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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156582/in-memoriam-paolo-cappa
#1
EDITORIAL
Eduardo Palermo, Stefano Rossi, Fabrizio Patanè, Jeffrey Laut, Maurizio Porfiri
Prof. Paolo Cappa passed away on 26 August 2016, at the age of 59, after a long and courageous fight against cancer. Paolo Cappa was a Professor in Mechanical and Thermal Measurements and Experimental Biomechanics in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of Sapienza University of Rome, where he had also served as the Head of the Department, and a Research Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of New York University Tandon School of Engineering. During his intense, yet short, career, he made several significant scientific contributions within the discipline of Mechanical and Thermal Measurements, pioneering fundamental applications to Biomechanics...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156355/biomechanical-evaluation-of-a-personalized-external-aortic-root-support-applied-in-the-ross-procedure
#2
Julie Vastmans, Heleen Fehervary, Peter Verbrugghe, Tom Verbelen, Emma Vanderveken, Jos Vander Sloten, Tom Treasure, Filip Rega, Nele Famaey
A commonly heard concern in the Ross procedure, where a diseased aortic valve is replaced by the patient's own pulmonary valve, is the possibility of pulmonary autograft dilatation. We performed a biomechanical investigation of the use of a personalized external aortic root support or exostent as a possibility for supporting the autograft. In ten sheep a short length of pulmonary artery was interposed in the descending aorta, serving as a simplified version of the Ross procedure. In seven of these cases, the autograft was supported by an external mesh or so-called exostent...
November 11, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155842/posterior-column-acetabular-fracture-fixation-using-a-w-shaped-angular-plate-a-biomechanical-analysis
#3
Ke Su, Song Liu, Tao Wu, Yingchao Yin, Ruipeng Zhang, Shilun Li, Yingze Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the stability and feasibility of four fixation constructs in a posterior column acetabular fracture: one reconstruction plate, one reconstruction plate and lag screw, two reconstruction plates, and a W-shaped acetabular angular plate. METHODS: Twenty embalmed cadaveric pelvises with a posterior column acetabular fractures were allocated to one of four groups: 1) a reconstruction plate, 2) a reconstruction plate with a posterior column lag screw, 3) double reconstruction plates, and 4) a W-shaped acetabular angular plate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154692/landing-kinematics-and-kinetics-at-the-knee-during-different-landing-tasks
#4
Nicholas R Heebner, Deirdre M Rafferty, Meleesa F Wohleber, Andrew J Simonson, Mita Lovalekar, Andrew Reinert, Timothy C Sell
CONTEXT:   Several tasks have been used to examine landing biomechanics for evaluation and rehabilitation, especially as related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, comparing results among studies in which different tasks were used can be difficult, and it is unclear which task may be most appropriate. OBJECTIVE:   To compare lower extremity biomechanics across 5 commonly used landing tasks. DESIGN:   Descriptive laboratory study...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154449/relation-between-foot-pain-and-plantar-pressure-in-pregnancy
#5
Tuncay Varol, Aslı Göker, Enis Cezayirli, Serkan Özgür, Ayşe Tuç Yücel
Background/aim: Hormonal and structural changes that occur during pregnancy cause alterations in body biomechanics. These alterations reach their peak in the last trimester. Adaptive changes that appear in the foot result in pain in the foot and ankle. Pedobarography is a noninvasive measurement method that can be used to understand the origin of such pain. Materials and methods: One hundred and thirty-one pregnant women who did not have a foot or ankle problem prior to pregnancy volunteered to take part in the study...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153707/the-influence-of-muscle-activation-on-impact-dynamics-during-lateral-falls-on-the-hip
#6
Daniel R Martel, Iris C Levine, Steven P Pretty, Andrew C Laing
Muscle activation has been demonstrated to influence impact dynamics during scenarios including running, automotive impacts, and head impacts. This study investigated the effects of targeted muscle activation magnitude on impact dynamics during low energy falls on the hip with human volunteers. Fifteen university-aged participants (eight females, seven males) underwent 12 lateral pelvis release trials. Half of the trials were muscle-'relaxed'; in the remaining 'contracted' trials participants isometrically contracted their gluteus medius to 20-30% of maximal voluntary contraction before the drop was initiated onto a force plate...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153477/biomechanical-adaptations-during-running-differ-based-on-type-of-exercise-and-fitness-level
#7
Lindsay V Slater, Austin S Simpson, Silvia S Blemker, Jay Hertel, Susan A Saliba, Arthur L Weltman, Joseph M Hart
Lower extremity injuries are most common in more active and fit individuals, suggesting that adaptations from neuromuscular fatigue may differ depending on type of exercise and fitness level. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in gait in highly fit and recreationally active individuals before and after two exercise protocols. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were measured on the dominant leg during running before and after two exercise protocols (walking/sport) from 0 to 100% of gait in 24 healthy individuals divided into higher (n=13) and lower fitness (n=11) groups...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152798/atomic-force-microscopy-for-biomechanical-and-structural-analysis-of-human-dermis-a-complementary-tool-for-medical-diagnosis-and-therapy-monitoring
#8
Leonardo Peñuela, Carola Negro, Michela Massa, Erica Repaci, Emanuele Cozzani, Aurora Parodi, Silvia Scaglione, Rodolfo Quarto, Roberto Raiteri
Skin mechanical properties are usually measured considering the entire skin thickness and very little is known about the mechanical behavior of individual skin layers. We propose atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a tool to quantify nanoscale changes in the biomechanical properties and ultrastructure of human papillary dermis exposed to different mechanical and physical stimuli. Samples from three human skin biopsies were studied: one stretched by obesity, one subjected to a high level of sun-exposure, and normal skin as control...
