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Asthma biological therapies and cancer

Zhiyong Dong, Lingxin Xiong, Weijie Zhang, Peter G Gibson, Ting Wang, Yanjiao Lu, Guoqiang Wang, Hui Li, Fang Wang
Inflammation is a complex biological response to detrimental stimuli and can be a double-edged sword. Inflammation plays a protective role in removing pathogenic factors, but dysregulated inflammation is associated with several major fatal diseases such as asthma, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Asthma is a complex heterogenous disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. TLRs are the primary proteins associated with the innate and adaptive immune responses to these fatal factors and play an important role in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which initiates the downstream immune response...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Kimberly K Truong, Michael T Lam, Michael A Grandner, Catherine S Sassoon, Atul Malhotra
Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions...
July 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Xianglan Yao, Elizabeth M Gordon, Debbie M Figueroa, Amisha V Barochia, Stewart J Levine
Emerging roles are being recognized increasingly for apolipoproteins in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases on the basis of their ability to suppress inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue remodeling, and to promote adaptive immunity and host defense. Apolipoproteins, such as apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are important components of lipoprotein particles that facilitate the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids between plasma and cells. ApoE-containing lipoprotein particles are internalized into cells by low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs), whereas apoA-I can interact with the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) transporter to efflux cholesterol and phospholipids out of cells...
August 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Steven Maltby, Maximilian Plank, Hock L Tay, Adam Collison, Paul S Foster
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate expression of the majority of genes by inhibiting protein translation. Growing literature has identified functional roles for miRNAs across a broad range of biological processes. As such, miRNAs are recognized as potential disease biomarkers and novel targets for therapies. While several miRNA-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials (e.g., for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and cancer), no therapies have targeted miRNAs in respiratory diseases in the clinic...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhaoguo Liu, Hongyan Wu, Zhonghong Wei, Xu Wang, Peiliang Shen, Siliang Wang, Aiyun Wang, Wenxing Chen, Yin Lu
Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily plays critical roles in variety of processes, including temperature perception, pain transduction, vasorelaxation, male fertility, and tumorigenesis. One of seven families within the TRP superfamily of ion channels, the melastatin, or TRPM family comprises a group of eight structurally and functionally diverse channels. Of all the members of TRPM subfamily, TRPM8 is the most notable one. A lot of literatures have demonstrated that transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) could perform a myriad of functions in vertebrates and invertebrates alike...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Jonathan J Darrow, Aaron S Kesselheim
Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of medicine, dramatically reducing the incidence of serious or life-threatening infectious diseases and allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. As life expectancy has increased, however, the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes has increased. This shifting burden of disease has heightened the already urgent need for therapies that treat or prevent NCDs, a need that is now being met with increased efforts to develop NCD vaccines...
2015: Food and Drug Law Journal
Kiichi Nakahira, Shu Hisata, Augustine M K Choi
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria, vital cellular power plants to generate energy, are involved in immune responses. Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules that are released from mitochondria to extracellular space during cell death and include not only proteins but also DNA or lipids. Mitochondrial DAMPs induce inflammatory responses and are critically involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. RECENT ADVANCES: Recent studies elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which mitochondrial DAMPs are released and initiate immune responses by use of genetically modulated cells or animals...
December 10, 2015: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
William S Powell, Joshua Rokach
Arachidonic acid can be oxygenated by a variety of different enzymes, including lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450s, and can be converted to a complex mixture of oxygenated products as a result of lipid peroxidation. The initial products in these reactions are hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HpETEs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) can be formed by the actions of various dehydrogenases on HETEs or by dehydration of HpETEs. Although a large number of different HETEs and oxo-ETEs have been identified, this review will focus principally on 5-oxo-ETE, 5S-HETE, 12S-HETE, and 15S-HETE...
April 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Lisa J Peters, Jan P Kovacic
OBJECTIVE: To review the human and veterinary literature on histamine physiology and pathophysiology and potential applications for clinical use in veterinary critical care. DATA SOURCES: Human and veterinary clinical studies, reviews, texts, and recent research in histamine receptor and antagonist therapy. HUMAN DATA SYNTHESIS: Recent progress in molecular biology has led to a more complete understanding of the enzymes involved in histamine metabolism and histamine receptor physiology...
August 2009: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
San-Qiang Li, Sha Zhu, Xue-Dong Wan, Zheng-Shun Xu, Zhao Ma
Although some studies have described the function of ADAM8 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8) related with rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and asthma, etc., the concrete role of ADAM8 in acute liver injury is still unknown. So mice respectively received anti-ADAM8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) of 100 μg/100 μl, 200 μg/100 μl or 300 μg/100 μl in PBS or PBS pre-injection. Then acute liver injury was induced in the mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄). Serum AST and ALT level, Haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected in the mice after CCl4 administration...
April 2014: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Dieter Steinhilber, Bettina Hofmann
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is an important enzyme of the arachidonic acid cascade and catalyses with the help of FLAP, the 5-LO-activating protein, the formation of bioactive leukotrienes (LTs). LTs are inflammatory mediators playing a pathophysiological role in different diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis as well as cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Up to now, only one 5-LO inhibitor is on the market, zileuton for the treatment of asthma. With the rising number of indications for anti-LT therapy, 5-LO inhibitor drug development becomes more and more important...
