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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278504/assessing-the-feasibility-of-replacing-standard-dose-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy-with-other-intravesical-instillation-therapies-in-bladder-cancer-patients-a-network-meta-analysis
#1
Cheng Wu, Xunrong Zhou, Chunqing Miao, Jianzhong Zhang, Qingsheng Tang, Xiumei Chang, Haodong Ni
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy plays a key role in patients with bladder cancer. The shortage of intravesical BCG has motivated researchers to seek alternatives with equivalent efficacy If other alternative intravesical agents have equivalent efficacy compared to BCG, then it may be feasible to replace standard BCG with alternative options. METHODS: We searched all relevant evidence in multiple sources and key data was extracted from included studies...
March 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248951/bcg-unresponsive-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-recommendations-from-the-ibcg
#2
REVIEW
Ashish M Kamat, Marc Colombel, Debasish Sundi, Donald Lamm, Andreas Boehle, Maurizio Brausi, Roger Buckley, Raj Persad, Joan Palou, Mark Soloway, J Alfred Witjes
Intravesical immunotherapy with live attenuated BCG remains the standard of care for patients with high-risk and intermediate-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Most patients initially respond, but recurrence is frequent and progression to invasive cancer is a concern. No established and effective intravesical therapies are available for patients whose tumours recur after BCG, representing a clinically important unmet need. Development and discovery of treatment options for BCG-unresponsive NMIBC is a high priority in order to decrease the morbidity, burden of health-care expenditures, and mortality related to bladder cancer...
February 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197393/preclinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-the-ty21a-vaccine-strain-for-intravesical-immunotherapy-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#3
Sonia Domingos-Pereira, Valérie Cesson, Mathieu F Chevalier, Laurent Derré, Patrice Jichlinski, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger
Intravesical Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy can reduce recurrence/progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although significant adverse events and treatment failure argue for alternative options. Here, we examined whether another attenuated live vaccine, Vivotif/Ty21a, used since more than 30 y against typhoid fever, may be safely used intravesically to improve bladder-tumor treatment. Mice-bearing MB49 orthotopic bladder-tumors treated with intravesical Ty21a or BCG were compared for survival and bacteria recovery...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161459/peptide-microarray-based-characterization-of-antibody-responses-to-host-proteins-after-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination
#4
REVIEW
Davide Valentini, Martin Rao, Lalit Rane, Sayma Rahman, Rebecca Axelsson-Robertson, Rainer Heuchel, Matthias Löhr, Daniel Hoft, Susanna Brighenti, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the world's most widely distributed vaccine, used against tuberculosis (TB), in cancer immunotherapy, and in autoimmune diseases due to its immunomodulatory properties. To date, the effect of BCG vaccination on antibody responses to host proteins has not been reported. High-content peptide microarrays (HCPM) offer a unique opportunity to gauge specific humoral immune responses. METHODS: The sera of BCG-vaccinated healthy adults were tested on a human HCPM platform (4953 randomly selected epitopes of human proteins) to detect specific immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) responses...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134806/systemic-immunotherapy-for-urothelial-cancer-current-trends-and-future-directions
#5
REVIEW
Shilpa Gupta, David Gill, Austin Poole, Neeraj Agarwal
Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens...
January 27, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111042/-immunotherapy-in-uropathology
#6
Virginie Verkarre, Hélène Roussel, Clémence Granier, Eric Tartour, Yves Allory
The algorithms for treatment of metastatic cancers are evolving due to positive results obtained with immunotherapy. Therapeutics approaches to stimulate the immune system have already been used in the treatment of kidney and bladder cancer, such as the administration of cytokines and BCG therapy, confirming the immunogenicity of these tumors. The aim of immunotherapies is not only to activate the immune system against tumor cells, but also to take into account the tumor-induced suppressive microenvironment, in particular by removing the anergy of T-cell lymphocytes, and by targeting the co-stimulation inhibitors molecules...