November 20, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152675/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-juvenile-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-positive-effect-on-trabecular-microarchitecture-using-hr-pqct
#9
G L Lima, J A Paupitz, N E Aikawa, J C Alvarenga, R M Rodrigues Pereira
In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 24-week trial, cholecalciferol supplementation at 50,000 IU/week effectively improved bone microarchitecture parameters in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JoSLE) patients, as assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at tibia site. An increase in the trabecular number and a decrease in the trabecular separation were observed, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation may be recommended for JoSLE patients with its deficiency...
November 19, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152560/effects-of-inflammation-on-multiscale-biomechanical-properties-of-cartilaginous-cells-and-tissues
#10
REVIEW
Q T Nguyen, T D Jacobsen, N O Chahine
Cells within cartilaginous tissues are mechanosensitive and thus require mechanical loading for regulation of tissue homeostasis and metabolism. Mechanical loading plays critical roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, biosynthesis, and homeostasis. Inflammation is an important event occurring during multiple processes, such as aging, injury, and disease. Inflammation has significant effects on biological processes as well as mechanical function of cells and tissues. These effects are highly dependent on cell/tissue type, timing, and magnitude...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152495/midterm-outcomes-of-titanium-modular-femoral-necks-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#11
Thurial Collet, Jean-Pierre Atanasiu, Jean-Baptiste de Cussac, Kamal Oufroukhi, Hugo Bothorel, Mo Saffarini, François Badatcheff
Background: Modular femoral necks present surgical and biomechanical advantages in total hip arthroplasty (THA), but their benefits remain controversial due to risks of corrosion and fracture at the additional junction. This study aimed to report 10-year survival and clinical outcomes of a titanium femoral stem with a titanium modular neck in consecutive series. Methods: The authors reviewed the records of 97 patients (99 THAs) using uncemented modular stem and ceramic-on-ceramic acetabular components...
October 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151920/viscoelasticity-of-amyloid-plaques-in-transgenic-mouse-brain-studied-by-brillouin-microspectroscopy-and-correlative-raman-analysis
#12
Sara Mattana, Silvia Caponi, Francesco Tamagnini, Daniele Fioretto, Francesca Palombo
Amyloidopathy is one of the most prominent hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma. The plaques consist of abnormal deposits mainly composed of an aggregation-prone protein fragment, β-amyloid 1-40/1-42, into the extracellular matrix. Brillouin microspectroscopy is an all-optical contactless technique that is based on the interaction between visible light and longitudinal acoustic waves or phonons, giving access to the viscoelasticity of a sample on a subcellular scale...
