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Mantis shrimp

Martha M Muñoz, Philip S L Anderson, S N Patek
The influence of biophysical relationships on rates of morphological evolution is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory. Mechanical sensitivity-the correlation strength between mechanical output and the system's underlying morphological components-is thought to impact the evolutionary dynamics of form-function relationships, yet has rarely been examined. Here, we compare the evolutionary rates of the mechanical components of the four-bar linkage system in the raptorial appendage of mantis shrimp (Order Stomatopoda)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Maya S deVries, Summer J Webb, Jenny Tu, Esther Cory, Victoria Morgan, Robert L Sah, Dimitri D Deheyn, Jennifer R A Taylor
Calcified marine organisms typically experience increased oxidative stress and changes in mineralization in response to ocean acidification and warming conditions. These effects could hinder the potency of animal weapons, such as the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage. The mechanical properties of this calcified weapon enable extremely powerful punches to be delivered to prey and aggressors. We examined oxidative stress and exoskeleton structure, mineral content, and mechanical properties of the raptorial appendage and the carapace under long-term ocean acidification and warming conditions...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
M J McHenry, P S L Anderson, S Van Wassenbergh, D G Matthews, A P Summers, S N Patek
Countless aquatic animals rotate appendages through the water, yet fluid forces are typically modeled with translational motion. To elucidate the hydrodynamics of rotation, we analyzed the raptorial appendages of mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) using a combination of flume experiments, mathematical modeling and phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that computationally efficient blade-element models offered an accurate first-order approximation of drag, when compared with a more elaborate computational fluid-dynamic model...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ryutaro Goto, Hiroshi Ishikawa
The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans). A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan...
2016: ZooKeys
Aimée Sakes, Marleen van der Wiel, Paul W J Henselmans, Johan L van Leeuwen, Dimitra Dodou, Paul Breedveld
BACKGROUND: In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase...
2016: PloS One
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Shelby E Temple, N Justin Marshall, Thomas W Cronin, Nicholas W Roberts
Gaze stabilization is an almost ubiquitous animal behaviour, one that is required to see the world clearly and without blur. Stomatopods, however, only fix their eyes on scenes or objects of interest occasionally. Almost uniquely among animals they explore their visual environment with a series pitch, yaw and torsional (roll) rotations of their eyes, where each eye may also move largely independently of the other. In this work, we demonstrate that the torsional rotations are used to actively enhance their ability to see the polarization of light...
2016: Nature Communications
Maya S deVries, Brian C Stock, John H Christy, Gregory R Goldsmith, Todd E Dawson
Many animals are considered to be specialists because they have feeding structures that are fine-tuned for consuming specific prey. For example, "smasher" mantis shrimp have highly specialized predatory appendages that generate forceful strikes to break apart hard-shelled prey. Anecdotal observations suggest, however, that the diet of smashers may include soft-bodied prey as well. Our goal was to examine the diet breadth of the smasher mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to determine whether it has a narrow diet of hard-shelled prey...
October 2016: Oecologia
Y Zhang, O Paris, N J Terrill, H S Gupta
The complex hierarchical structure in biological and synthetic fibrous nanocomposites entails considerable difficulties in the interpretation of the crystallographic texture from diffraction data. Here, we present a novel reconstruction method to obtain the 3D distribution of fibres in such systems. An analytical expression is derived for the diffraction intensity from fibres, explaining the azimuthal intensity distribution in terms of the angles of the three dimensional fibre orientation distributions. The telson of stomatopod (mantis shrimp) serves as an example of natural biological armour whose high impact resistance property is believed to arise from the hierarchical organization of alpha chitin nanofibrils into fibres and twisted plywood (Bouligand) structures at the sub-micron and micron scale...
