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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814050/segmental-contributions-to-sagittal-plane-whole-body-angular-momentum-when-using-powered-compared-to-passive-ankle-foot-prostheses-on-ramps
#1
Nathaniel T Pickle, Anne K Silverman, Jason M Wilken, Nicholas P Fey
Understanding the effects of an assistive device on dynamic balance is crucial, particularly for robotic leg prostheses. Analyses of dynamic balance commonly evaluate the range of whole-body angular momentum (H). However, the contributions of individual body segments to overall H throughout gait may yield futher insights, specifically for people with transtibial amputation using powered prostheses. We evaluated segment contributions to H using Statistical Parametric Mapping to assess the effects of prosthesis type (powered vs passive) and ramp angle on segmental coordination...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814000/preliminary-study-of-a-robotic-foot-ankle-prosthesis-with-active-alignment
#2
Andrew K LaPre, Ryan D Wedge, Brian R Umberger, Frank C Sup
Robotic prosthetic foot-ankle prostheses typically aim to replace the lost joint with revolute joints aimed at replicating normal joint biomechanics. In this paper, a previously developed robotic ankle prosthesis with active alignment is evaluated. It uses a four-bar mechanism to inject positive power into the gait cycle while altering the kinematics of the ankle joint and pylon segment to reduce loading on the residual limb. In a single-subject biomechanics analysis, there was a 10% reduction in peak limb pressures and evidence of greater gait symmetry in ground reaction forces when active alignment was implemented compared to walking with the daily use prosthesis...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813992/review-of-the-actuators-of-active-knee-prostheses-and-their-target-design-outputs-for-activities-of-daily-living
#3
Dominik Simon Pieringer, Martin Grimmer, Michael Friedrich Russold, Robert Riener
Active prosthetic knees have the capability to provide net positive work, which is required in daily activities like stair and ramp negotiation or sit-to-stand transfers. Adding this capability might help to increase user mobility, safety, and independence. This article summarizes the biomechanical knee requirements for different activities of daily living and critically compares them with the actuator characteristics of state-of-the-art active prosthetic knee joints. As a result of a systematic literature research 22 active prosthetic knee joints were identified...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813971/feasibility-study-of-transtibial-amputee-walking-using-a-powered-prosthetic-foot
#4
Martin Grimmer, Matthew Holgate, Jeffrey Ward, Alexander Boehler, Andre Seyfarth
Passive prosthetic feet are not able to provide non-amputee kinematics and kinetics for the ankle joint. Persons with amputations show reduced interlimb symmetry, slower walking speeds, and increased walking effort. To improve ankle range of motion and push off, various powered prosthetic feet were introduced. This feasibility study analyzed if predefined motor reference trajectories can be used to achieve non-amputee ankle biomechanics during walking with the powered prosthetic foot, Walk-Run Ankle. Trajectories were calculated using the desired ankle angle and ankle moment based spring deflection at a given spring stiffness...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813914/data-sample-size-needed-for-analysis-of-kinematic-and-muscle-synergies-in-healthy-and-stroke-populations
#5
Navid Lambert-Shirzad, H F Machiel Van der Loos
Multiple studies have suggested the central nervous system (CNS) generates motions by using modular control of muscles and joints (synergies). However, the synergies reported by these studies are task dependent and might not reflect the true control strategies adopted by the CNS. Studying exploratory motions (EMs) can reveal biomechanical constraints and motor control strategies in healthy and clinical populations. The first logical step to consider EMs in study of motor synergies is to determine how much data is required to reliably and fully profile the motion patterns of an individual...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813884/design-parameters-and-torque-profile-modification-of-a-spring-assisted-hand-opening-exoskeleton-module
#6
Nik R Butler, Stephen A Goodwin, Joel C Perry
There is a growing demand for functional rehabilitation orthotics that can effectively assist in patient recovery from motor impairments after stroke. The hand in particular is a complex system that has proven difficult to mimic with current exoskeleton technologies. This paper presents data-driven design parameters to increase the functionality and improve the assistance profile of the ArmAssist-2.0 hand module. Improvements from the previous model include adjustable linkages to fulfill the largest population of users, new joint locations to more accurately represent biomechanics of the hand, and a more impairment-appropriate torque profile to assist in hand opening, adjustable through interchangeable springs...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813868/relationship-between-assistive-torque-and-knee-biomechanics-during-exoskeleton-walking-in-individuals-with-crouch-gait
#7
Zachary F Lerner, Diane L Damiano, Thomas C Bulea
