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Asthma biological therapies and infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774001/the-significance-of-the-enteric-microbiome-on-the-development-of-childhood-disease-a-review-of-prebiotic-and-probiotic-therapies-in-disorders-of-childhood
#1
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525064/elucidating-novel-disease-mechanisms-in-severe-asthma
#2
REVIEW
Richard Y Kim, Brittany Rae, Rachel Neal, Chantal Donovan, James Pinkerton, Lohis Balachandran, Malcolm R Starkey, Darryl A Knight, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro
Corticosteroids are broadly active and potent anti-inflammatory agents that, despite the introduction of biologics, remain as the mainstay therapy for many chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Significantly, there are cohorts of these patients with poor sensitivity to steroid treatment even with high doses, which can lead to many iatrogenic side effects. The dose-limiting toxicity of corticosteroids, and the lack of effective therapeutic alternatives, leads to substantial excess morbidity and healthcare expenditure...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27104378/timing-matters-circadian-rhythm-in-sepsis-obstructive-lung-disease-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-cancer
#3
Kimberly K Truong, Michael T Lam, Michael A Grandner, Catherine S Sassoon, Atul Malhotra
Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions...
July 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995488/evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-of-the-13-valent-conjugated-pneumococcal-vaccine-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-treated-with-etanercept
#4
Éva Rákóczi, Bianka Perge, Edit Végh, Péter Csomor, Anita Pusztai, Szilvia Szamosi, Nóra Bodnár, Sándor Szántó, Gabriella Szücs, Zoltán Szekanecz
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the immunogenicity of a 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing etanercept therapy. METHODS: Twenty-two RA patients treated with etanercept (ETA) in combination with methotrexate (MTX) (n=15) or monotherapy (n=7) for at least one year were included. Altogether 24 osteoarthritis patients not receiving biological or MTX therapy, treating only NSAIDs or analgesics served as controls...
March 16, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929306/novel-approaches-to-the-management-of-noneosinophilic-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Neil C Thomson
Noneosinophilic airway inflammation occurs in approximately 50% of patients with asthma. It is subdivided into neutrophilic or paucigranulocytic inflammation, although the proportion of each subtype is uncertain because of variable cut-off points used to define neutrophilia. This article reviews the evidence for noneosinophilic inflammation being a target for therapy in asthma and assesses clinical trials of licensed drugs, novel small molecules and biologics agents in noneosinophilic inflammation. Current symptoms, rate of exacerbations and decline in lung function are generally less in noneosinophilic asthma than eosinophilic asthma...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869937/targeting-microrna-function-in-respiratory-diseases-mini-review
#6
REVIEW
Steven Maltby, Maximilian Plank, Hock L Tay, Adam Collison, Paul S Foster
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate expression of the majority of genes by inhibiting protein translation. Growing literature has identified functional roles for miRNAs across a broad range of biological processes. As such, miRNAs are recognized as potential disease biomarkers and novel targets for therapies. While several miRNA-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials (e.g., for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and cancer), no therapies have targeted miRNAs in respiratory diseases in the clinic...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747781/the-role-of-hyaluronan-in-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-respiratory-disease
#7
REVIEW
Stavros Garantziotis, Martin Brezina, Paolo Castelnuovo, Lorenzo Drago
Hyaluronan, a ubiquitous naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan, is a major component of the extracellular matrix, where it participates in biological processes that include water homeostasis, cell-matrix signaling, tissue healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation and migration. There are emerging data that hyaluronan and its degradation products have an important role in the pathobiology of the respiratory tract. We review the role of hyaluronan in respiratory diseases and present evidence from published literature and from clinical practice supporting hyaluronan as a novel treatment for respiratory diseases...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26302599/a-new-wave-of-vaccines-for-non-communicable-diseases-what-are-the-regulatory-challenges
#8
Jonathan J Darrow, Aaron S Kesselheim
Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of medicine, dramatically reducing the incidence of serious or life-threatening infectious diseases and allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. As life expectancy has increased, however, the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes has increased. This shifting burden of disease has heightened the already urgent need for therapies that treat or prevent NCDs, a need that is now being met with increased efforts to develop NCD vaccines...
