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Mantis shrimp

Junjie Liu, Wenqing Zhu, Zhongliang Yu, Xiaoding Wei
Lightweight and high impact performance composite design is a big challenge for scientists and engineers. Inspired from well-known biological materials, e.g., the bones, spider silk, and claws of mantis shrimp, artificial composites have been synthesized for engineering applications. Presently, the design of ballistic resistant composites mainly emphasizes the utilization of light and high-strength fibers, whereas the contribution from matrix materials receives less attention. However, recent ballistic experiments on fiber-reinforced composites challenge our common sense...
April 30, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Nicholas W Roberts
Almost all animals, regardless of the anatomy of the eyes, require some level of gaze stabilization in order to see the world clearly and without blur. For the mantis shrimp, achieving gaze stabilization is unusually challenging as their eyes have an unprecedented scope for movement in all three rotational degrees of freedom: yaw, pitch and torsion. We demonstrate that the species Odontodactylus scyllarus performs stereotypical gaze stabilization in the yaw degree of rotational freedom, which is accompanied by simultaneous changes in the pitch and torsion rotation of the eye...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Hongwei Yan, Xin Cui, Xufang Shen, Lianshun Wang, Linan Jiang, Haiying Liu, Ying Liu, Qi Liu, Chen Jiang
The mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria is a widely distributed, commercially important crustacean species. Although its conservation and the development of successful artificial breeding technologies have recently received considerable attention, there are currently no available data regarding the molecular mechanisms in controlling reproduction. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of the testis, ovary, female and male eyestalks and the androgenic gland of O. oratoria, and compared the expression pattern of transcripts from the testis and ovary libraries to identify genes involved in gonadal development...
April 14, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
ZdenĚk ĎuriŠ
Madeirasquilla tuerkayi is described as a new genus and species of the nannosquillid mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda) based on a single specimen collected from Madeira, eastern Atlantic. That specimen is remarkable by a combination of the following morphological characters: rostral plate with three sharp anterior projections; antennal protopod with two mesial and one ventral papillae; cornea subglobular; raptorial claw dactylus with 11 or 12 teeth, and with acute proximal tooth on outer margin; pleonite 6 with strong posterolateral spine and two posteriorly directed sternal spines; telson bearing smooth shield-like dorsal prominence with acute median spine posteriorly; four pairs of fixed primary teeth posteriorly on the telson; outer primary spine of uropodal protopod longer than inner primary spine...
March 22, 2018: Zootaxa
Shane T Ahyong, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar
The Stomatopoda of India is comparatively well studied, with 79 species recorded to date. We herein report on a series of stomatopods collected by commercial fishing trawlers from localities on the southwest and southeastern coasts of India. The present series includes 17 species of stomatopods collected as trawl bycatch; seven are the first Indian records: Lysiosquillina lisa Ahyong Randall, 2001, Odontodactylus cultrifer (White, 1951), O. japonicus (De Haan, 1844), Faughnia formosae Manning Chan, 1997, Busquilla plantei Manning, 1978, Carinosquilla spinosa Ahyong Naiyanetr, 2002, and Quollastria kapala Ahyong, 2001...
January 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Shahrouz Amini, Maryam Tadayon, J Q Isaiah Chua, Ali Miserez
The Arthropoda, the largest phylum of the Animal Kingdom, have successfully evolved to survive various ecological constraints under a wide range of environmental conditions. Central to this survival are the structural designs developed in their exoskeletons and their raptorial appendages for protection and hunting. One such example, the pistol shrimp, is a shallow-water crustacean that is well-known for its aggressive hunting behavior, using its snapper claw to trigger the nucleation of cavitation bubbles that strike targets...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Daizhen Zhang, Jun Liu, Tingting Qi, Baoming Ge, Zhengfei Wang, Senhao Jiang, Qiuning Liu, Huabin Zhang, Ge Ding, Boping Tang
Cr (VI), the pathogenicity factor, is widely known to cause toxic effects in living organisms. Given the economic importance of the mantis shrimp ( Oratosquilla oratoria), the understanding of impacts by Cr (VI) is considered important. In this study, transcriptome of mantis shrimp was characterized by a comparison between control and Cr (VI)-treated samples using RNA-seq approach. Totally, 88 234 826 bp and 13.24G clean reads were obtained. The total length and number of unigenes were 68 411 206 bp and 100 918, respectively...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shuangyu Song, Kechen Zhu, Lijun Han, Yelena Sapozhnikova, Zihao Zhang, Wei Yao
In this study, a multi-residue analytical method using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), was investigated for rapid determination of 60 pesticide residues in whole crayfish and crayfish meat. The final method used 10 mL of acetonitrile for extraction, 3 g of NaCl for partitioning, and 50 mg of primary secondary amine for d-SPE cleanup...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
P A Green, S N Patek
Safe and effective conflict resolution is critical for survival and reproduction. Theoretical models describe how animals resolve conflict by assessing their own and/or their opponent's ability (resource holding potential, RHP), yet experimental tests of these models are often inconclusive. Recent reviews have suggested this uncertainty could be alleviated by using multiple approaches to test assessment models. The mantis shrimp Neogonodactylus bredini presents visual displays and ritualistically exchanges high-force strikes during territorial contests...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Thomas Wells Cronin, Missael Garcia, Viktor Gruev
Multispectral, hyperspectral, polarimetric, and other types of multichannel imaging spectrometers are coming into common use for a variety of applications, including remote sensing, material identification, forensics, and medical diagnosis. These instruments are often bulky and intolerant of field abuse, so designing compact, reliable, portable, and robust devices is a priority. In contrast to most engineering designs, animals have been building compact and robust multichannel imaging systems for millennia - their eyes...