Crouch or "flexed knee" gait is a pathological gait pattern affecting many individuals with cerebral palsy. One proposed method to alleviate crouch is to provide robotic assistance to knee extension during walking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the magnitude of knee extensor torque affects knee kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyography data were collected while four participants with crouch gait from cerebral palsy walked with assistance from a novel robotic exoskeleton on an instrumented treadmill...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813838/developing-safe-fall-strategies-for-lower-limb-exoskeletons
#8
Mahsa Khalili, Jaimie F Borisoff, H F Machiel Van der Loos
One of the main challenges in the use of a powered lower limb exoskeleton (LLE) is to ensure that balance is maintained throughout the operation of the device. Since no control strategy has yet been implemented that prevents falls in the case of a loss of balance, head or other serious injuries may occur during independent use of LLEs in the event of a fall. These safety concerns limit LLEs in the community to supervised use only. Using the backward fall as a model, we used optimization techniques to develop safe fall control strategies in order to avoid head impact and mitigate the impact velocity of the hips...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813827/biomechanical-effects-of-robot-assisted-walking-on-knee-joint-kinematics-and-muscle-activation-pattern
#9
Pavithra Thangavel, S Vidhya, Junhua Li, Effie Chew, Anastasios Bezerianos, Haoyong Yu
Since manual rehabilitation therapy can be taxing for both the patient and the physiotherapist, a gait rehabilitation robot has been built to reduce the physical strain and increase the efficacy of the rehabilitation therapy. The prototype of the gait rehabilitation robot is designed to provide assistance while walking for patients with abnormal gait pattern and it can also be used for rehabilitation therapy to restore an individual's normal gait pattern by aiding motor recovery. The Gait Rehabilitation Robot uses gait event based synchronization, which enables the exoskeleton to provide synchronous assistance during walking that aims to reduce the lower-limb muscle activation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813714/effects-of-riboflavin-and-ultraviolet-illumination-on-the-biomechanical-properties-of-conjunctiva
#10
Harrison Man Hin Chan, Bonnie Nga Kwan Choy, Jimmy Shiu Ming Lai
PURPOSE: Our experiment evaluated the biomechanical effects of riboflavin and ultraviolet A illumination, in terms of covalent bonding, permeability, and indentation rupture force, on excised cattle conjunctiva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cattle conjunctiva was extracted and divided into the treatment group, which was soaked in riboflavin, followed by ultraviolet light illumination, and the control group. Samples were subsequently analysed on a Fourier transform infrared spectrum test to identify the presence of amide bonds, a permeability test to assess the diffusion of methylene blue across conjunctiva, and an indentation rupture force test...
August 17, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813547/an-experimental-and-numerical-study-of-hybrid-iii-dummy-response-to-simulated-underbody-blast-impacts
#11
Karthik Somasundaram, Anil Kalra, Don Sherman, Paul Begeman, King H Yang, John M Cavanaugh
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs) such as Hybrid III dummy have been widely used in automotive crash tests to evaluate the risks of injury at different body regions. In recent years, researchers have started using automotive ATDs to study the high-speed vertical loading response caused by underbelly blast (UBB) impacts. This study analyzed the Hybrid III dummy responses to short-duration large magnitude vertical acceleration in a laboratory setup. Two unique test conditions were investigated using a horizontal sled system to simulate the UBB loading conditions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813506/global-and-local-disturbances-interact-to-modify-seagrass-palatability
#12
Rocío Jiménez-Ramos, Luis G Egea, María J Ortega, Ignacio Hernández, Juan J Vergara, Fernando G Brun
Global change, such as warming and ocean acidification, and local anthropogenic disturbances, such as eutrophication, can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we are far from being able to predict the outcome of multiple interacting disturbances on seagrass communities. Herbivores are key in determining plant community structure and the transfer of energy up the food web. Global and local disturbances may alter the ecological role of herbivory by modifying leaf palatability (i.e. leaf traits) and consequently, the feeding patterns of herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812396/the-influence-of-lower-limb-prostheses-technology-on-paracanoeing-time-trial-performance
#13
Shelley Ellis, Andrew Callaway, Bryce Dyer
Within the Paracanoeing discipline, it is important to ensure that appropriate control is achieved by a paddler with a disability. However, this Paralympic Games discipline has seen very little attention to date. The aims of this study were to understand the kinematic impact to a paracanoeist when not utilizing the use of a prosthetic lower-limb. A kayaker with a uni-lateral transfemoral amputation completed several 200 m maximal efforts both with and without their prosthesis. When the prosthetic limb was removed, there were significant differences found in stroke rate, stroke speed, stroke length and overall power output...
