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Jasmin Herz, Antoine Louveau, Sandro Da Mesquita, Jonathan Kipnis
The study of meningeal lymphatic vessels of the central nervous system (CNS) has recently gathered momentum, with several papers dissecting their role in draining solutes from cerebrospinal fluid and brain (Louveau et al., Nature 523(7560):337-341, 2015; Antila et al., J Exp Med 214(12):3645-3667, 2017; Aspelund et al., J Exp Med 212(7):991-999, 2015). Methodological capabilities, however, have been limited to few laboratories due to difficulties reproducibly visualizing these rare cell subsets in the meninges...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alexander Hofmann, Sabine Opitz, Christoph Eckhard Heyde, Nicolas Heinz von der Höh
BACKGROUND: We present a rare case of Paget's disease (PD) with involvement of the lumbar spine over a period of 19 years. We discuss the diagnostic process to rule out alternative diagnoses and medical and surgical treatment strategies. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old man first diagnosed with PD in 1998 with solid involvement of the 4th lumbar vertebra has been undergoing periodic examinations over a period of 18 years. Since then, the patient has been treated conservatively with bisphosphonates...
September 21, 2018: European Spine Journal
Yoshitomo Saita, Herbert Schoenhuber, Gabriele Thiébat, Giovanni Ravasio, Roberto Pozzoni, Andrea Panzeri, Marco Galli, Masashi Nagao, Yuji Takazawa, Hiroshi Ikeda, Kazuo Kaneko
PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with quantified rotatory stability (pivot-shift phenomenon) in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injured knee joint. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 54 patients who were diagnosed with an ACL injury and admitted to our hospital to undergo ACL reconstruction were enrolled in this study. Antero-lateral rotatory laxity of the knee joint was quantified using a Kinematic Rapid Assessment device (KiRA; Orthokey LTD) under spinal block before initiating reconstruction of the ACL...
September 21, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Susan J Harkema, Bonnie Legg Ditterline, Siqi Wang, Sevda Aslan, Claudia A Angeli, Alexander Ovechkin, Glenn A Hirsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Bastien Paré, Manuela Lehmann, Marie Beaudin, Ulrika Nordström, Stephan Saikali, Jean-Pierre Julien, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Stefan L Marklund, Neil R Cashman, Peter M Andersen, Karin Forsberg, Nicolas Dupré, Peter Gould, Thomas Brännström, François Gros-Louis
Aggregation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a pathological hallmark of a subset of familial ALS patients. However, the possible role of misfolded wild type SOD1 in human ALS is highly debated. To ascertain whether or not misfolded SOD1 is a common pathological feature in non-SOD1 ALS, we performed a blinded histological and biochemical analysis of post mortem brain and spinal cord tissues from 19 sporadic ALS, compared with a SOD1 A4V patient as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-neurological controls...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vladimir Makaloski, Tilo Kölbel, Fiona Rohlffs, Christian A Behrendt, Yuk Law, Eike S Debus, Nikolaos Tsilimparis
AIM: To compare early outcome after complex endovascular aortic repair in octogenarians (age ≥ 80 years) versus non-octogenarians (age < 80 years) treated with fenestrated or branched stent grafts. METHODS: Single centre retrospective analysis from a prospectively collected database of all patients undergoing repair with fenestrated or branched stent grafts for para/suprarenal aortic aneurysm, type Ia endoleak after previous endovascular aortic repair, and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm between January 2015 and December 2017...
September 18, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Najat Dzaki, Wahidah Wahab, Azali Azlan, Ghows Azzam
CTP Synthase (CTPS) is a metabolic enzyme that is recognized as a catalyst for nucleotide, phospholipid and sialoglycoprotein production. Though the structural characteristics and regulatory mechanisms of CTPS are well-understood, little is known regarding the extent of its involvement during the early developmental stages of vertebrates. Zebrafish carries two CTPS genes, annotated as ctps1a and ctps1b. Phylogenetic analyses show that both genes had diverged from homologues in the ancestral Actinopterygii, Oreochromis niloticus...
September 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yi Wang, Minhao Chen
Large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) is a serine/threonine kinase of the AGC kinase family in mammals and involved in various biological processes, it is a key regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of LATS1 in central nervous system trauma is still unknown. In present study, we performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of LATS1 expression in the spinal cord. We found that LATS1 protein levels were significantly decreased at day 1 after injury...
September 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ning Li, Songshan Shi, Feifei Yang, Hongwei Wang, Juan Su, Fei Huang, Hui Wu, Xiaojun Wu, Shunchun Wang
Eclipta prostrata has long been used as a medicinal herb in China. EAP20-1, a homogeneous polysaccharide with anti-complementary activity had been obtained from E. prostrate by using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. In this study, we found that EAP20-1 could inhibit in vitro lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin-A or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies. Furthermore, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, EAP20-1 treatment relieved the clinical symptoms, accompanied by reduced neuroinflammation and demyelination in spinal cords...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Heng Jiang, Fu Yang, Tao Lin, Wei Shao, Yichen Meng, Jun Ma, Ce Wang, Rui Gao, Xuhui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common paediatric spinal deformity. The etiology and pathology of AIS remain unexplained, and have been reported to involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic factors. Since paravertebral muscle imbalance plays an important role in the onset and progression of scoliosis, we aimed to investigate transcriptomic differences by RNA-seq and identify significantly differentially expressed transcripts in two sides of paravertebral muscle in AIS...