January 2014: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Gabriella Miklossy, Tyvette S Hilliard, James Turkson
The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have important roles in biological processes. The abnormal activation of STAT signalling pathways is also implicated in many human diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and diabetes. Over a decade has passed since the first inhibitor of a STAT protein was reported and efforts to discover modulators of STAT signalling as therapeutics continue. This Review discusses the outcomes of the ongoing drug discovery research endeavours against STAT proteins, provides perspectives on new directions for accelerating the discovery of drug candidates, and highlights the noteworthy candidate therapeutics that have progressed to clinical trials...
August 2013: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Johannes F-W Greiner, Janine Müller, Marie-Theres Zeuner, Stefan Hauser, Thorsten Seidel, Christin Klenke, Lena-Marie Grunwald, Timo Schomann, Darius Widera, Holger Sudhoff, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Christian Kaltschmidt
Natural plant-derived products are commonly applied to treat a broad range of human diseases, including cancer as well as chronic and acute airway inflammation. In this regard, the monoterpene oxide 1,8-cineol, the active ingredient of the clinically approved drug Soledum®, is well-established for the therapy of airway diseases, such as chronic sinusitis and bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma. Although clinical trials underline the beneficial effects of 1,8-cineol in treating inflammatory diseases, the molecular mode of action still remains unclear...
December 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kausik Bishayee, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Leukotrienes are the bioactive group of fatty acids and major constituents of arachidonic acid metabolism molded by the catalytic activity of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Evidence is accumulating in support of the direct involvement of 5-LOX in the progression of different types of cancer including prostate, lung, colon, and colorectal cancers. Several independent studies now support the correlation between the 5-LOX expression and cancer cell viability, proliferation, cell migration, invasion through extracellular matrix destruction, metastasis, and activation of anti-apoptotic signaling cascades...
September 2013: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Fabien B Vincent, Damien Saulep-Easton, William A Figgett, Kirsten A Fairfax, Fabienne Mackay
The BAFF system plays a key role in the development of autoimmunity, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This often leads to the assumption that BAFF is mostly a B cell factor with a specific role in autoimmunity. Focus on BAFF and autoimmunity, driven by pharmaceutical successes with the recent approval of a novel targeted therapy Belimumab, has relegated other potential roles of BAFF to the background. Far from being SLE-specific, the BAFF system has a much broader relevance in infection, cancer and allergy...
June 2013: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
James G Karras, Guizhen Sun, Jia Tay, Aimee L Jackson
Chronic respiratory diseases are a significant health problem requiring novel approaches to both complement existing therapies and provide breakthrough medicines. Recent clinical advances in understanding the behavior of inhaled oligonucleotides provide the impetus for application of this technology to microRNA therapeutics. MicroRNAs are evolutionarily conserved small regulatory RNA molecules involved in tuning gene networks controlling biological and pathological processes. Deletion or overexpression of microRNAs results in phenotypic changes in animal models of disease such as cancer, fibrosis, diabetes, and inflammation...
April 2013: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Caroline Jose, Su Melser, Giovanni Benard, Rodrigue Rossignol
Adaptation and transformation biology of the mitochondrion to redox status is an emerging domain of physiology and pathophysiology. Mitochondrial adaptations occur in response to accidental changes in cellular energy demand or supply while mitochondrial transformations are a part of greater program of cell metamorphosis. The possible role of mitochondrial adaptations and transformations in pathogenesis remains unexplored, and it has become critical to decipher the stimuli and the underlying molecular pathways...
March 1, 2013: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Simon G Royce, Katherine Ververis, Tom C Karagiannis
Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anti-cancer therapeutics due to their potent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in malignant cells. Accumulating evidence is indicating that histone deacetylase inhibitors may also have potential clinical utility in non-oncological applications, including asthma. However, the potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in asthma remains controversial. For example, the mechanisms of action of the broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, in animal models of allergic airways disease are conflicting...
2012: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
E Chevet, D Fessart, F Delom, A Mulot, B Vojtesek, R Hrstka, E Murray, T Gray, T Hupp
Clinical studies have defined the core 'genetic blueprint' of a cancer cell, but this information does not necessarily predict the cancer phenotype. Signalling hubs that mediate such phenotype have been identified largely using OMICS platforms that measure dynamic molecular changes within the cancer cell landscape. The pro-oncogenic protein anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a case in point; AGR2 has been shown using a range of expression platforms to be involved in asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, cell transformation, cancer drug resistance and metastatic growth...
May 16, 2013: Oncogene
Shoji Matsune
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was identified in 1980s as a protein that increases vascular permeability and induces endothelial cell-specific mitosis. VEGF plays an important role in angiogenesis during the embryonic stage and in angiogenesis and in increasing vascular permeability during postnatal life, both physiologically and pathologically. Great progress has been made in studies of VEGF, mainly in the field of oncology, and VEGF-targeted therapy has been successfully used to treat patients with cancer...
2012: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
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