2015: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26219390/small-molecules-as-anti-tnf-drugs
#9
REVIEW
Victoria Richmond, Flavia M Michelini, Carlos A Bueno, Laura E Alché, Javier A Ramírez
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, TNF-α, cachectin) is a pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine with multiple biological effects, many of which are not yet fully understood. Although TNF was initially described as an anti-tumor agent more than three decades ago, current knowledge places it central to immune system homeostasis. TNF plays a critical role in host defense against infection, as well as an inhibitory role in autoimmune disease. However, TNF overproduction generates deleterious effects by inducing the transcription of genes involved in acute and chronic inflammatory responses including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and psoriasis...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26157810/a-case-of-persistent-helicobacter-pylori-infection-occurring-with-anti-ige-immunosuppression
#10
Daniel Zandman, William Hahn, Steven Moss
The increasingly widespread use of novel immunosuppressive drugs may lead to unexpected infectious complications. We report a case of persistent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection that failed to respond to antimicrobial therapy in a patient receiving omalizumab (Xolair™, Genentech USA Inc., San Francisco, CA and Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland), an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved by the FDA for treatment of severe persistent asthma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report linking an immunosuppressive regimen containing anti-IgE biologic therapy to persistent H...
October 2013: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26067258/the-roles-of-mitochondrial-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-in-diseases
#11
Kiichi Nakahira, Shu Hisata, Augustine M K Choi
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria, vital cellular power plants to generate energy, are involved in immune responses. Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules that are released from mitochondria to extracellular space during cell death and include not only proteins but also DNA or lipids. Mitochondrial DAMPs induce inflammatory responses and are critically involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. RECENT ADVANCES: Recent studies elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which mitochondrial DAMPs are released and initiate immune responses by use of genetically modulated cells or animals...
December 10, 2015: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25732539/vitamin-d-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-in-asthma-part-1-a-review-of-potential-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Conor P Kerley, Basil Elnazir, John Faul, Liam Cormican
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent worldwide. The classical role for vitamin D is to regulate calcium absorption form the gastrointestinal tract and influence bone health. Recently vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolic enzymes have been discovered in numerous sites systemically supporting diverse extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D, for example in asthmatic disease. Further, VDD and asthma share several common risk factors including high latitude, winter season, industrialization, poor diet, obesity, and dark skin pigmentation...
June 2015: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25006719/dupilumab-treatment-in-adults-with-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lisa A Beck, Diamant Thaçi, Jennifer D Hamilton, Neil M Graham, Thomas Bieber, Ross Rocklin, Jeffrey E Ming, Haobo Ren, Richard Kao, Eric Simpson, Marius Ardeleanu, Steven P Weinstein, Gianluca Pirozzi, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Melissa D Hager, Neil Stahl, George D Yancopoulos, Allen R Radin
BACKGROUND: Dupilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that blocks interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, has shown efficacy in patients with asthma and elevated eosinophil levels. The blockade by dupilumab of these key drivers of type 2 helper T-cell (Th2)-mediated inflammation could help in the treatment of related diseases, including atopic dermatitis. METHODS: We performed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving adults who had moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis despite treatment with topical glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors...
July 10, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24981042/helminth-therapy-or-elimination-epidemiological-immunological-and-clinical-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Linda J Wammes, Harriet Mpairwe, Alison M Elliott, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Deworming is rightly advocated to prevent helminth-induced morbidity. Nevertheless, in affluent countries, the deliberate infection of patients with worms is being explored as a possible treatment for inflammatory diseases. Several clinical trials are currently registered, for example, to assess the safety or efficacy of Trichuris suis ova in allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and autism, and the Necator americanus larvae for allergic rhinitis, asthma, coeliac disease, and multiple sclerosis...
November 2014: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24767957/use-of-complementary-medicines-among-hiv-infected-children-in-lagos-nigeria
#15
K A Oshikoya, I A Oreagba, O O Ogunleye, M Hassan, I O Senbanjo
BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine (CM) use is common among children with chronic illnesses such as epilepsy and asthma. Lack of data on the profile of CM use among children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection necessitated this study. METHODS: Parents or caregivers of HIV-infected children attending the paediatric HIV-clinic in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria, were randomly selected and interviewed with a semi-structured (open- and close-ended) questionnaire...