January 9, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Bharath Natarajan, Jeffrey W Gilman
The twisted plywood, or Bouligand, structure is the most commonly observed microstructural motif in natural materials that possess high mechanical strength and toughness, such as that found in bone and the mantis shrimp dactyl club. These materials are isotropically toughened by a low volume fraction of soft, energy-dissipating polymer and by the Bouligand structure itself, through shear wave filtering and crack twisting, deflection and arrest. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are excellent candidates for the bottom-up fabrication of these structures, as they naturally self-assemble into 'chiral nematic' films when cast from solutions and possess outstanding mechanical properties...
February 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Mary W Donohue, Karen L Carleton, Thomas W Cronin
Visual pigments, each composed of an opsin protein covalently bound to a chromophore molecule, confer light sensitivity for vision. The eyes of some species of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, can express dozens of different opsin genes. The opsin diversity, along with spectral filters and unique tripartite eye structure, bestow upon stomatopods unusually complex visual systems. Although opsins are found in tissues outside typical image-forming eyes in other animals, extraocular opsin expression in stomatopods, animals well known for their diversity of opsins, was unknown...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
Hanne H Thoen, Tsyr-Huei Chiou, N Justin Marshall
Stomatopods (mantis shrimps) possess one of the most complex eyes in the world with photoreceptors detecting up to 12 different colors. It is not yet understood why stomatopods have almost four times the number of spectral photoreceptors compared with most other animals. It has, however, been suggested that these seemingly redundant photoreceptors could encode color through a new mechanism. Here we compare the spectral sensitivities across five species of stomatopods within the superfamily Gonodactyloidea using intracellular electrophysiological recordings...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Gabriella Hannah Wolff, Hanne Halkinrud Thoen, Justin Marshall, Marcel E Sayre, Nicholas James Strausfeld
Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects...
September 26, 2017: ELife
Cara Van Der Wal, Shane T Ahyong, Simon Y W Ho, Nathan Lo
The crustacean order Stomatopoda comprises seven superfamilies of mantis shrimps, found in coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics. These marine carnivores bear notable raptorial appendages for smashing or spearing prey. We investigated the evolutionary relationships among stomatopods using phylogenetic analyses of three mitochondrial and two nuclear markers. Our analyses recovered the superfamily Gonodactyloidea as polyphyletic, with Hemisquilla as the sister group to all other extant stomatopods. A relaxed molecular clock, calibrated by seven fossil-based age constraints, was used to date the origin and major diversification events of stomatopods...
2017: PeerJ
Nobphadon Suksangpanya, Nicholas A Yaraghi, David Kisailus, Pablo Zavattieri
The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys...
December 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Hanne H Thoen, Nicholas J Strausfeld, Justin Marshall
Crustaceans and insects share many similarities of brain organization suggesting that their common ancestor possessed some components of those shared features. Stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are basal eumalacostracan crustaceans famous for their elaborate visual system, the most complex of which possesses 12 types of color photoreceptors and the ability to detect both linearly and circularly polarized light. Here, using a palette of histological methods we describe neurons and their neuropils most immediately associated with the stomatopod retina...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jiao Cheng, Zhong-Li Sha
Mounting evidence of cryptic species in the marine realm emphasizes the necessity to thoroughly revise our current perceptions of marine biodiversity and species distributions. Here, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS) to investigate cryptic diversity and potential hybridization in the Japanese mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in the Northwestern (NW) Pacific. Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene genealogies revealed two cryptic species in this morphotaxon, which was further confirmed by extensive population-level analyses...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Nicholas W Roberts
Stomatopods have an extraordinary visual system, incorporating independent movement of their eyes in all three degrees of rotational freedom. In this work, we demonstrate that in the peacock mantis shrimp, Odontodactylus scyllarus , the level of ocular independence is task dependent. During gaze stabilization in the context of optokinesis, there is weak but significant correlation between the left and right eyes in the yaw degree of rotational freedom, but not in pitch and torsion. When one eye is completely occluded, the uncovered eye does not drive the covered eye during gaze stabilization...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ken P Findlay, S Mduduzi Seakamela, Michael A Meÿer, Stephen P Kirkman, Jaco Barendse, David E Cade, David Hurwitz, Amy S Kennedy, Pieter G H Kotze, Steven A McCue, Meredith Thornton, O Alejandra Vargas-Fonseca, Christopher G Wilke
Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item...
2017: PloS One
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