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Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Qinghua Wu, Kamil Kuca
Palytoxin, isolated from a zoanthid of the genus Palythoa, is the most potent marine toxin known. Intoxication by palytoxin leads to vasoconstriction, hemorrhage, ataxia, muscle weakness, ventricular fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, ischemia and death. Palytoxin and its numerous derivatives (congeners) may enter the food chain and accumulate mainly in fishes and crabs, causing severe human intoxication and death following ingestion of contaminated products. Furthermore, toxic effects in individuals exposed via inhalation or skin contact to marine aerosol in coincidence with Ostreopsis blooms, have been reported...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Valentina Giussani, Valentina Asnaghi, Andrea Pedroncini, Mariachiara Chiantore
Concern regarding Benthic Harmful Algal Blooms (BHABs) is increasing since some harmful benthic species have been identified in new areas. In the Mediterranean basin, the most common harmful benthic microalgae are Ostreopsis cf. ovata and Prorocentrum lima, which produce palytoxin-like compounds and okadaic acid respectively, and the need to implement monitoring activities has increased. However, a general agreement on appropriate strategies (e.g. sampling season, definition of alarm thresholds, etc.) is still lagging behind, especially for P...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Stefano Accoroni, Luciana Tartaglione, Emma Dello Iacovo, Salvatore Pichierri, Mauro Marini, Alessandra Campanelli, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Cecilia Totti
Intense blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis have been a recurrent phenomenon along several Mediterranean coasts. Blooms have been associated with noxious effects on human health and mortality of marine organisms, due to the production of palytoxin-like compounds. We analyzed the toxin concentrations throughout an O. cf. ovata bloom to highlight their relationships with environmental parameters in the Conero Riviera, northern Adriatic Sea. High temperature and balanced nutrient conditions were the optimal environmental conditions to start and sustain blooms as well as to maximize toxin production...
August 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Lauren T Murphy, Nathan P Charlton
INTRODUCTION: Palytoxin, produced by unicellular microalgae, is one of the most potent toxins known. Human exposure results most prominently through oral, dermal, and inhalational contact. There is no current data on the prevalence of cases in the United States. METHODS: This study reviewed human inhalational and dermal exposures to palytoxin via records from the National Poison Data System from 2000 to 2014. RESULTS: There were 171 cases reported, the majority occurred at a residence and experienced minor respiratory or dermal symptoms and recovered without any major sequelae or fatalities...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Maria Cristina de Q Mendes, José Marcos C Nunes, Mariângela Menezes, Santiago Fraga, Francisco Rodríguez, José A Vázquez, Juan Blanco, José M Franco, Pilar Riobó
The toxin profile and hemolytic activity of a strain of Ostreopsis cf. ovata (UFBA013) isolated from Todos os Santos Bay (northeastern Brazil) were evaluated under different levels of N and P. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) placed UFBA013 within the Atlantic/Mediterranean/Pacific clade of O. cf. ovata. Growth experiments were conducted in f/2 medium modified by adding N and P (P: 0-36 μM; N: 0-882 μM). The growth kinetics was adequately described by logistic equations. The best growth (highest Gm) was recorded under levels of N/P = 0/18, 129/5 and 441/36, while one of the lowest Gm was obtained under P-depletion...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
María Fraga, Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Lucía Molina, Yanira López, Mark Poli, Luis M Botana
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by Zoanthids (Palyhtoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis), and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Contact with PLTX-like compounds present in aerosols or marine organisms has been associated with adverse effects on humans. The worldwide distribution of producer species and seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules illustrates the global threat to human health. The identification of species capable of palytoxin production is critical for human safety. We studied the presence of PLTX analogues in Palythoa canariensis, a coral species collected in the Atlantic Ocean never described as a PLTX-producer before...
July 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Penelope Ajani, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years...
February 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
J J Walsh, J M Lenes, R H Weisberg, L Zheng, C Hu, K A Fanning, R Snyder, J Smith
Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings...
March 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Arjun Verma, Mona Hoppenrath, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Cryptic and pseudo-cryptic species are common amongst marine phytoplankton, and may cause misleading inferences of ecological and physiological data of plankton community studies. Deciphering the diversity and distribution of species of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis is one example, as there are many morphologically indistinct clades that differ greatly genetically and toxicologically from one another. In this study, a new species, Ostreopsis rhodesae from the southern Great Barrier Reef was described...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
Silvana Vanucci, Flavio Guidi, Rossella Pistocchi, Richard A Long
Extensive blooms of the toxic epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata are being reported with increasing frequency and spatial distribution in temperate coastal regions including the Mediterranean. These blooms are of human and environmental health concern due to the production of isobaric palytoxin and a wide range of ovatoxins by Ostreopsis cf. ovata. Bacterial-microalgal interactions are important regulators in algal bloom dynamics and potentially toxin dynamics. This study investigated the bacterial assemblages co-occurring with O...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
Susanna Alloisio, Valentina Giussani, Mario Nobile, Mariachiara Chiantore, Antonio Novellino
In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
Lokendra K Thakur, Kunal K Jha
Palytoxin is one of the most potent toxins known to mankind and poses a high risk to humans through ingestion, inhalation and dermal routes [1,2]. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown it is postulated that palytoxin binds to the Na+/K + ATPase pump resulting in K(+) efflux, Ca(2+) influx and membrane depolarization leading to widespread secondary pharmacological actions [2]. Palytoxin is highly toxic and can affect multiple organs causing severe symptoms including death. Palytoxin poisoning is mainly developed after ingesting seafood...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Shunxiang Gao, Xin Zheng, Bo Hu, Mingjuan Sun, Jihong Wu, Binghua Jiao, Lianghua Wang
In this study, we coupled biolayer interferometry (BLI) with competitive binding assay through an enzyme-linked aptamer and developed a real-time, ultra-sensitive, rapid quantitative method for detection of the marine biotoxin palytoxin. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled aptamers were used as biorecognition receptors to competitively bind with palytoxin, which was immobilized on the biosensor surface. The palytoxin: horseradish peroxidase-aptamer complex was then submerged in a 3,3'-diaminobenzidine solution, which resulted in formation of a precipitated polymeric product directly on the biosensor surface and a large change in the optical thickness of the biosensor layer...