May 2014: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24565456/biologic-mechanisms-of-environmental-tobacco-smoke-in-children-with-poorly-controlled-asthma-results-from-a-multicenter-clinical-trial
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jason E Lang, Allen J Dozor, Janet T Holbrook, Edward Mougey, Sankaran Krishnan, Shawn Sweeten, Robert A Wise, W Gerald Teague, Christine Y Wei, David Shade, John J Lima
BACKGROUND: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) negatively affects children with asthma. The prevalence of ETS exposure among children with poor asthma control may be changing. Importantly, the mechanisms by which ETS worsens asthma control are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We describe how ETS affects gastroesophageal reflux (GER), respiratory infections, and leukotriene production among children with poor asthma control. METHODS: We analyzed data from 306 children between 6 and 17 years of age with poorly controlled asthma enrolled in a 6-month clinical trial...
March 2013: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24341820/procalcitonin-guided-antibiotic-therapy-of-acute-exacerbations-of-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jianguo Tang, Wei Long, Lei Yan, Yu Zhang, Juan Xie, Gang Lu, Chunhui Yang
BACKGROUND: This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate whether the serum procalcitonin (PCT) level can be utilized to guide the use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma. METHODS: A total of 293 consecutive patients with suspected asthma attacks from February 2005 to July 2010 participated in this study. 225 patients completed the study. Serum PCT levels, and other inflammatory biomarkers of all patients were measured. In addition to the standard treatment, the control group received antibiotics according to the attending physicians' discretions, while the patients in the PCT group were treated with antibiotics according to serum PCT concentrations...
December 17, 2013: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24317696/muc5b-is-required-for-airway-defence
#18
Michelle G Roy, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Ashley A Fletcher, Melissa M McElwee, Scott E Evans, Ryan M Boerner, Samantha N Alexander, Lindsey K Bellinghausen, Alfred S Song, Youlia M Petrova, Michael J Tuvim, Roberto Adachi, Irlanda Romo, Andrea S Bordt, M Gabriela Bowden, Joseph H Sisson, Prescott G Woodruff, David J Thornton, Karine Rousseau, Maria M De la Garza, Seyed J Moghaddam, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Michael R Blackburn, Scott M Drouin, C William Davis, Kristy A Terrell, Barbara R Grubb, Wanda K O'Neal, Sonia C Flores, Adela Cota-Gomez, Catherine A Lozupone, Jody M Donnelly, Alan M Watson, Corinne E Hennessy, Rebecca C Keith, Ivana V Yang, Lea Barthel, Peter M Henson, William J Janssen, David A Schwartz, Richard C Boucher, Burton F Dickey, Christopher M Evans
Respiratory surfaces are exposed to billions of particulates and pathogens daily. A protective mucus barrier traps and eliminates them through mucociliary clearance (MCC). However, excessive mucus contributes to transient respiratory infections and to the pathogenesis of numerous respiratory diseases. MUC5AC and MUC5B are evolutionarily conserved genes that encode structurally related mucin glycoproteins, the principal macromolecules in airway mucus. Genetic variants are linked to diverse lung diseases, but specific roles for MUC5AC and MUC5B in MCC, and the lasting effects of their inhibition, are unknown...
January 16, 2014: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24041942/asthma
#19
REVIEW
Fernando D Martinez, Donata Vercelli
Asthma is a heterogeneous group of conditions that result in recurrent, reversible bronchial obstruction. Although the disease can start at any age, the first symptoms occur during childhood in most cases. Asthma has a strong genetic component, and genome-wide association studies have identified variations in several genes that slightly increase the risk of disease. Asthma is often associated with increased susceptibility to infection with rhinoviruses and with changes in the composition of microbial communities colonising the airways, but whether these changes are a cause or consequence of the disease is unknown...
October 19, 2013: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23684423/the-baff-april-system-emerging-functions-beyond-b-cell-biology-and-autoimmunity
#20
REVIEW
Fabien B Vincent, Damien Saulep-Easton, William A Figgett, Kirsten A Fairfax, Fabienne Mackay
The BAFF system plays a key role in the development of autoimmunity, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This often leads to the assumption that BAFF is mostly a B cell factor with a specific role in autoimmunity. Focus on BAFF and autoimmunity, driven by pharmaceutical successes with the recent approval of a novel targeted therapy Belimumab, has relegated other potential roles of BAFF to the background. Far from being SLE-specific, the BAFF system has a much broader relevance in infection, cancer and allergy...
June 2013: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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