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Palytoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843763/palytoxin-induced-acute-respiratory-failure
#1
Lokendra K Thakur, Kunal K Jha
Palytoxin is one of the most potent toxins known to mankind and poses a high risk to humans through ingestion, inhalation and dermal routes [1,2]. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown it is postulated that palytoxin binds to the Na+/K + ATPase pump resulting in K(+) efflux, Ca(2+) influx and membrane depolarization leading to widespread secondary pharmacological actions [2]. Palytoxin is highly toxic and can affect multiple organs causing severe symptoms including death. Palytoxin poisoning is mainly developed after ingesting seafood...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816587/enzyme-linked-aptamer-based-competitive-biolayer-interferometry-biosensor-for-palytoxin
#2
Shunxiang Gao, Xin Zheng, Bo Hu, Mingjuan Sun, Jihong Wu, Binghua Jiao, Lianghua Wang
In this study, we coupled biolayer interferometry (BLI) with competitive binding assay through an enzyme-linked aptamer and developed a real-time, ultra-sensitive, rapid quantitative method for detection of the marine biotoxin palytoxin. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled aptamers were used as biorecognition receptors to competitively bind with palytoxin, which was immobilized on the biosensor surface. The palytoxin: horseradish peroxidase-aptamer complex was then submerged in a 3,3'-diaminobenzidine solution, which resulted in formation of a precipitated polymeric product directly on the biosensor surface and a large change in the optical thickness of the biosensor layer...
September 25, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793603/corneal-toxicity-associated-with-aquarium-coral-palytoxin
#3
Asim V Farooq, Allister G Gibbons, Matthew D Council, George J Harocopos, Simon Holland, Jeffrey Judelson, Bradley L Shoss, Eric J Schmidt, Umi Kalthum Md Noh, Alexander D'Angelo, Rao V Chundury, Richard Judelson, Victor L Perez, Andrew J W Huang
PURPOSE: To report a series of patients who developed corneal toxicity after exposure to aquarium coral palytoxin. DESIGN: Multi-center retrospective case series. METHODS: Retrospective review. RESULTS: Seven patients presented with corneal findings ranging from superficial punctate epitheliopathy to bilateral corneal melt with subsequent perforation. Among those with mild corneal findings, resolution was achieved with topical steroids and lubrication, whereas some patients who developed progressive corneal melt required therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633521/ostreopsis-fattorussoi-sp-nov-dinophyceae-a-new-benthic-toxic-ostreopsis-species-from-the-eastern-mediterranean-sea
#4
Stefano Accoroni, Tiziana Romagnoli, Antonella Penna, Samuela Capellacci, Patrizia Ciminiello, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Luciana Tartaglione, Marie Abboud-Abi Saab, Valentina Giussani, Valentina Asnaghi, Mariachiara Chiantore, Cecilia Totti
The new benthic toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis fattorussoi sp. nov. is described from eastern Mediterranean Sea Lebanon and Cyprus coasts, supported by morphological and molecular data. The plate formula, Po, 3', 7'', 6c, 7s, 5''', 2'''', is typical for the Ostreopsis genus. It differs from all other Ostreopsis species in that i) the curved suture between plates 1' and 3' makes them approximately hexagonal, ii) the 1' plate lies in the left-half of the epitheca and is obliquely orientated leading to a characteristic shape of plate 6''...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546706/an-aquarium-hobbyist-poisoning-identification-of-new-palytoxins-in-palythoa-cf-toxica-and-complete-detoxification-of-the-aquarium-water-by-activated-carbon
#5
Luciana Tartaglione, Marco Pelin, Massimo Morpurgo, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Javier Montenegro, Giuseppe Sacco, Silvio Sosa, James Davis Reimer, Patrizia Ciminiello, Aurelia Tubaro
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a lethal natural toxin often found in Palythoa zoantharians that, together with its congeners, may induce adverse effects in humans after inhalation of toxic aerosols both in open-air and domestic environments, namely in the vicinity of public and private aquaria. In this study, we describe a poisoning of an aquarium hobbyist who was hospitalized after handling a PLTXs-containing zoantharian hexacoral. Furthermore, we provide evidence for water detoxification. The zoantharian was morphologically and genetically identified as Palythoa cf...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399774/how-safe-is-safe-for-marine-toxins-monitoring
#6
Luis M Botana, Amparo Alfonso, Ines Rodríguez, Ana M Botana, Maria Del Carmen Louzao, Mercedes R Vieytes
