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BCG immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145329/new-onset-of-myasthenia-gravis-after-intravesical-bacillus-calmette-guerin-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Tsubasa Takizawa, Marenori Kojima, Shigeaki Suzuki, Takashi Osada, Satoshi Kitagawa, Jin Nakahara, Shinichi Takahashi, Norihiro Suzuki
RATIONALE: Recently, drug-related myasthenia gravis (MG) has received attention, because the number of reported cases involving MG associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, a new immunotherapy, is increasing. We present a case involving the new onset of MG, in which the symptoms started shortly after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 69-year-old male with bladder cancer developed ptosis and diplopia 4 days after the completion of a treatment regimen with intravesical BCG weekly for 6 weeks...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081034/primary-high-grade-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-high-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-expression-in-tumor-specimens-distinguishes-patients-who-are-at-risk-for-disease-progression
#2
Lampros Mitrakas, Stavros Gravas, Christos Papandreou, Georgios Koukoulis, Foteini Karasavvidou, Georgios Dimakopoulos, Karl Weingärtner, Anastasios Karatzas, Ioannis Zachos, Vasilios Tzortzis
To investigate the potential prognostic role of NFκB expression in primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received induction and maintenance BCG therapy were retrospectively included. Recurrence and progression were histologically proven. Intensity and extent of immunochemistry were assessed. The final evaluation of the NFκB staining was done by combining intensity and extent as ΄΄product΄΄ and expressing it as ΄΄low NFκΒ expression΄΄ or ΄΄high NFκB expression΄΄...
October 28, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055653/predicting-response-to-intravesical-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy-are-we-there-yet-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Ashish M Kamat, Roger Li, Michael A O'Donnell, Peter C Black, Morgan Roupret, James W Catto, Eva Comperat, Molly A Ingersoll, Wim P Witjes, David J McConkey, J Alfred Witjes
CONTEXT: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the most effective intravesical therapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, reducing not only recurrence rates but also preventing progression and reducing deaths. However, response rates to BCG vary widely and are dependent on a multitude of factors. OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on clinical, pathologic, immune, and molecular markers that allow prediction of BCG response. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed and MEDLINE search of English language literature was conducted from its inception to July 2017 using appropriate search terms...
October 18, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029943/bcg-immune-activation-reduces-growth-and-angiogenesis-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Keyliz Peraza Cruces, Juan Riestra Ayora, Eduardo Martín-Sanz, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide and is associated with poor survival and significant treatment morbidity. The immune profile in patients with HNSCC is immunosuppressive and presents cytokine-mediated adaptive immune responses, triggered apoptosis of T cells, and alterations in antigen processing machinery. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy has been used successfully as a treatment for several types of cancer. In the present study, we sought to determine the antitumor effect of soluble mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear immune cells (PBMCs) activated with BCG vaccine in a three-dimensional coculture model of HNSCC growth using FaDu hypopharynx carcinoma squamous cells...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026546/systemic-bcg-osis-following-intravesical-bcg-instillation-for-bladder-carcinoma
#5
Frank Liaw, Yan Yu Tan, David Hendry
Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to be an effective form of immunotherapy for bladder cancer. This case report describes a patient who develops systemic BCG-osis following intravesical BCG instillation and demonstrates the importance of being aware of more severe complications associated with BCG immunotherapy.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019177/long-term-survival-after-complete-surgical-resection-and-adjuvant-immunotherapy-for-distant-melanoma-metastases
#6
Mark B Faries, Nicola Mozzillo, Mohammed Kashani-Sabet, John F Thompson, Mark C Kelley, Ronald C DeConti, Jeffrey E Lee, James F Huth, Jeffrey Wagner, Angus Dalgleish, Daniel Pertschuk, Christopher Nardo, Stacey Stern, Robert Elashoff, Guy Gammon, Donald L Morton
BACKGROUND: This phase III study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an allogeneic whole-cell vaccine (Canvaxin™) plus bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) after complete resection of stage IV melanoma. METHODS: After complete resection of ≤5 distant metastases, patients were randomly assigned to BCG+Canvaxin (BCG/Cv) or BCG+placebo (BCG/Pl). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), and immune response measured by skin test (ClinicalTrials...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931051/interleukin-17-positive-mast-cells-influence-outcomes-from-bcg-for-patients-with-cis-data-from-a-comprehensive-characterisation-of-the-immune-microenvironment-of-urothelial-bladder-cancer
#7
Alexander C Dowell, Ellen Cobby, Kaisheng Wen, Adam J Devall, Vinnie During, Jane Anderson, Nicholas D James, Kar K Cheng, Maurice P Zeegers, Richard T Bryan, Graham S Taylor
The tumour immune microenvironment is considered to influence cancer behaviour and outcome. Using a panel of markers for innate and adaptive immune cells we set out to characterise and understand the bladder tumour microenvironment of 114 patients from a prospective multicentre cohort of newly-diagnosed bladder cancer patients, followed-up for 4.33±1.71 years. We found IL-17-positive cells were significantly increased in primary and concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), p<0.0001, a highly malignant lesion which is the most significant single risk factor for disease progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916862/monitoring-the-response-of-urothelial-precancerous-lesions-to-bacillus-calmette-guerin-at-the-proteome-level-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model
#8
Kerem Teke, Nil Guzel, Ali Kemal Uslubas, Murat Kasap, Hasan Yilmaz, Gurler Akpinar, Demir Kursat Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the best treatment modality for progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. We aimed to monitor changes at the proteome level to identify putative protein biomarkers associated with the response of urothelial precancerous lesions to intravesical BCG treatment. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): control, non-treated, and BCG-treated groups. The non-treated and BCG-treated groups received N-methyl-N-nitrosourea intravesically. BCG Tice-strain was instilled into bladder in BCG-treated group...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903359/expression-of-sialyl-tn-sugar-antigen-in-bladder-cancer-cells-affects-response-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-and-to-oxidative-damage
