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BCG immunotherapy

Dafina Ilijazi, Mohammad Abufaraj, Melanie R Hassler, Iris E Ertl, David D'Andrea, Shahrokh F Shariat
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide and is, in fact, the most expensive cancer on a per-patient to treat basis. There is a critical need to implement new tests into clinical practice to improve the quality of clinical care, decrease unnecessary invasive therapies and ultimately save costs. Currently, no molecular or genetic biomarker has been widely integrated into daily clinical practice. However, major milestones have been achieved in our understanding of the molecular alterations in BCa that will provide the basis for integrating molecular and genetic biomarkers into clinical decision making to guide management...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Paulo F Severino, Mariana Silva, Mylene Carrascal, Nadia Malagolini, Mariella Chiricolo, Giulia Venturi, Roberto Barbaro Forleo, Annalisa Astolfi, Mariangela Catera, Paula A Videira, Fabio Dall'Olio
BACKGROUND: Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the gold standard adjuvant immunotherapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although it fails in one third of the patients. NMIBC expresses two tumor-associated O-linked carbohydrates: the disaccharide (Galβ1,3GalNAc) Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen, and its sialylated counterpart (Siaα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc) sialyl-T (sT), synthesized by sialyltransferase ST3GAL1, whose roles in BCG response are unknown. METHODS: The human bladder cancer (BC) cell line HT1376 strongly expressing the T antigen, was retrovirally transduced with the ST3GAL1 cDNA or with an empty vector, yielding the cell lines HT1376sT and HT1376T , that express, respectively, either the sT or the T antigens...
February 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
Cavit Ceylan, Sedat Yahşi, Serkan Doğan, Elife ÖztÜrk, Gulay Ceylan
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BCa) is the seventh most common cancer among males worldwide. Some reliable markers in blood, urine, and tumor tissue, including clinicopathologic variables, molecular and inflammatory markers, gene polymorphisms, and tumor gene expression profiles are identified for predicting response to BCG immunotherapy in high-risk BCa patients. AIMS: We aimed to determine if FAS and FASL polymorphisms are associated with lack of response to BCG in patients with BCa...
February 16, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Neelam Mukherjee, Robert S Svatek, Ahmed M Mansour
Intravesical instillation of live attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the gold standard for patients with intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). BCG-failures include a heterogenous population of patients who share a designation of disease recurrence or progression following BCG and include patients with complete unresponsiveness to BCG, patients who respond initially but develop relapse and, in some cases, patients who are intolerant to BCG due to side effects. Given the efficacy and relatively rapid approval of several monoclonal antibodies against PD-L1 or PD-1 for advanced and metastatic bladder cancer, the role of these checkpoint inhibitors in BCG-relapsing disease at various disease stages is under consideration...
February 8, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Fuhe Zhang, Lei Shi, Pei Liu, Linglin Zhang, Qianqian Wu, Bo Wang, Guolong Zhang, Peiru Wang, Feifang Zhou, Wei R Chen, Xiuli Wang
BACKGROUND: There is no alternative method to remove facial verruca plana and achieve better cosmetic effects. The present study is the first study to use intense pulsed light (IPL) as photothermal therapy (PTT) combined with intra-gluteal injection of bacillus calmette-guerin polysaccharide nucleic acid (BCG-PSN), which function as immunotherapy, contracting a new type of clinically available laser immunotherapy(LIT)for the treatment of facial verruca plana. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, cosmetic outcome, and adverse reactions of IPL combined with BCG-PSN for facial verruca plana...
February 4, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Giorgio Calleris, Giancarlo Marra, Silvia Corcione, Marco Oderda, Chiara Cardellino, Sabrina Audagnotto, Bruno Frea, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Paolo Gontero
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy decreases the progression risk of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but potentially yields a broad spectrum of side effects. We report the case of a 73-year-old man affected by miliary pulmonary BCG infection, whose microbiological diagnosis was probably hindered by empiric fluoroquinolones, focusing on imaging and clinical work-up.
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Jianwei Zhu, Rui Li, Eva Tiselius, Raheleh Roudi, Olivia Teghararian, Chen Suo, Huan Song
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer, accounting for approximately 80% to 85% of all cases. For patients with localised NSCLC (stages I to III), it has been speculated that immunotherapy may be helpful for reducing postoperative recurrence rates, or improving the clinical outcomes of current treatment for unresectable tumours. While several new agents have now entered phase III clinical trials, we felt a systematic review was needed to address the question of the effectiveness and safety of immunotherapy in patients with stages I to III NSCLC...
December 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Arlene Siefker-Radtke, Brendan Curti
Immunotherapy has been used in localized urothelial carcinoma for decades, especially in the treatment of superficial disease, in which instillation of BCG is a commonly used treatment option. Clinical investigations based on new insights into the immunogenic potential of metastatic urothelial carcinoma have led to the accelerated FDA approval of the immune checkpoint inhibitors atezolizumab, nivolumab, durvalumab, avelumab, and pembrolizumab. Preliminary findings suggest additional benefits of combinations of immunotherapeutic agents as a future treatment approach in metastatic urothelial carcinoma...