February 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043633/development-of-escherichia-coli-and-mycobacterium-smegmatis-recombinants-expressing-major-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-antigenic-proteins
#7
Hanady A Amoudy, Hussain A Safar, Abu S Mustafa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate pathogenic bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of most tuberculosis (TB) cases. Until today, the only approved TB vaccine is Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), which has been used since 1921. While BCG provides fairly effective protection for infants and young children, its efficacy in adults is variable around the world. This could be due to several parameters including strains of the vaccine and exposure of individuals to different environmental bacterial infections...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987237/bladder-cancer-cells-induce-immunosuppression-of-t-cells-by-supporting-pd-l1-expression-in-tumour-macrophages-partially-through-interleukin-10
#8
Xingyuan Wang, Shaobin Ni, Qiyin Chen, Li Ma, Zhixing Jiao, Chunyang Wang, Guang Jia
Immunotherapy based on BCG vaccination is an effective treatment in bladder cancer, but a positive response is restricted to a subset of patients and for a limited period of time only. This suggests that T cells antitumour responses are effective but can become compromised in bladder cancer. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we first identified peripheral blood monocytes and tumour macrophages using the pan-monocyte/macrophage marker CD14, and found that the PD-L1 expression on the monocytes/macrophages in bladder cancer patients was significantly higher than that in controls...
February 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960233/iatrogenic-changes-in-the-urinary-tract
#9
REVIEW
Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Gladell P Paner, Rodolfo Montironi, Maria R Raspollini, Liang Cheng
A handful of therapeutic procedures are used to treat malignancies of the urinary tract, most frequently intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy, but also neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy. These treatment modalities produce morphological changes in the urothelium that can be mistaken for carcinoma; in particular, these therapies frequently mimic urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) urothelial dysplasia or true invasive neoplasia. Drugs such as mitomycin C used after transurethral resection of bladder tumour to reduce recurrences, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical immunotherapy to treat high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and urothelial CIS and platin-based systemic chemotherapy to improve postcystectomy disease-specific survival are examples of therapy-related atypia seen in the urinary tract...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893591/endophthalmitis-in-a-patient-treated-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy
#10
Julie Vadboncoeur, Sébastien Olivier, Hafid Soualhine, Annie-Claude Labbé, Marie-Lyne Bélair
BACKGROUND: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation has become one of the mainstays of adjunctive therapy in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Ophthalmologic complications are rare, but few cases are reported in the literature. METHODS: Retrospective observational case report. RESULTS: The authors report a case of unilateral Mycobacterium bovis BCG endophthalmitis after intravesical BCG instillations. Despite appropriate systemic antituberculous and corticosteroid therapy, the patient almost completely lost sight in the affected eye...
November 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846935/-ccafu-french-national-guidelines-2016-2018-on-bladder-cancer
#11
M Rouprêt, Y Neuzillet, A Masson-Lecomte, P Colin, E Compérat, F Dubosq, N Houédé, S Larré, G Pignot, P Puech, M Roumiguié, E Xylinas, A Méjean
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the guidelines national committee CCAFU on bladder cancer was to propose updated french guidelines for non-muscle invasive (NMIBC) and invasive (MIBC) bladder cancers. METHODS: A Medline search was achieved between 2013 and 2016, as regards diagnosis, options of treatment and follow-up of bladder cancer, to evaluate different references with levels of evidence. RESULTS: Diagnosis of NMIBC (Ta, T1, CIS) is based on a complete deep resection of the tumour...
November 2016: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833923/low-dose-bcg-infection-as-a-model-for-macrophage-activation-maintaining-cell-viability
#12
Leslie Chávez-Galán, Dominique Vesin, Denis Martinvalet, Irene Garcia
Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine against tuberculosis, is ingested by macrophages promoting the development of effector functions including cell death and microbicidal mechanisms. Despite accumulating reports on M. tuberculosis, mechanisms of BCG/macrophage interaction remain relatively undefined. In vivo, few bacilli are sufficient to establish a mycobacterial infection; however, in vitro studies systematically use high mycobacterium doses. In this study, we analyze macrophage/BCG interactions and microenvironment upon infection with low BCG doses and propose an in vitro model to study cell activation without affecting viability...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803478/development-of-a-drug-delivery-system-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#13
Takashi Nakamura
 Delivery systems are a powerful technology for enhancing the effect of cancer immunotherapy. We have been in the process of developing lipid-based delivery systems for controlling the physical properties and dynamics of immunofunctional molecules such as antigens and adjuvants. The lipid nanoparticulation of these molecules improves their physical properties, resulting in a good water dispensability, greater stability, and small size. The cell wall skeleton of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG-CWS) could be used to replace live BCG as a drug for treating bladder cancer, but problems associated with the physical properties of BCG-CWS have prevented its use...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785423/immunotherapy-in-urothelial-carcinoma-fade-or-future-standard
#14
REVIEW
Johannes Breyer, Maximilian Burger, Wolfgang Otto
Immunotherapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma by Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation is a well-established treatment option since decades. Despite this fact, the immunocellular basis was first studied in recent years. New aspects of immunotherapy, also for progressed bladder carcinoma, might follow promising research on immunological targets.