September 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine
Xiang-Yu Li, Shi-Bao Lu, Xiang-Yao Sun, Chao Kong, Ma-Chao Guo, Si-Yuan Sun, Jun-Zhe Ding, Yi-Ming Yang
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether clinical characteristics and signal and morphologic changes on magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spinal cord (SC) are associated with surgical outcomes for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 113 consecutive patients with cervical myelopathy underwent cervical decompression surgery in our hospital from January 2015 to January 2018. All patients with preoperative MR images available for review were recruited for this study...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Barbara Mierzejewska-Krzyżowska, Jan Celichowski, Dorota Bukowska
There are many reports describing sexual dissimilarities in the CNS, particularly in the brain and cortical regions. However, knowledge regarding sexual dissimilarities in the spinal cord and in particular in the hindlimb muscle-motoneuron connectivity controlling locomotion is limited. In order to recognise sex differences in the architecture of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor nucleus in rats of the same age, retrograde-labelled motoneurons were identified following a bath of the proximal stump of the transected MG nerve in horseradish peroxidase...
September 18, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Hitoshi Yamahata, Jun Sugata, Masanao Mori, Tadaaki Niiro, Masanori Yonenaga, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takaaki Hiwatari, Tomohisa Okada, Kazunori Arita, Koji Yoshimoto
OBJECTIVE: The Cobb angle between the lower endplate of C2 and C7 (C2L-C7L angle) is a traditional parameter used for the assessment of the cervical alignment. However, when the lower cervical column is masked by the shoulder, measurements are difficult. In the present study, we inspected 191 X-ray films, measured the Cobb angle between C2L and the endplates at the several levels of the lower cervical column, and assessed their usefulness of such measurements for the determination of cervical sagittal alignment...
September 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Thomas Cattagni, Jonathan Harnie, Marc Jubeau, Elyse Hucteau, Catherine Couturier, Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Thibault Deschamps, Gilles Berrut, Christophe Cornu
Plantar-flexor muscles are key muscles in the control of postural sway. Older fallers present lower maximal plantar-flexor performance than older non-fallers; however, the mechanisms underlying this motor impairment remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether muscular and neural factors are both involved in the lower maximal plantar-flexor performance of older fallers. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, resting twitch torque, voluntary activation level (VAL), and electromyographic (EMG) activities for the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior during plantar-flexor MVCs were recorded in 23 older non-fallers (age: 83...
September 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Ryan Patel, Anthony H Dickenson
Descending brainstem control of spinal nociceptive processing permits a dynamic and adaptive modulation of ascending sensory information. Chronic pain states are frequently associated with enhanced descending excitatory drive mediated predominantly through serotonergic neurones in the rostral ventromedial medulla. In this study, we examine the roles of spinal 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors in modulating ascending sensory output in normal and neuropathic states. In vivo electrophysiology was performed in anaesthetised spinal nerve ligated (SNL) and sham-operated rats to record from wide dynamic range neurones in the ventral posterolateral thalamus...
September 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Haiping Xu, Baisong Zhao, Yingjun She, Xingrong Song
Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2 adrenergic agonist, has been shown to have neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we used a rat model of spinal neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal administration of lidocaine. Four days after intrathecal catheter implantation, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of various doses of dexmedetomidine before an intrathecal injection of 20 µL 10% lidocaine. Dexmedetomidine-pretreated rats were also exposed to a selective α2 -adrenergic antagonist (yohimbine) or a specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Gö 6983) that selectively inhibits several PKC isoforms...
September 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Ilona Hübner, Jacek Hübner, Sławomir Kroczka
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, incurable, neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neuron, which inevitably leads to the impaired fitness of patients and therefore deterioration of their quality of life. AIM: The aim of the study was a comparative assessment of two forms of ALS in terms of limb function and electrophysiological parameters of peripheral nerves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 persons participated in the study, where 10 suffered from bulbar-onset ALS and 10 had limb-onset ALS...
August 29, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Junko Ito, Tetsuro Shimada, Mari Tada, Hiroshi Shimizu, Masatoshi Wakabayashi, Akio Yokoseki, Osamu Onodera, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita
We report the clinicopathologic features of 2 unrelated patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) supported by tracheostomy and invasive ventilation (TIV) who were able to maintain communication ability for more than 30 years after disease onset. In both cases, the age at onset was younger than the mean, initially the progression of muscle weakness was consistent with that in the majority of SALS patients, and TIV became necessary several years after disease onset. Thereafter, however, their neurologic deterioration slowed and the patients were able to operate computers by facial movements for several decades...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Jared Fridley, Ziya Gokaslan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Hannah K Shorrock, Dinja van der Hoorn, Penelope J Boyd, Maica Llavero Hurtado, Douglas J Lamont, Brunhilde Wirth, James N Sleigh, Giampietro Schiavo, Thomas M Wishart, Ewout J N Groen, Thomas H Gillingwater
Deafferentation of motor neurons as a result of defective sensory-motor connectivity is a critical early event in the pathogenesis of spinal muscular atrophy, but the underlying molecular pathways remain unknown. We show that restoration of ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 (UBA1) was sufficient to correct sensory-motor connectivity in the spinal cord of mice with spinal muscular atrophy. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, including GARS, were identified as downstream targets of UBA1. Regulation of GARS by UBA1 occurred via a non-canonical pathway independent of ubiquitylation...
September 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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