November 2017: Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151152/a-maize-inbred-exhibits-resistance-against-western-corn-rootwoorm-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera
#13
Lina Castano-Duque, Kenneth W Loades, John F Tooker, Kathleen M Brown, W Paul Williams, Dawn S Luthe
Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151126/nutritional-programming-of-bone-structure-in-male-offspring-by-maternal-consumption-of-citrus-flavanones
#14
Sandra M Sacco, Caitlin Saint, Paul J LeBlanc, Wendy E Ward
Maternal exposure to hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR) during pregnancy and lactation transiently compromised bone mineral density (BMD) and bone structure at the proximal tibia in female CD-1 offspring. We examined whether maternal consumption of HSP + NAR during pregnancy and lactation compromises BMD, bone structure, and bone strength in male CD-1 offspring. Male CD-1 offspring, from mothers fed a control diet (CON, n = 10) or a 0.5% HSP + 0.25% NAR diet (HSP + NAR, n = 8) for 5 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, were weaned and fed CON until 6 months of age...
November 18, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151120/biomechanical-stress-in-myocardial-infarctions-can-endothelin-1-and-growth-differentiation-factor-15-serve-as-immunohistochemical-markers
#15
M Falk, R Huhn, F Behmenburg, St Ritz-Timme, F Mayer
Myocardial infarctions go along with biomechanical stress, i.e. stretching of muscle fibres, and the expression of certain marker molecules. We tested if two of those markers, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), can be used as immunohistochemical markers for myocardial ischaemia/infarctions. The study included experiments with an animal model, the isolated perfused Langendorff heart, as well as the investigation of human tissue samples drawn during autopsies. The overall picture of our results showed that GDF-15 is very sensitive and expressed very fast, not only as a consequence of ischaemia/infarctions, but also under other circumstances...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151008/suture-anchor-repair-of-complete-proximal-hamstring-ruptures-a-cadaveric-biomechanical-evaluation
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150929/biomechanical-properties-of-feline-ventral-abdominal-wall-and-celiotomy-closure-techniques
#17
Fernando S Reina Rodriguez, Conor T Buckley, Joshua Milgram, Barbara M Kirby
OBJECTIVE: To compare biomechanical properties and mechanism of failure of 3 regions of ventral abdominal wall in cats by using 2 suture materials, 2 suture bite-to-stitch intervals (SBSI), and full-thickness versus fascia-only closure. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, cadaveric, ex vivo mechanical testing. SAMPLE POPULATION: 16 adult cat cadavers, 3 samples per cat. METHODS: Three regions of ventral abdominal wall were mechanically tested (N = 48 samples)...
November 18, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150344/biomechanical-mechanism-of-lateral-trunk-lean-gait-for-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#18
Kazuki Tokuda, Masaya Anan, Makoto Takahashi, Tomonori Sawada, Kenji Tanimoto, Nobuhiro Kito, Koichi Shinkoda
The biomechanical mechanism of lateral trunk lean gait employed to reduce external knee adduction moment (KAM) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is not well known. This mechanism may relate to the center of mass (COM) motion. Moreover, lateral trunk lean gait may affect motor control of the COM displacement. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis is an evaluation index used to understand motor control and variability of the motor task. Here we aimed to clarify the biomechanical mechanism to reduce KAM during lateral trunk lean gait and how motor variability controls the COM displacement...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150301/is-subchondral-bone-cyst-formation-in-non-load-bearing-region-of-osteoarthritic-knee-a-vascular-problem
#19
Pok Man Boris Chan, Chunyi Wen, Wai Ching Yang, Chunhoi Yan, KwongYuen Chiu
Subchondral bone cyst is common in the progressive knee osteoarthritis yet its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In addition to the existing theories such as synovial fluid influx and mechanical contusion, we identified the potential link between vascular pathology and osteoarthritic bone pathologies including cystic lesion formation, particularly in the non-load-bearing region. This new hypothesis for SBC formation in non-load-bearing region for knee, which cannot be explained by the existing theories, will provide us a new angle to understand the pathomechanism and pathophysiology of subchondral bone disturbance in osteoarthritis in addition to the classical biomechanical overloading theories...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150186/articular-scaling-and-body-mass-estimation-in-platyrrhines-and-catarrhines-modern-variation-and-application-to-fossil-anthropoids
#20
Jonathan M G Perry, Siobhán B Cooke, Jacqueline A Runestad Connour, M Loring Burgess, Christopher B Ruff
Body mass is an important component of any paleobiological reconstruction. Reliable skeletal dimensions for making estimates are desirable but extant primate reference samples with known body masses are rare. We estimated body mass in a sample of extinct platyrrhines and Fayum anthropoids based on four measurements of the articular surfaces of the humerus and femur. Estimates were based on a large extant reference sample of wild-collected individuals with associated body masses, including previously published and new data from extant platyrrhines, cercopithecoids, and hominoids...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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