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775397/dynamical-properties-and-tumor-clearance-conditions-for-a-nine-dimensional-model-of-bladder-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
K E Starkov, Svetlana Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky
Understanding the global interaction dynamics between tumor and the immune system plays a key role in the advancement of cancer therapy. Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky et al. (2015) developed a mathematical model for the study of the immune system response to combined therapy for bladder cancer with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) . We utilized a mathematical approach for bladder cancer treatment model for derivation of ultimate upper and lower bounds and proving dissipativity property in the sense of Levinson...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750214/genomic-characterization-of-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#16
Joshua J Meeks, Benedito A Carneiro, Sachin G Pai, Daniel T Oberlin, Alfred Rademaker, Kyle Fedorchak, Sohail Balasubramanian, Julia Elvin, Nike Beaubier, Francis J Giles
The genetic mechanisms associated with progression of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC) have not been described. We conducted selective next-generation sequencing (NGS) of HR-NMIBC and compared the genomic profiles of cancers that responded to intravesical therapy and those that progressed to muscle-invasive or advanced disease. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded sections from 25 HR-NMIBCs (22 with T1HG; 3 with TaHG with or without carcinoma in situ). Ten patients with HR-NMIBC developed progression (pT2+ or N+) ("progressors")...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676732/total-hip-arthroplasty-infection-due-to-mycobacterium-bovis-after-bcg-therapy
#17
Alban Fouasson-Chailloux, Benoit Metayer, Pierre Menu, Lydie Khatchatourian, Joelle Glemarec, Marc Dauty
OBJECTIVE: The loosening of total joint replacement is a frequent complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Septic osteolysis should always be feared. We report here a rare case of hip arthroplasty infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy in a context of bladder cancer. OBSERVATIONS: A 70-year-old man was referred to the department of rheumatology in September 2015, because of a total functional disability of the left lower limb...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647081/mitomycin-c-new-strategies-to-improve-efficacy-of-a-well-known-therapy
#18
Mauro Ragonese, Marco Racioppi, Pier Francesco Bassi, Luca Di Gianfrancesco, Niccolò Lenci, Alessio Filianoti, Salvatore M Recupero
Mitomycin C (MMC) as an intravesical chemotherapeutic agent is a well-known option for treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence; it is probably the most commonly used agent given its low rate of side effects and its efficacy.Both the American Urologic Association (AUA) and European Association of Urology (EAU) consider MMC as a standard treatment for immediate single-dose postoperative treatment and for adjuvant therapy in low and intermediate-risk NMIBC.Despite the popularity of this agent in the treatment of NMIBCs, many questions regarding the optimal approach to MMC therapy remain unanswered and the schedule widely used is empirical...
October 4, 2016: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563657/immunobiology-and-immunotherapy-in-genitourinary-malignancies
#19
REVIEW
Marinos Tsiatas, Petros Grivas
Immunotherapy has traditionally been a critical component of the cancer treatment armamentarium in genitourinary (GU) cancers. It has an established role in the management of carefully selected patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [e.g., high dose interleukin-2 (IL-2)] and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) [e.g., intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)]. In 2010, the sipuleucel-T vaccine was approved by the FDA for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), based on a phase III trial showing overall survival (OS) benefit compared to placebo...
July 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525288/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-activation-of-dendritic-cells-and-neutrophils-depends-on-the-dose-and-time-of-exposure
#20
Shirong Cai, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Juwita N Rahmat, Sin Mun Tham, Boon Huat Bay, Yuan Kun Lee, Ratha Mahendran
This study evaluates the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) to activate DC and neutrophils and modulate T cell activation and the impact of bacterial dose on these responses. Murine bone marrow derived DC or neutrophils were stimulated with LGG at ratios of 5 : 1, 10 : 1, and 100 : 1 (LGG : cells) and DC maturation (CD40, CD80, CD86, CD83, and MHC class II) and cytokine production (IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12p70) were examined after 2 h and 18 h coculture and compared to the ability of BCG (the present immunotherapeutic agent for bladder cancer) to stimulate these cells...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
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