#9
Paulo F Severino, Mariana Silva, Mylene Carrascal, Nadia Malagolini, Mariella Chiricolo, Giulia Venturi, Annalisa Astolfi, Mariangela Catera, Paula A Videira, Fabio Dall'Olio
The sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is an O-linked carbohydrate chain aberrantly expressed in bladder cancer (BC), whose biosynthesis is mainly controlled by the sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC1. Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective adjuvant immunotherapy for superficial BC but one third of the patients fail to respond. A poorly understood correlation between the expression of sTn and BC patient's response to BCG was previously observed. By analyzing tumor tissues, we showed that patients with high ST6GALNAC1 and IL-6 mRNA expression were BCG responders...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902383/-bcgitis-with-involvement-of-lung-liver-and-bone-marrow%C3%A2-after-immunotherapy-of-urothelial-cancer
#10
Hilte Friederike Geerdes-Fenge, Franziska Stubbe, Micha Löbermann, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Erbersdobler, Emil Christian Reisinger
Medical history A 77-year-old patient with transurethral resection of a bladder tumor was transferred due to persistent fever and progressive dyspnea despite antibiotic therapy for suspected urinary tract infection. Repeating the medical history revealed that a BCG immunotherapy of his non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma was performed the day before fever developed. Therefore, BCGitis was suspected. Examinations Laboratory parameters showed pancytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, eleveated C-reactive protein and hypoxemia...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866819/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-as-prognostic-predictor-of-tumor-recurrence-during-treatment-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-therapy-for-intermediate-and-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#11
Esmee I M L Liem, Joyce Baard, Evelyne C C Cauberg, Mieke T J Bus, D Martijn de Bruin, M Pilar Laguna Pes, Jean J M C H de la Rosette, Theo M de Reijke
A significant number of patients with intermediate- or high-risk bladder cancer treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy are non-responders to this treatment. Since we cannot predict in which patients BCG therapy will fail, markers for responders are needed. UroVysion(®) is a multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test for bladder cancer detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether FISH can be used to early identify recurrence during treatment with BCG...
September 2, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815048/society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-consensus-statement-on-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-bladder-carcinoma
#12
Ashish M Kamat, Joaquim Bellmunt, Matthew D Galsky, Badrinath R Konety, Donald L Lamm, David Langham, Cheryl T Lee, Matthew I Milowsky, Michael A O'Donnell, Peter H O'Donnell, Daniel P Petrylak, Padmanee Sharma, Eila C Skinner, Guru Sonpavde, John A Taylor, Prasanth Abraham, Jonathan E Rosenberg
The standard of care for most patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is immunotherapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which activates the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells and has demonstrated durable clinical benefit. Urologic best-practice guidelines and consensus reports have been developed and strengthened based on data on the timing, dose, and duration of therapy from randomized clinical trials, as well as by critical evaluation of criteria for progression...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807024/society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-consensus-statement-on-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-bladder-carcinoma
#13
Ashish M Kamat, Joaquim Bellmunt, Matthew D Galsky, Badrinath R Konety, Donald L Lamm, David Langham, Cheryl T Lee, Matthew I Milowsky, Michael A O'Donnell, Peter H O'Donnell, Daniel P Petrylak, Padmanee Sharma, Eila C Skinner, Guru Sonpavde, John A Taylor, Prasanth Abraham, Jonathan E Rosenberg
The standard of care for most patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is immunotherapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which activates the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells and has demonstrated durable clinical benefit. Urologic best-practice guidelines and consensus reports have been developed and strengthened based on data on the timing, dose, and duration of therapy from randomized clinical trials, as well as by critical evaluation of criteria for progression...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801444/radical-cystectomy-bladder-removal-against-intravesical-bcg-immunotherapy-for-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-bravo-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#14
Jamie B Oughton, Heather Poad, Maureen Twiddy, Michelle Collinson, Victoria Hiley, Kathryn Gordon, Mark Johnson, Sunjay Jain, Aidan P Noon, Rohit Chahal, Matt Simms, Mohantha Dooldeniya, Phillip Koenig, Louise Goodwin, Julia M Brown, James W F Catto
INTRODUCTION: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HRNMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease that can be difficult to predict. While around 25% of cancers progress to invasion and metastases, the remaining majority of tumours remain within the bladder. It is uncertain whether patients with HRNMIBC are better treated with intravesical maintenance BCG (mBCG) immunotherapy or primary radical cystectomy (RC). A definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to compare these two different treatments but may be difficult to recruit to and has not been attempted to date...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801026/quadruple-immunotherapy-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-interferon-interleukin-2-and-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-as-salvage-therapy-for-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#15
Ryan L Steinberg, Kenneth G Nepple, Kyla N Velaer, Lewis J Thomas, Michael A O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective initial intravesical therapy for high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, but many patients still fail. Combination intravesical BCG and interferon (IFN) will salvage some patients but results remain suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that further immunostimulation with intravesical interleukin-2 and subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor may improve response to intravesical BCG and IFN in patient with prior BCG failure(s)...