February 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Öner Şanlı, Yair Lotan
Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite, the majority of the cases were diagnosed as non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with favorable prognosis, it has tendency to recur or progress to a higher grade or stage. The first line treatment of patients with NMIBC is transurethral resection with adjuvant therapies primarily intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy. However, in a portion of patients whose BCG treatment failed, alternative treatments may be required...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
Stephen B Williams, Ashish M Kamat, Chinedu Mmeje, Yuanquing Ye, Maosheng Huang, David W Chang, Colin P Dinney, Xifeng Wu
Inflammation plays a critical role in the etiology of several cancers and may affect their clinical outcome. Our objective was to assess the association of genetic variants within the inflammation pathway with recurrence and progression among non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients with or without Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment. We genotyped 372 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 27 selected genes within the inflammation pathway in 349 patients diagnosed with NMIBC, followed by internal validation in 322 additional patients...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
Edward M Messing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
Tsubasa Takizawa, Marenori Kojima, Shigeaki Suzuki, Takashi Osada, Satoshi Kitagawa, Jin Nakahara, Shinichi Takahashi, Norihiro Suzuki
RATIONALE: Recently, drug-related myasthenia gravis (MG) has received attention, because the number of reported cases involving MG associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, a new immunotherapy, is increasing. We present a case involving the new onset of MG, in which the symptoms started shortly after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 69-year-old male with bladder cancer developed ptosis and diplopia 4 days after the completion of a treatment regimen with intravesical BCG weekly for 6 weeks...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lampros Mitrakas, Stavros Gravas, Christos Papandreou, Georgios Koukoulis, Foteini Karasavvidou, Georgios Dimakopoulos, Karl Weingärtner, Anastasios Karatzas, Ioannis Zachos, Vasilios Tzortzis
To investigate the potential prognostic role of NFκB expression in primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received induction and maintenance BCG therapy were retrospectively included. Recurrence and progression were histologically proven. Intensity and extent of immunochemistry were assessed. The final evaluation of the NFκB staining was done by combining intensity and extent as ΄΄product΄΄ and expressing it as ΄΄low NFκΒ expression΄΄ or ΄΄high NFκB expression΄΄...
October 28, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Ashish M Kamat, Roger Li, Michael A O'Donnell, Peter C Black, Morgan Roupret, James W Catto, Eva Comperat, Molly A Ingersoll, Wim P Witjes, David J McConkey, J Alfred Witjes
CONTEXT: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the most effective intravesical therapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, reducing not only recurrence rates but also preventing progression and reducing deaths. However, response rates to BCG vary widely and are dependent on a multitude of factors. OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on clinical, pathologic, immune, and molecular markers that allow prediction of BCG response. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed and MEDLINE search of English language literature was conducted from its inception to July 2017 using appropriate search terms...
October 18, 2017: European Urology
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Keyliz Peraza Cruces, Juan Riestra Ayora, Eduardo Martín-Sanz, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide and is associated with poor survival and significant treatment morbidity. The immune profile in patients with HNSCC is immunosuppressive and presents cytokine-mediated adaptive immune responses, triggered apoptosis of T cells, and alterations in antigen processing machinery. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy has been used successfully as a treatment for several types of cancer. In the present study, we sought to determine the antitumor effect of soluble mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear immune cells (PBMCs) activated with BCG vaccine in a three-dimensional coculture model of HNSCC growth using FaDu hypopharynx carcinoma squamous cells...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
Frank Liaw, Yan Yu Tan, David Hendry
Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to be an effective form of immunotherapy for bladder cancer. This case report describes a patient who develops systemic BCG-osis following intravesical BCG instillation and demonstrates the importance of being aware of more severe complications associated with BCG immunotherapy.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
Mark B Faries, Nicola Mozzillo, Mohammed Kashani-Sabet, John F Thompson, Mark C Kelley, Ronald C DeConti, Jeffrey E Lee, James F Huth, Jeffrey Wagner, Angus Dalgleish, Daniel Pertschuk, Christopher Nardo, Stacey Stern, Robert Elashoff, Guy Gammon, Donald L Morton
BACKGROUND: This phase III study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an allogeneic whole-cell vaccine (Canvaxin™) plus bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) after complete resection of stage IV melanoma. METHODS: After complete resection of ≤5 distant metastases, patients were randomly assigned to BCG+Canvaxin (BCG/Cv) or BCG+placebo (BCG/Pl). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), and immune response measured by skin test (ClinicalTrials...
December 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Alexander C Dowell, Ellen Cobby, Kaisheng Wen, Adam J Devall, Vinnie During, Jane Anderson, Nicholas D James, Kar K Cheng, Maurice P Zeegers, Richard T Bryan, Graham S Taylor
The tumour immune microenvironment is considered to influence cancer behaviour and outcome. Using a panel of markers for innate and adaptive immune cells we set out to characterise and understand the bladder tumour microenvironment of 114 patients from a prospective multicentre cohort of newly-diagnosed bladder cancer patients, followed-up for 4.33±1.71 years. We found IL-17-positive cells were significantly increased in primary and concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), p<0.0001, a highly malignant lesion which is the most significant single risk factor for disease progression...
2017: PloS One
Kerem Teke, Nil Guzel, Ali Kemal Uslubas, Murat Kasap, Hasan Yilmaz, Gurler Akpinar, Demir Kursat Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the best treatment modality for progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. We aimed to monitor changes at the proteome level to identify putative protein biomarkers associated with the response of urothelial precancerous lesions to intravesical BCG treatment. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): control, non-treated, and BCG-treated groups. The non-treated and BCG-treated groups received N-methyl-N-nitrosourea intravesically. BCG Tice-strain was instilled into bladder in BCG-treated group...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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