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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313524/multichannel-spectrometers-in-animals
#1
Thomas Wells Cronin, Missael Garcia, Viktor Gruev
Multispectral, hyperspectral, polarimetric, and other types of multichannel imaging spectrometers are coming into common use for a variety of applications, including remote sensing, material identification, forensics, and medical diagnosis. These instruments are often bulky and intolerant of field abuse, so designing compact, reliable, portable, and robust devices is a priority. In contrast to most engineering designs, animals have been building compact and robust multichannel imaging systems for millennia - their eyes...
January 9, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277746/bioinspired-bouligand-cellulose-nanocrystal-composites-a-review-of-mechanical-properties
#2
REVIEW
Bharath Natarajan, Jeffrey W Gilman
The twisted plywood, or Bouligand, structure is the most commonly observed microstructural motif in natural materials that possess high mechanical strength and toughness, such as that found in bone and the mantis shrimp dactyl club. These materials are isotropically toughened by a low volume fraction of soft, energy-dissipating polymer and by the Bouligand structure itself, through shear wave filtering and crack twisting, deflection and arrest. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are excellent candidates for the bottom-up fabrication of these structures, as they naturally self-assemble into 'chiral nematic' films when cast from solutions and possess outstanding mechanical properties...
February 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182505/opsin-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-mantis-shrimp-neogonodactylus-oerstedii
#3
Mary W Donohue, Karen L Carleton, Thomas W Cronin
Visual pigments, each composed of an opsin protein covalently bound to a chromophore molecule, confer light sensitivity for vision. The eyes of some species of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, can express dozens of different opsin genes. The opsin diversity, along with spectral filters and unique tripartite eye structure, bestow upon stomatopods unusually complex visual systems. Although opsins are found in tissues outside typical image-forming eyes in other animals, extraocular opsin expression in stomatopods, animals well known for their diversity of opsins, was unknown...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992286/intracellular-recordings-of-spectral-sensitivities-in-stomatopods-a-comparison-across-species
#4
Hanne H Thoen, Tsyr-Huei Chiou, N Justin Marshall
Stomatopods (mantis shrimps) possess one of the most complex eyes in the world with photoreceptors detecting up to 12 different colors. It is not yet understood why stomatopods have almost four times the number of spectral photoreceptors compared with most other animals. It has, however, been suggested that these seemingly redundant photoreceptors could encode color through a new mechanism. Here we compare the spectral sensitivities across five species of stomatopods within the superfamily Gonodactyloidea using intracellular electrophysiological recordings...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949916/an-insect-like-mushroom-body-in-a-crustacean-brain
#5
Gabriella Hannah Wolff, Hanne Halkinrud Thoen, Justin Marshall, Marcel E Sayre, Nicholas James Strausfeld
Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects...
September 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948111/the-evolutionary-history-of-stomatopoda-crustacea-malacostraca-inferred-from-molecular-data
#6
Cara Van Der Wal, Shane T Ahyong, Simon Y W Ho, Nathan Lo
The crustacean order Stomatopoda comprises seven superfamilies of mantis shrimps, found in coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics. These marine carnivores bear notable raptorial appendages for smashing or spearing prey. We investigated the evolutionary relationships among stomatopods using phylogenetic analyses of three mitochondrial and two nuclear markers. Our analyses recovered the superfamily Gonodactyloidea as polyphyletic, with Hemisquilla as the sister group to all other extant stomatopods. A relaxed molecular clock, calibrated by seven fossil-based age constraints, was used to date the origin and major diversification events of stomatopods...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629739/twisting-cracks-in-bouligand-structures
#7
Nobphadon Suksangpanya, Nicholas A Yaraghi, David Kisailus, Pablo Zavattieri
The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys...
December 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577301/neural-organization-of-afferent-pathways-from-the-stomatopod-compound-eye
#8
Hanne H Thoen, Nicholas J Strausfeld, Justin Marshall
Crustaceans and insects share many similarities of brain organization suggesting that their common ancestor possessed some components of those shared features. Stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are basal eumalacostracan crustaceans famous for their elaborate visual system, the most complex of which possesses 12 types of color photoreceptors and the ability to detect both linearly and circularly polarized light. Here, using a palette of histological methods we describe neurons and their neuropils most immediately associated with the stomatopod retina...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512346/cryptic-diversity-in-the-japanese-mantis-shrimp-oratosquilla-oratoria-crustacea-squillidae-allopatric-diversification-secondary-contact-and-hybridization
#9
Jiao Cheng, Zhong-Li Sha
Mounting evidence of cryptic species in the marine realm emphasizes the necessity to thoroughly revise our current perceptions of marine biodiversity and species distributions. Here, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS) to investigate cryptic diversity and potential hybridization in the Japanese mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in the Northwestern (NW) Pacific. Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene genealogies revealed two cryptic species in this morphotaxon, which was further confirmed by extensive population-level analyses...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356369/the-independence-of-eye-movements-in-a-stomatopod-crustacean-is-task-dependent
#10
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Nicholas W Roberts
Stomatopods have an extraordinary visual system, incorporating independent movement of their eyes in all three degrees of rotational freedom. In this work, we demonstrate that in the peacock mantis shrimp, Odontodactylus scyllarus, the level of ocular independence is task dependent. During gaze stabilization in the context of optokinesis, there is weak but significant correlation between the left and right eyes in the yaw degree of rotational freedom, but not in pitch and torsion. When one eye is completely occluded, the uncovered eye does not drive the covered eye during gaze stabilization...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249036/humpback-whale-super-groups-a-novel-low-latitude-feeding-behaviour-of-southern-hemisphere-humpback-whales-megaptera-novaeangliae-in-the-benguela-upwelling-system
#11
Ken P Findlay, S Mduduzi Seakamela, Michael A Meÿer, Stephen P Kirkman, Jaco Barendse, David E Cade, David Hurwitz, Amy S Kennedy, Pieter G H Kotze, Steven A McCue, Meredith Thornton, O Alejandra Vargas-Fonseca, Christopher G Wilke
Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230239/common-evolutionary-trends-underlie-the-four-bar-linkage-systems-of-sunfish-and-mantis-shrimp
#12
Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S L Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modeling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods...
