content analysis approach on a purposeful sample of sixteen pregnant Iranian women in Hamadan, Iran from May 2015 to December 2015...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Arlene S Chung, Jon Smart, Michael Zdradzinski, Sarah Roth, Alecia Gende, Kylie Conroy, Nicole Battaglioli
Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus of attention for the medical education community. Methods: As part of the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit in Las Vegas, Nevada, resident participants from 31 programs collaborated in the Educator Toolkit workgroup. Over a seven-month period leading up to the summit, this workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online resident community, to perform a literature review and draft curricular plans on three core wellness topics...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Daniele Di Lernia, Silvia Serino, Giovanni Pezzulo, Elisa Pedroli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva
The nature of time is rooted in our body. Constellations of impulses arising from the flesh constantly create our interoceptive perception and, in turn, the unfolding of these perceptions defines human awareness of time. This study explored the connection between time perception and interoception and proposes the Interoceptive Buffer saturation (IBs) index. IBs evaluates subjects' ability to process salient stimuli from the body by measuring subjective distortions of interoceptive time perception, i.e., the estimated duration of tactile interoceptive stimulations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kamal Hassan, Yotam Elimeleh, Mona Shehadeh, Hassan Fadi, Irina Rubinchik
Background: Disturbances in sexual function are common among dialysis patients. Normal erections require a complex balance of physiological, psychological, emotional, hormonal, neurological and vascular factors. This study examined a possible association of overhydration (OH) with male sexual dysfunction and depression in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study assessed hydration status by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy in patients on maintenance HD for more than 12 months...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Pia Noel, Cliodhna Cork, Ross G White
Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the evidence concerning the association between SC indices and mental health. This review examines how SC is conceptualized and measured, and the relationships with other variables in quantitative empirical studies investigating the associations between SC and mental health in post-disaster and post-conflict contexts...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Javier I Borráz-León, Ana Lilia Cerda-Molina, Markus J Rantala, Lilian Mayagoitia-Novales
Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Sandy K Wurtele
Research with the public suggests that knowledge about sexual offenders, especially child sexual offenders, is limited and often inaccurate. In general, the public tends to believe that adults who commit sex crimes against children are pedophiles or monstrous strangers who cannot be rehabilitated. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these perceptions can be changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether a course on sex crimes against children could influence college students' knowledge and attitudes toward child sexual offenders...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Nafiseh Damreihani, Sareh Behzadipour, Sezaneh Haghpanh, Mohammadreza Bordbar
The aim of this study was to promote emotional well-being, hope, life satisfaction, and meaning to mothers of children with cancer utilizing a positive psychology intervention. The study population included 50 mothers who had children with cancer attending an outpatient oncology clinic. The participants (experimental and control groups) completed Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale (PWBS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Snyder's Hope Scale (HS), and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) before and after the intervention and also one month after the end of intervention...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
Ruth Ruscheweyh, Heike Wersching, Harald Kugel, Benedikt Sundermann, Anja Teuber
Individual differences in sensitivity to pain are large and have clinical and scientific importance. Although heavily influenced by situational factors, they also relate to genetic factors and psychological traits, and are reflected by differences in functional activation in pain-related brain regions. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate if individual pain sensitivity is related to local grey matter volumes. Pain sensitivity was determined using (1) index finger pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and (2) pain intensity ratings of imagined painful situations as assessed by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) in 501 population-based subjects participating in the BiDirect Study...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Silja Fiedler, Holger Pfaff, Renate Soellner, Timo-Kolja Pförtner
OBJECTIVE: Industry managers are typically exposed to high work demands but have received limited attention by research, particularly concerning the issue of health literacy and how this relates to their psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to explore the association between health literacy and psychological well-being among managers in Germany. METHODS: An online survey of a sample of 126 commercial industry managers was conducted. Effects of health literacy on psychological well-being (WHO-5 index) were investigated using path analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Anne Marie Coleman, Zoë Chouliara, Kay Currie
The aim of this article is to explore the positive and negative impacts of working therapeutically in complex psychological trauma (CPT), particularly the field of gender-based violence (GBV) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), from the clinicians' perspective. The focus was on the prospect of positive gains and growth for therapists. Twenty-one clinicians ( n = 21; counselors/psychotherapists and psychologists) from National Health Service (NHS) specialist trauma services, a community mental health team, and specialist sexual assault counseling organization participated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Selene Valero-Moreno, Marián Pérez-Marín, Inmaculada Montoya-Castilla, Silvia Castillo-Corullón, Alvar Ramírez-Aguilar, Amparo Escribano-Montaner
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with asthma face problems inherent to this stage in their development, to which the challenges of taking over control of their disease, complying with a daily treatment and regular medical followup are added. Any rejection generated by this may lead to treatment non-adherence and poor asthma control, which brings about problems in family dynamics, made worse by the stress or the emotional distress that this situation causes in caregivers. OBJECTIVE: Identify adjustment profiles and predictors of risk for the well-being of caregivers of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Gaëlle Encrenaz, Sonia Laberon, Christine Lagabrielle, Gautier Debruyne, Jacques Pouyaud, Nicole Rascle
PURPOSE: The relationship between enterprise size and psychosocial working conditions has received little attention so far but some findings suggest that they are more favorable in small enterprises. This could have a positive impact on workers' mental health. The objective of this study was to test the mediating effect of perceived working conditions in the relationship between enterprise size and anxious or depressive episodes. METHODS: Data from the 2010 SUMER French periodical cross-sectional survey was analyzed (N=31 420 for the present study)...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS)...
March 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Alinane L Nyondo-Mipando, Angela F Chimwaza, Adamson S Muula
BACKGROUND: The perception of male involvement (MI) in maternal child health services is multifaceted and differs among varying programs and populations. In the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) context, MI includes men's attendance at antenatal care (ANC) clinics, undertaking an HIV tests within the ANC and financial and psychological support. Contexualising the definition of MI is fundamental in the development of MI in PMTCT policy and interventions. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of men, women and health care workers on male partner involvement in PMTCT services in Malawi...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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