Current regulation for marine toxins requires a monitoring method based on mass spectrometric analysis. This method is pre-targeted, hence after searching for pre-assigned masses, it identifies those compounds that were pre-defined with available calibrants. Therefore, the scope for detecting novel toxins which are not included in the monitoring protocol are very limited. In addition to this, there is a poor comprehension of the toxicity of some marine toxin groups. Also, the validity of the current approach is questioned by the lack of sufficient calibrants, and by the insufficient coverage by current legislation of the toxins reported to be present in shellfish...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343702/a-revisited-hemolytic-assay-for-palytoxin-detection-limitations-for-its-quantitation-in-mussels
#7
Valentina Brovedani, Silvio Sosa, Mark Poli, Martino Forino, Katia Varello, Aurelia Tubaro, Marco Pelin
Palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues have been detected as seafood contaminants associated with a series of human foodborne poisonings. Due to a number of fatalities ascribed to the ingestion of PLTX-contaminated marine organisms, the development of methods for its detection in seafood has been recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Due to its feasibility, the spectrophotometric hemolytic assay is widely used to detect PLTX in different matrices, even though a standardized protocol is still lacking...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958981/toxicological-perspective-on-climate-change-aquatic-toxins
#8
Luis M Botana
In recent years, our group and several others have been describing the presence of new, not previously reported, toxins of high toxicity in vectors that may reach the human food chain. These include tetrodotoxin in gastropods in the South of Europe, ciguatoxin in fish in the South of Spain, palytoxin in mussels in the Mediterranean Sea, pinnatoxin all over Europe, and okadaic acid in the south of the U.S. There seem to be new marine toxins appearing in areas that are heavy producers of seafood, and this is a cause of concern as most of these new toxins are not included in current legislation and monitoring programs...
April 18, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26861356/palytoxin-containing-aquarium-soft-corals-as-an-emerging-sanitary-problem
#9
REVIEW
Marco Pelin, Valentina Brovedani, Silvio Sosa, Aurelia Tubaro
Palytoxin (PLTX), one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing...
February 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714047/ovatoxin-a-a-palytoxin-analogue-isolated-from-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-fukuyo-cytotoxic-activity-and-elisa-detection
#10
Marco Pelin, Martino Forino, Valentina Brovedani, Luciana Tartaglione, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Rossella Pistocchi, Mark Poli, Silvio Sosa, Chiara Florio, Patrizia Ciminiello, Aurelia Tubaro
This study provides the first evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of the recently identified palytoxin (PLTX) analog, ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a), the major toxin produced by Ostreopsis cf. ovata in the Mediterranean Sea. Its increasing detection during Ostreopsis blooms and in seafood highlights the need to characterize its toxic effects and to set up appropriate detection methods. OVTX-a is about 100 fold less potent than PLTX in reducing HaCaT cells viability (EC50 = 1.1 × 10(-9) M vs 1.8 × 10(-11) M, MTT test) in agreement with a reduced binding affinity (Kd = 1...
February 2, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709295/detection-of-palytoxin-like-compounds-by-a-flow-cytometry-based-immunoassay-supported-by-functional-and-analytical-methods
#11
María Fraga, Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Diego A Fernández, Mark Poli, Luis M Botana
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis) and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). PLTX outbreaks are usually associated with Indo-Pacific waters, however their recent repeated occurrence in Mediterranean-European Atlantic coasts demonstrate their current worldwide distribution. Human sickness and fatalities have been associated with toxic algal blooms and ingestion of seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules. These toxins represent a serious threat to human health...
January 15, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655059/determination-of-palytoxins-in-soft-coral-and-seawater-from-a-home-aquarium-comparison-between-palythoa-and-ostreopsis-related-inhalatory-poisonings
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Luciana Tartaglione, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Antonia Mazzeo, Martino Forino, Andre Wieringa, Patrizia Ciminiello
Anecdotal reports exist of aquarium hobbyists that experienced severe respiratory distress and/or skin injury following cleaning operation of home aquaria containing Palythoa sp. soft corals. Hundreds of cases of respiratory illness and/or dermatitis have been recorded in proximity to the sea concomitantly with algal blooms of Ostreopsis spp. in the Mediterranean area. Both Palythoa spp. and Ostreopsis spp. contain congeners of palytoxin, a highly potent toxin whose inhalation hazard is however unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of high levels of palytoxins (palytoxin and hydroxypalytoxin) in both soft coral and seawater from a home marine aquarium involved in the poisoning of a whole family...