May 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223924/insect-like-organization-of-the-stomatopod-central-complex-functional-and-phylogenetic-implications
#13
Hanne H Thoen, Justin Marshall, Gabriella H Wolff, Nicholas J Strausfeld
One approach to investigating functional attributes of the central complex is to relate its various elaborations to pancrustacean phylogeny, to taxon-specific behavioral repertoires and ecological settings. Here we review morphological similarities between the central complex of stomatopod crustaceans and the central complex of dicondylic insects. We discuss whether their central complexes possess comparable functional properties, despite the phyletic distance separating these taxa, with mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) belonging to the basal branch of Eumalacostraca...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100817/mechanical-sensitivity-and-the-dynamics-of-evolutionary-rate-shifts-in-biomechanical-systems
#14
Martha M Muñoz, Philip S L Anderson, S N Patek
The influence of biophysical relationships on rates of morphological evolution is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory. Mechanical sensitivity-the correlation strength between mechanical output and the system's underlying morphological components-is thought to impact the evolutionary dynamics of form-function relationships, yet has rarely been examined. Here, we compare the evolutionary rates of the mechanical components of the four-bar linkage system in the raptorial appendage of mantis shrimp (Order Stomatopoda)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974830/stress-physiology-and-weapon-integrity-of-intertidal-mantis-shrimp-under-future-ocean-conditions
#15
Maya S deVries, Summer J Webb, Jenny Tu, Esther Cory, Victoria Morgan, Robert L Sah, Dimitri D Deheyn, Jennifer R A Taylor
Calcified marine organisms typically experience increased oxidative stress and changes in mineralization in response to ocean acidification and warming conditions. These effects could hinder the potency of animal weapons, such as the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage. The mechanical properties of this calcified weapon enable extremely powerful punches to be delivered to prey and aggressors. We examined oxidative stress and exoskeleton structure, mineral content, and mechanical properties of the raptorial appendage and the carapace under long-term ocean acidification and warming conditions...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807217/the-comparative-hydrodynamics-of-rapid-rotation-by-predatory-appendages
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M J McHenry, P S L Anderson, S Van Wassenbergh, D G Matthews, A P Summers, S N Patek
Countless aquatic animals rotate appendages through the water, yet fluid forces are typically modeled with translational motion. To elucidate the hydrodynamics of rotation, we analyzed the raptorial appendages of mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) using a combination of flume experiments, mathematical modeling and phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that computationally efficient blade-element models offered an accurate first-order approximation of drag, when compared with a more elaborate computational fluid-dynamic model...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667939/borniopsis-mortoni-sp-n-heterodonta-galeommatoidea-galeommatidaesensu-lato-a-new-bivalve-commensal-with-a-synaptid-sea-cucumber-from-japan
#17
Ryutaro Goto, Hiroshi Ishikawa
The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans). A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454125/shooting-mechanisms-in-nature-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Aimée Sakes, Marleen van der Wiel, Paul W J Henselmans, Johan L van Leeuwen, Dimitra Dodou, Paul Breedveld
BACKGROUND: In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401817/dynamic-polarization-vision-in-mantis-shrimps
#19
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Shelby E Temple, N Justin Marshall, Thomas W Cronin, Nicholas W Roberts
Gaze stabilization is an almost ubiquitous animal behaviour, one that is required to see the world clearly and without blur. Stomatopods, however, only fix their eyes on scenes or objects of interest occasionally. Almost uniquely among animals they explore their visual environment with a series pitch, yaw and torsional (roll) rotations of their eyes, where each eye may also move largely independently of the other. In this work, we demonstrate that the torsional rotations are used to actively enhance their ability to see the polarization of light...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312263/specialized-morphology-corresponds-to-a-generalist-diet-linking-form-and-function-in-smashing-mantis-shrimp-crustaceans
#20
Maya S deVries, Brian C Stock, John H Christy, Gregory R Goldsmith, Todd E Dawson
Many animals are considered to be specialists because they have feeding structures that are fine-tuned for consuming specific prey. For example, "smasher" mantis shrimp have highly specialized predatory appendages that generate forceful strikes to break apart hard-shelled prey. Anecdotal observations suggest, however, that the diet of smashers may include soft-bodied prey as well. Our goal was to examine the diet breadth of the smasher mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to determine whether it has a narrow diet of hard-shelled prey...
October 2016: Oecologia
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