August 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812215/proteomic-alterations-associated-with-biomechanical-dysfunction-are-early-processes-in-the-emilin1-deficient-mouse-model-of-aortic-valve-disease
#14
P M Angel, D A Narmoneva, M K Sewell-Loftin, C Munjal, L Dupuis, B J Landis, A Jegga, C B Kern, W D Merryman, H S Baldwin, G M Bressan, Robert B Hinton
Aortic valve (AV) disease involves stiffening of the AV cusp with progression characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification. Here, we examine the relationship between biomechanical valve function and proteomic changes before and after the development of AV pathology in the Emilin1-/- mouse model of latent AV disease. Biomechanical studies were performed to quantify tissue stiffness at the macro (micropipette) and micro (atomic force microscopy (AFM)) levels. Micropipette studies showed that the Emilin1-/- AV annulus and cusp regions demonstrated increased stiffness only after the onset of AV disease...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812206/differences-in-femoral-neck-structure-between-elderly-caucasian-and-chinese-populations-a-cross-sectional-study-of-perth-beijing-cohorts
#15
L Wang, B C C Khoo, X G Cheng, K Brown, J R Lewis, Y B Su, Z Guo, K Li, R L Prince
Structural skeletal differences of the femoral neck of older Beijing-Chinese and Perth-Caucasian women were compared; adjusting for frame size-related differences, Beijing-Chinese have lower periosteal width; however, indices of internal bone distribution suggest that Beijing-Chinese may exhibit increased resistance to fracture that may relate to the reduced hip fracture incidence. INTRODUCTION: Ethnic differences in skeletal structure may relate to differences in hip fracture risk in Chinese and Caucasian populations...
August 15, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812039/three-dimensional-biomechanical-analysis-of-rearfoot-and-forefoot-running
#16
Sebastian Knorz, Felix Kluge, Kolja Gelse, Stefan Schulz-Drost, Thilo Hotfiel, Matthias Lochmann, Björn Eskofier, Sebastian Krinner
BACKGROUND: In the running community, a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern is increasingly preferred compared with a rearfoot strike (RFS) pattern. However, it has not been fully understood which strike pattern may better reduce adverse joint forces within the different joints of the lower extremity. PURPOSE: To analyze the 3-dimensional (3D) stress pattern in the ankle, knee, and hip joint in runners with either a FFS or RFS pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812035/bioabsorbable-versus-metal-screw-in-the-fixation-of-tibial-tubercle-transfer-a-cadaveric-biomechanical-study
#17
Janne T Nurmi, Ari Itälä, Raine Sihvonen, Petri Sillanpää, Pekka Kannus, Harri Sievänen, Teppo L N Järvinen
BACKGROUND: In tibial tubercle transfer (TTT) procedures, the osteotomized and transferred tibial tubercle is usually fixed into the host bone using metal screws. PURPOSE: To compare the strength of fixation provided by a single bioabsorbable screw versus a metal screw for TTT. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Twenty-two pairs of human cadaveric tibiae were used to compare the fixation strength of a single 4...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811992/analysis-of-the-literature-on-cervical-spine-fractures-in-ankylosing-spinal-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Sebastian Hartmann, Anja Tschugg, Christoph Wipplinger, Claudius Thomé
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative literature review. OBJECTIVE: The numbers of low-energy cervical fractures seen in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (also known as Bechterew disease) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (also known as Forestier disease) have greatly increased over recent decades. These fractures tend to be particularly overlooked, leading to delayed diagnosis and secondary neurological deterioration. The aim of the present evaluation was to summarize current knowledge on cervical fractures in patients with ankylosing spinal disorders (ASDs)...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811983/a-novel-spinal-implant-for-fusionless-scoliosis-correction-a-biomechanical-analysis-of-the-motion-preserving-properties-of-a-posterior-periapical-concave-distraction-device
#19
Roderick M Holewijn, Marinus de Kleuver, Albert J van der Veen, Kaj S Emanuel, Arno Bisschop, Agnita Stadhouder, Barend J van Royen, Idsart Kingma
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: Recently, a posterior concave periapical distraction device for fusionless scoliosis correction was introduced. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of the periapical distraction device on spinal range of motion (ROM) in comparison with traditional rigid pedicle screw-rod instrumentation. METHODS: Using a spinal motion simulator, 6 human spines were loaded with 4 N m and 6 porcine spines with 2 N m to induce flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR)...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811166/biomechanical-implications-of-cortical-elastic-properties-of-the-macaque-mandible
#20
Paul C Dechow, Olga Panagiotopoulou, Poorva Gharpure
Knowledge of the variation in the elastic properties of mandibular cortical bone is essential for modeling bone function. Our aim was to characterize the elastic properties of rhesus macaque mandibular cortical bone and compare these to the elastic properties from mandibles of dentate humans and baboons. Thirty cylindrical samples were harvested from each of six adult female rhesus monkey mandibles. Assuming orthotropy, axes of maximum stiffness in the plane of the cortical plate were derived from ultrasound velocity measurements...
June 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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