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Asthma biological side effects

Jonathan E Phillips, Xuxia Zhang, James A Johnston
Obstructive respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are currently treated by inhaled anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator drugs. Despite the availability of multiple treatments, both diseases are growing public health concerns. The majority of asthma patients are well controlled on current inhaled therapies but a substantial number of patients with severe asthma are not. Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide and approximately 20 percent have a severe form of the disease...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Don A Bukstein, Allan T Luskin
Novel biologic agents have allowed clinicians to achieve improved patient outcomes. Appropriate pharmacoceconomic analyses demand evaluation of all relevant costs, including the treatments, the disease and comorbidities, and costs of alternative treatments, including their short- and long-term side effects. Only with complete data can the value of therapies be correctly estimated. By assessing costs, pharmacoeconomic studies complement studies of efficacy and safety, helping to determine the relationships of treatment and outcome...
May 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Wupeng Liao, Jinrui Dong, Hong Yong Peh, Lay Hong Tan, Kah Suan Lim, Li Li, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Patrick D Mitchell, Amani I El-Gammal, Paul M O'Byrne
Current asthma treatments are effective for the majority of patients with mild-to-moderate disease. However, in those with more severe refractory asthma, agents other than inhaled corticosteroids and beta-agonists are needed both to better manage this group of patients and to avoid the side effects of high-dose corticosteroids and the social and personal hardship endured. Several biological pathways have been targeted over the last 20 years, and this research has resulted in pharmacological approaches to attempt to better treat patients with severe refractory asthma...
November 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
H P T Ammon
Boswellic acids, which are pentacyclic triterpenes belong to the active pharmacological compounds of the oleogum resin of different Boswellia species. In the resin, more than 12 different boswellic acids have been identified but only KBA and AKBA received significant pharmacological interest. Biological Activity: In an extract of the resin of Boswellia species multiple factors are responsible for the final outcome of a therapeutic effect, be it synergistic or antagonistic. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory actions of BAs are caused by different mechanisms of action...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Richard Y Kim, Brittany Rae, Rachel Neal, Chantal Donovan, James Pinkerton, Lohis Balachandran, Malcolm R Starkey, Darryl A Knight, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro
Corticosteroids are broadly active and potent anti-inflammatory agents that, despite the introduction of biologics, remain as the mainstay therapy for many chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Significantly, there are cohorts of these patients with poor sensitivity to steroid treatment even with high doses, which can lead to many iatrogenic side effects. The dose-limiting toxicity of corticosteroids, and the lack of effective therapeutic alternatives, leads to substantial excess morbidity and healthcare expenditure...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Ioana Mărgineanu, Radu Crişan, Traian Mihăescu
After the introduction of anti-TNFα medication for treatment of autoimmune conditions, clinicians have investigated not only other possible uses for the drugs, but also less common side-effects and interactions with other pathologies. Despite some succes registered with Adalimumab as an antiinflammatory agent in severe asthma, there have been case reports of patients developing asthma or asthma-like symptoms following anti-TNFα therapy. The case presents a patient without previous family or personal history of respiratory or atopic conditions that developed bronchospasm immediately after the initiation of Adalimumab and Methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis...
October 2015: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
Chandler B Sy, Mark C Siracusa
Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that results in recurrent attacks of breathlessness, coughing, and wheezing that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the precise causes of asthma are unclear, studies suggest that a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to various allergens and pathogens contribute to its development. Currently, the most common treatment to control asthma is a dual combination of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and corticosteroids. However, studies have shown that some patients do not respond well to these medications, while others experience significant side effects...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Dan-Dan Guo, Xiang-Rong Zheng
The studies on gene polymorphisms in biological pathways of the drugs for the treatment of asthma refer to the studies in which pharmacogenetic methods, such as genome-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, genome sequencing, admixture mapping analysis, and linkage disequilibrium, are used to identify, determine, and repeatedly validate the effect of one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms on the efficacy of drugs. This can provide therapeutic strategies with optimal benefits, least side effects, and lowest costs to patients with asthma, and thus realize individualized medicine...
June 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Giovanni Passalacqua, Andrea Matucci, Alessandra Vultaggio, Diego Bagnasco, Marcello Mincarini, Enrico Maggi, Giorgio Walter Canonica
INTRODUCTION: In the last two decades the knowledge of the mechanisms of the inflammatory processes underlying asthma rapidly evolved, several key mediators (cytokines and receptors) were identified, and the laboratory techniques have allowed us to synthesize monoclonal antibodies highly specific for those target molecules. Nowadays, many biological agents are investigated in asthma (with anti IgE being the only commercially available). The clinical efficacy of some biologics was demonstrated in many cases, however, the safety issue has progressively emerged and has been recognized as a crucial aspect...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Éva Rákóczi, Bianka Perge, Edit Végh, Péter Csomor, Anita Pusztai, Szilvia Szamosi, Nóra Bodnár, Sándor Szántó, Gabriella Szücs, Zoltán Szekanecz
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the immunogenicity of a 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing etanercept therapy. METHODS: Twenty-two RA patients treated with etanercept (ETA) in combination with methotrexate (MTX) (n=15) or monotherapy (n=7) for at least one year were included. Altogether 24 osteoarthritis patients not receiving biological or MTX therapy, treating only NSAIDs or analgesics served as controls...