March 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Asim V Farooq, Allister G Gibbons, Matthew D Council, George J Harocopos, Simon Holland, Jeffrey Judelson, Bradley L Shoss, Eric J Schmidt, Umi Kalthum Md Noh, Alexander D'Angelo, Rao V Chundury, Richard Judelson, Victor L Perez, Andrew J W Huang
PURPOSE: To report a series of patients who developed corneal toxicity after exposure to aquarium coral palytoxin. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective case series. METHODS: Retrospective review. RESULTS: Seven patients presented with corneal findings ranging from superficial punctate epitheliopathy to bilateral corneal melt with subsequent perforation. Among those with mild corneal findings, resolution was achieved with topical steroids and lubrication, whereas some patients who developed progressive corneal melt required therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty...
February 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Stefano Accoroni, Tiziana Romagnoli, Antonella Penna, Samuela Capellacci, Patrizia Ciminiello, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Luciana Tartaglione, Marie Abboud-Abi Saab, Valentina Giussani, Valentina Asnaghi, Mariachiara Chiantore, Cecilia Totti
The new benthic toxic dinoflagellate, Ostreopsis fattorussoi sp. nov., is described from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Lebanon and Cyprus coasts, and is supported by morphological and molecular data. The plate formula, Po, 3', 7″, 6c, 7s, 5‴, 2'''', is typical for the Ostreopsis genus. It differs from all other Ostreopsis species in that (i) the curved suture between plates 1' and 3' makes them approximately hexagonal, (ii) the 1' plate lies in the left half of the epitheca and is obliquely orientated leading to a characteristic shape of plate 6″...
December 2016: Journal of Phycology
Luciana Tartaglione, Marco Pelin, Massimo Morpurgo, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Javier Montenegro, Giuseppe Sacco, Silvio Sosa, James Davis Reimer, Patrizia Ciminiello, Aurelia Tubaro
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a lethal natural toxin often found in Palythoa zoantharians that, together with its congeners, may induce adverse effects in humans after inhalation of toxic aerosols both in open-air and domestic environments, namely in the vicinity of public and private aquaria. In this study, we describe a poisoning of an aquarium hobbyist who was hospitalized after handling a PLTXs-containing zoantharian hexacoral. Furthermore, we provide evidence for water detoxification. The zoantharian was morphologically and genetically identified as Palythoa cf...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Luis M Botana, Amparo Alfonso, Ines Rodríguez, Ana M Botana, Maria Del Carmen Louzao, Mercedes R Vieytes
Current regulation for marine toxins requires a monitoring method based on mass spectrometric analysis. This method is pre-targeted, hence after searching for pre-assigned masses, it identifies those compounds that were pre-defined with available calibrants. Therefore, the scope for detecting novel toxins which are not included in the monitoring protocol are very limited. In addition to this, there is a poor comprehension of the toxicity of some marine toxin groups. Also, the validity of the current approach is questioned by the lack of sufficient calibrants, and by the insufficient coverage by current legislation of the toxins reported to be present in shellfish...
2016: Toxins
Valentina Brovedani, Silvio Sosa, Mark Poli, Martino Forino, Katia Varello, Aurelia Tubaro, Marco Pelin
Palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues have been detected as seafood contaminants associated with a series of human foodborne poisonings. Due to a number of fatalities ascribed to the ingestion of PLTX-contaminated marine organisms, the development of methods for its detection in seafood has been recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Due to its feasibility, the spectrophotometric hemolytic assay is widely used to detect PLTX in different matrices, even though a standardized protocol is still lacking...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Luis M Botana
In recent years, our group and several others have been describing the presence of new, not previously reported, toxins of high toxicity in vectors that may reach the human food chain. These include tetrodotoxin in gastropods in the South of Europe, ciguatoxin in fish in the South of Spain, palytoxin in mussels in the Mediterranean Sea, pinnatoxin all over Europe, and okadaic acid in the south of the U.S. There seem to be new marine toxins appearing in areas that are heavy producers of seafood, and this is a cause of concern as most of these new toxins are not included in current legislation and monitoring programs...
April 18, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Marco Pelin, Valentina Brovedani, Silvio Sosa, Aurelia Tubaro
Palytoxin (PLTX), one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing...
February 4, 2016: Marine Drugs
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