January 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608282/chemical-molecular-and-eco-toxicological-investigation-of-ostreopsis-sp-from-cyprus-island-structural-insights-into-four-new-ovatoxins-by-lc-hrms-ms
#13
Luciana Tartaglione, Antonia Mazzeo, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Martino Forino, Valentina Giussani, Samuela Capellacci, Antonella Penna, Valentina Asnaghi, Marco Faimali, Mariachiara Chiantore, Takeshi Yasumoto, Patrizia Ciminiello
Blooms of benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis (mainly O. cf. ovata and occasionally O. cf. siamensis) represent a serious concern for humans in the Mediterranean area, due to production of palytoxin-like compounds listed among the most potent marine toxins known. In this work, six strains of Ostreopsis sp. from Cyprus Island were analyzed through an integrated approach based on molecular, chemical, and eco-toxicological methods. Cypriot Ostreopsis sp. was found to be a species distinct from O. cf...
January 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26587298/a-case-of-palytoxin-poisoning-in-a-home-aquarium-enthusiast-and-his-family
#14
Christine Hall, David Levy, Steven Sattler
Inhalational exposure to palytoxin is an extremely rare cause of respiratory distress. This little-known marine toxin has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Toxicity has been best documented in cases of ingestion but has also been seen in cases of dermal exposure and inhalation of vapors. Palytoxin has been found in several coral species, some of which are favored by home aquarium enthusiasts and are commercially available. We report a case of a family who were exposed to the aerosolized toxin following the cleaning of a coral in their home aquarium...
2015: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489638/toxic-potential-of-palytoxin
#15
REVIEW
Jiří Patocka, Ramesh C Gupta, Qing-hua Wu, Kamil Kuca
This review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent marine toxins with an LD50 of 150 ng/kg body weight in mice exposed intravenously...
October 2015: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26436198/exploration-of-new-functional-endpoints-in-neuro-2a-cells-for-the-detection-of-the-marine-biotoxins-saxitoxin-palytoxin-and-tetrodotoxin
#16
Jonathan Nicolas, Toine F H Bovee, Lenny Kamelia, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Peter J M Hendriksen
Marine neurotoxins accumulate in seafood and therewith represent a threat for consumers. At the European level, the use of in vivo bioassays is banned from 2015 onwards, except for the control of production areas. Cytotoxicity in the neuro-2a assay has been shown a promising in vitro alternative. However, given that cytotoxicity may be sensitive to confounding factors the current study investigates the suitability of functional endpoints as alternatives to cytotoxicity for the detection of marine neurotoxins...
December 25, 2015: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365918/dangerous-reef-aquaristics-palytoxin-of-a-brown-encrusting-anemone-causes-toxic-corneal-reactions
#17
Yasmin Ruiz, Joan Fuchs, Ralf Beuschel, Markus Tschopp, David Goldblum
Although frequently observed in domestic saltwater aquariums, literature on exposure to palytoxin (PTX) of encrusting anemones (Zoanthidea) kept in aquariums is rare. Handling these animals for propagation purposes or during cleaning work can lead to dermal, ocular or respiratory contact with the PTX generated by some Zoanthids. The present study describes a case of ocular exposure to liquid from a Zoanthid, which led to corneal ulcers. The patient also suffered from systemic symptoms of dyspnea and shivering and a suspected rhabdomyolysis, which required monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit...
November 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365038/ostreopsis-cf-ovata-dynamics-in-the-nw-mediterranean-sea-in-relation-to-biotic-and-abiotic-factors
#18
Olga Carnicer, Carles Guallar, Karl B Andree, Jorge Diogène, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor
An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata...
November 2015: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26308009/hunt-for-palytoxins-in-a-wide-variety-of-marine-organisms-harvested-in-2010-on-the-french-mediterranean-coast
#19
Ronel Biré, Sophie Trotereau, Rodolphe Lemée, Davide Oregioni, Christine Delpont, Sophie Krys, Thierry Guérin
During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4...
August 2015: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26270061/suspected-palytoxin-inhalation-exposures-associated-with-zoanthid-corals-in-aquarium-shops-and-homes-alaska-2012-2014
#20
Ali K Hamade, Sandrine E Deglin, Joe B McLaughlin, Jonathan R Deeds, Sara M Handy, Ann M Knolhoff
On August 12, 2014, an Anchorage hospital notified the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) that a middle-aged male resident of Anchorage (patient A) had arrived in the emergency department with possible palytoxin exposure. Patient A complained of a bitter metallic taste, fever, weakness, cough, and muscle pain 7-8 hours after introduction of live zoanthid coral into his home aquarium. Palytoxin, a potent toxin known to produce the reported effects, is contained in zoanthid marine corals.
August 14, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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