December 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Steven Maltby, Maximilian Plank, Hock L Tay, Adam Collison, Paul S Foster
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate expression of the majority of genes by inhibiting protein translation. Growing literature has identified functional roles for miRNAs across a broad range of biological processes. As such, miRNAs are recognized as potential disease biomarkers and novel targets for therapies. While several miRNA-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials (e.g., for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and cancer), no therapies have targeted miRNAs in respiratory diseases in the clinic...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Anne M Fitzpatrick
Severe asthma in children is a complicated and heterogeneous disorder that is extremely challenging to treat. Although most children with asthma derive clinical benefit from daily administration of low-to-medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy, a small subset of children with "severe" or "refractory" asthma require high doses of ICS and even systemic corticosteroids to maintain symptom control. These children with severe asthma are at increased risk for adverse outcomes including medication-related side effects and recurrent and life-threatening exacerbations that significantly impair quality of life...
January 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Hu Meng, Ying Liu, Luhua Lai
Inflammation and other common disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are often the result of several molecular abnormalities and are not likely to be resolved by a traditional single-target drug discovery approach. Though inflammation is a normal bodily reaction, uncontrolled and misdirected inflammation can cause inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or celecoxib are commonly used to relieve aches and pains, but often these drugs have undesirable and sometimes even fatal side effects...
August 18, 2015: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jing-Yang Zhang, Yong-Xiang Wang
Gelsemium, a small genus of flowering plant from the family Loganiaceae, comprises five species including the popular Gelsemium sempervirens Ait. and Gelsemium elegans Benth., which are indigenous to North America and China/East Asia, respectively. Approximately 120 alkaloids have been isolated and identified from Gelsemium, with the predominant indole alkaloids including gelsemine, koumine, gelsemicine, gelsenicine, gelsedine, sempervirine, koumidine, koumicine and humantenine. Gelsemine is the principal active alkaloid in G...
January 2015: Fitoterapia
Kian Fan Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the latest guidelines on severe asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: An updated definition of severe asthma is provided together with the evaluation steps necessary to reach a diagnosis of severe asthma. The importance of phenotyping is emphasized, and recommendations are provided for therapies specifically directed for severe asthma. SUMMARY: Severe asthma is widely recognized as a major unmet need. It is defined as asthma that requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and a second controller and/or systemic corticosteroid to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or that remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy...
January 2015: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Arzu Didem Yalcin, Reginald M Gorczynski, Aykut Cilli, Ludwig Strauss
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies (Xolair, omalizumab) able to reduce free IgE levels and to block the binding of IgE to Fcepsilon RI without cross-linking IgE and triggering degranulation of IgE-sensitised cells have been developed. METHODS: We had two male patients of severe persistent allergic asthma with type-2 diabetes mellitus at the ages of 57 and 52 and who had suffered a side-effect of increased blood glucose level that caused a need for an extra insulin injection to control the hyperglycemia...
2014: Clinical Laboratory
Lisa A Beck, Diamant Thaçi, Jennifer D Hamilton, Neil M Graham, Thomas Bieber, Ross Rocklin, Jeffrey E Ming, Haobo Ren, Richard Kao, Eric Simpson, Marius Ardeleanu, Steven P Weinstein, Gianluca Pirozzi, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Melissa D Hager, Neil Stahl, George D Yancopoulos, Allen R Radin
BACKGROUND: Dupilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that blocks interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, has shown efficacy in patients with asthma and elevated eosinophil levels. The blockade by dupilumab of these key drivers of type 2 helper T-cell (Th2)-mediated inflammation could help in the treatment of related diseases, including atopic dermatitis. METHODS: We performed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving adults who had moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis despite treatment with topical glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors...
July 10, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Abdullah I Hussain, Hassaan A Rathore, Munavvar Z A Sattar, Shahzad A S Chatha, Satyajit D Sarker, Anwar H Gilani
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad is a valuable cucurbit plant, widely distributed in the desert areas of the world. Citrullus colocynthis fruits are usually recognized for its wide range of medicinal uses as well as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. This review aims to appraise the published information on the ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, nutraceutical potential and safety studies of Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple) fruit, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future studies...
August 8, 2014: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jens-Oliver Steiß, G Becher
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of recoveryELISA as a method to monitor treatment with therapeutic antibodies using the example of omalizumab. METHODS: The recoveryELISA is a newly developed immunoassay technology that measures three parameters in one test: the free level of antigen, the level of therapeutic antibody and the specific dose-response interaction which represents the actual activity of the drug. A retrospective and observational analysis was performed on 197 serum samples from 17 patients (13 ± 4 years of age) with severe persistent allergic asthma who received add-on treatment with omalizumab...
October 2014: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
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