2016: Scientific Reports
Philip S L Anderson, Danielle C Smith, S N Patek
Related species that share similar biomechanical systems and segmentation patterns may exhibit different patterns of morphological covariation. We examined morphological covariation of the potent prey capture appendage of two mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) species-a spearer (Squilla empusa) and smasher (Gonodactylaceus falcatus). We assessed three frameworks for modularity, two based on the biomechanics of the appendage and one based on its segmentation as a proxy for shared developmental pathways. We collected morphometric data from S...
May 2016: Evolution & Development
Cheng-ye Hu, Yu-yue Shui, Xiao Du, Bo-nian Shui
In this paper, the interaction between the species Population were analyzed based on the data of major nekton species in the south coastal waters of Cangnan in spring and autumn 2014. A series of methods including niche breadth, niche overlap, χ2 - test and association coefficient (AC) based on a 2x2 contingency table were used. The results showed that the major nekton species in the south coastal waters of Cangnan were classified into three groups, i.e. wide niche breadth species, moderate niche breadth species and narrow niche breadth species based on the niche breadth values...
October 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
K Kagaya, S N Patek
To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Shane T Ahyong, Theodore J Wassenberg
The rare mantis shrimp genus Areosquilla is recorded from Australia for the first time based on nine specimens of A. indica (Hansen, 1926) collected from the Great Barrier Reef. Morphological variation beyond that observed in previous accounts is reported. The present record and other recent discoveries bring the Australian stomatopod fauna to 152 species and 68 genera.
2015: Zootaxa
Yakir Luc Gagnon, Rachel Marie Templin, Martin John How, N Justin Marshall
Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence)...
December 7, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Fengxing Xie, Fengfeng Zhang, Ke Zhou, Yujie Zhao, Haibo Sun, Yun Wang
OBJECTIVE: In order to get excellent yeast strains for aquiculture water purification, we isolated, screened and identified yeasts from the aquacultural environment and intestinal tract of shrimp. METHODS: The potential water purification ability of yeasts, isolated from the activated sludge of aquacultural environment and intestinal tract of white shrimp and mantis shrimp under normal and low temperature, was evaluated in the simulated wastewater. Morphological physio-biochemical characteristics, 5...
May 4, 2015: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
M V Rosario, S N Patek
Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey...
September 2015: Journal of Morphology
K S Sruthy, E R Chaithanya, Naveen Sathyan, Aishwarya Nair, Swapna P Antony, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a cationic anti-microbial peptide representing humoral defence system exhibiting a diverse spectrum of activity against microbial pathogens, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel ALF homologue (MnALF) encoding cDNA sequence from the haemocytes of stomatopod mantis shrimp Miyakea nepa. The deduced peptide of MnALF encoded for a 123-amino acid peptide with a 25-residue signal peptide containing selenocysteine followed by a highly cationic mature peptide comprised of a putative LPS-binding domain flanked by two cysteine residues...
December 2015: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Hye-Eun Kang, Jung Nyun Kim, Tae-Ho Yoon, Kyeong Dong Park, Won Gyu Park, Hyun Park, Hyun Woo Kim
We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) collected from the southern waters of Korea, which is newly recorded into the Korean carcinological fauna. The total mitochondrial genome length of S. leptosquilla was 16,376 bp. This circular DNA encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs, as well as a putative control region. Compared with other decapod crustacean mitochondrial genomes, the overall A + T content was relatively high (71.1%) as those among other stomatopod species...
July 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Qasim Zaidi, Justin Marshall, Hanne Thoen, Bevil R Conway
Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates...
2014: I-Perception
Maya S deVries, Carlos Martínez Del Rio, Tate S Tunstall, Todd E Dawson
Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues...
2015: PloS One
P S L Anderson, S N Patek
A classic question in evolutionary biology is how form-function relationships promote or limit diversification. Mechanical metrics, such as kinematic transmission (KT) in linkage systems, are useful tools for examining the evolution of form and function in a comparative context. The convergence of disparate systems on equivalent metric values (mechanical equivalence) has been highlighted as a source of potential morphological diversity under the assumption that morphology can evolve with minimal impact on function...
April 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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