August 8, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761898/pleural-effusion-caused-by-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy-for-bladder-cancer
#16
Tara Rachakonda, Brian Kendall, Adam M Spivak, Jonathan Boltax
Intravesical bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) instillation has been used as immunotherapy for early stage bladder cancer for >40 years. Complications from this therapy are rare but may result in a spectrum of infectious sequelae. Here we describe the case of an elderly man who presented with a pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodule several years after treatment with BCG.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751891/deconvolution-of-the-response-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-reveals-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-induced-cytokines-as-autocrine-mediators-of-innate-immunity
#17
Aurélie Bisiaux, Jeremy Boussier, Darragh Duffy, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Magnus Fontes, Matthew L Albert
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used as a vaccine and diagnostic test for tuberculosis, as well as immunotherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. While clinically useful, the response to mycobacterial stimulation is complex and the induced protein signature remains poorly defined. We characterized the cell types directly engaged by BCG, as well as the induced cytokine loops that transmit signal(s) to bystander cells. Standardized whole-blood stimulations and mechanistic studies on single and purified cell populations identified distinct patterns of activation in monocytes as compared to neutrophils and invariant lymphocyte populations...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733429/proteogenomic-analysis-and-discovery-of-immune-antigens-in-mycobacterium-vaccae
#18
Jianhua Zheng, Lihong Chen, Liguo Liu, Haifeng Li, Bo Liu, Dandan Zheng, Tao Liu, Jie Dong, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Jian Yang, Xiaobing Zhang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in developing countries. Neonatal BCG vaccination occurs in various regions, but the level of protection varies in different populations. Recently, Mycobacterium vaccae is found to be an immunomodulating therapeutic agent that could confer a significant level of protection against TB. It is the only vaccine in a phase III trial from WHO to assess its efficacy and safety in preventing TB disease in people with latent TB infection. However, the mechanism of immunotherapy of M...
September 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694418/-a-case-of-long-survival-in-aggressively-growing-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-successfully-treated-by-combined-chemotherapy-of-methotrexate-etoposide-and-cisplatin
#19
Ryosuke Jikuya, Kouta Washimi, Masato Yasui, Akihito Hashizume, Tomoyuki Tatenuma, Nobuhiko Mizuno, Kentaro Muraoka, Susumu Umemoto, Masaki Kawai, Takeshi Kishida
A 74-year-old man underwent transurethral resection for a bladder tumor (TURBT). The pathological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma, grade 3 pT2 at least. He desired preservation of the bladder. Thus, MEC (methotrexate 100-150 mg/body (day 1), etoposide 100 mg/m2 (day 2-4), cisplatin 20 mg/m2 (day 2-6)) chemotherapy was administered for 2 courses. The next year, he had a relapse in the bladder, and the pathological diagnosiswasurothelial carcinoma, grade 2 pTa and pTis. He underwent Calmette-Guerin Bacillus (BCG) immunotherapy for 6 courses that resulted in a complete response without recurrence for 6 years...
June 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680882/immunotherapy-for-patients-with-advanced-urothelial-cancer-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Clizia Zichi, Marcello Tucci, Gianmarco Leone, Consuelo Buttigliero, Francesca Vignani, Daniele Pignataro, Giorgio V Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio
In recent years, immunotherapy has produced encouraging results in a rapidly increasing number of solid tumors. The responsiveness of bladder cancer to immunotherapy was first established in nonmuscle invasive disease in 1976 with intravesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Very recently immune checkpoint inhibitors demonstrated good activity and significant efficacy in metastatic disease. In particular the best results were obtained with programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors, but many other immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies, are currently under investigation in several trials...
2017: BioMed Research International
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