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Nicolina E Savvaidou, Lazaros C Triarhou
Professor Emil Redlich (1866-1930) of the University of Vienna was born 150 years ago. Raised in a humble environment, he became an eminent researcher and neurology scholar, and succeeded in laying some of the key foundations of neuroanatomy and neuropathology. His name is linked to medical eponyms that define the dorsal root entry zone into the spinal cord, epidemic disseminated encephalomyelitis, narcolepsy, senile plaques and dementia. As its first director, he managed to organize the Maria-Theresien-Schlössel into a first-class neuropsychiatric hospital...
October 21, 2016: European Neurology
Gang Bao, Chuankun Li, Lei Qi, Ning Wang, Baixiang He
Tetrandrine (TET) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, which is isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TET on oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/reoxygenation (OGSD/R)-induced injury in rat spinal cord astrocytes, which mimics hypoxic/ischemic conditions in vivo. MTT and LDH assays indicated that cell viability was distinctly reduced and LDH leakage was elevated after OGSD/R exposure, which were dose-dependently reversed by pretreatment with TET (0...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tsuyoshi Goto, Toshinori Sakai, Tetsuya Enishi, Nori Sato, Koji Komatsu, Koichi Sairyo, Shinsuke Katoh
Neurogenic intermittent claudication is a main symptom in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), and postural change is often observed during walking. This study aimed to identify the changes in posture and muscle activity in the trunk and legs during walking in patients with LSS by examining 6 patients who had undergone decompression surgery. None of them had significant paralysis. Gait analysis using Vicon motion capture system(®) with electromyographic recordings of the paravertebral muscles (PVM) and vastus lateralis muscle (VL) was performed preoperatively and 2 weeks postoperatively...
October 6, 2016: Gait & Posture
Mitsuhiro Nishida, Takeo Nagura, Nobuyuki Fujita, Naobumi Hosogane, Takashi Tsuji, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kota Watanabe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural, lateral curvature with rotation of the spine that develops around puberty. The influence of this spinal deformity on three-dimensional trunk movements during gait has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spinal curve pattern (single thoracic curve vs. single lumbar curve) on trunk kinematics during gait. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with a single thoracic curve (Lenke type 1) and 17 patients with a single lumbar curve (Lenke type 5) were included in this study...
October 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
K Kasarełło, A Szczepankowska, B Kwiatkowska-Patzer, A W Lipkowski, R Gadamski, D Sulejczak, M Łachwa, M Biały, J Bardowski
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune neurodegenerative disease with an unknown etiology. Despite various therapies, there is no effective cure for MS. Since the mechanism of the disease is based on autoreactive T-cell responses directed against myelin antigens, oral tolerance is a promising approach for the MS treatment. Here, the experiments were performed to assess the impact of oral administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis producing encephalogenic fragments of three myelin proteins: myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, on neuroimmunological changes in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) - an animal model of MS...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Hai-Juan Liu, Hua Yan, Jun Yan, Hao Li, Liang Chen, Li-Ren Han, Xiao-Fei Yang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB) in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI...
2016: PloS One
Jou-Ku Chung, Eilish Brown, Bob Crooker, Kathleen J Palmieri, Thomas G McCauley
Enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous idursulfase (recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase) is approved for the treatment of Hunter syndrome. Intravenous administration does not, however, treat the neurological manifestations, due to its low central nervous system bioavailability. Using intrathecal-lumbar administration, iduronate-2-sulfatase is delivered directly to the central nervous system. This study investigates the central nervous system biodistribution of intrathecal-lumbar administered iduronate-2-sulfatase in cynomolgus monkeys...
2016: PloS One
Nam-Su Chung, Chang-Hoon Jeon, Han-Dong Lee, Suk-Hyeong Won
STUDY DESIGN: This was a radiographic validity and reliability study. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the validity and reliability of measurements made on standing lateral lumbar radiographs, compared with lateral whole-spine radiographs, for evaluating spinopelvic parameters and lumbar lordosis (LL). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A lateral whole-spine radiograph is the gold standard image for measurement of spinopelvic parameters. However, little evidence is available on the reliability of measurements made on such radiograph...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Kenichiro Kakutani, Yoshitada Sakai, Koichiro Maeno, Toru Takada, Takashi Yurube, Takuto Kurakawa, Shingo Miyazaki, Yoshiki Terashima, Masaaki Ito, Hitomi Hara, Teruya Kawamoto, Yasuo Ejima, Akihiro Sakashita, Naomi Kiyota, Yoshiyuki Kizawa, Ryohei Sasaki, Toshihro Akisue, Hironobu Minami, Ryosuke Kuroda, Masahiro Kurosaka, Kotaro Nishida
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of performance status (PS) and activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with spinal metastasis. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of spinal surgery on PS and ADL in patients with spinal metastasis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal metastasis causes severe neurological deficits, resulting in drastic loss of patients' PS and ADL. However, the effect of spine surgery on PS and ADL is not well known...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
John I Shin, Kevin Phan, Parth Kothari, Jun S Kim, Javier Z Guzman, Samuel K Cho
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of administrative database. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of glycemic control on surgical outcomes of middle-aged and elderly idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a condition thought to adversely affect outcomes of spine surgery. However, no study has stratified glycemic control levels and their impact on outcome for idiopathic scoliosis patients receiving a spinal fusion surgery...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Ruyi Huang, Serapio M Baca, Jason W Worrell, Xingquan Liu, Yeji Seo, James C Leiter, Daniel C Lu
Respiration is produced and controlled by well-characterized brainstem nuclei, but the contributions of spinal circuits to respiratory control and modulation remain under investigation. Many respiratory studies are conducted in in vitro preparations (e.g., brainstem slice) obtained from neonatal rodents. While informative, these studies do not fully recapitulate the complex afferent and efferent neural circuits that are likely to be involved in eupnea (i.e., quiet breathing). To begin to investigate spinal contributions to respiration, we electrically stimulated the cervical spinal cord during unassisted respiration in anesthetized, intact mice...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Michelle Hook, Sarah Woller, Eric Bancroft, Miriam Aceves, Mary Katherine Funk, John Hartman, Sandra M Garraway
Opioids and NSAIDs are commonly used to manage pain in the early phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite its analgesic efficacy, however, our studies suggest that intrathecal (i.t.) morphine undermines locomotor recovery and increases lesion size in a rodent model of SCI. Similarly, intravenous (i.v.) morphine attenuates locomotor recovery. The current study explores whether i.v. morphine also increases lesion size after a spinal contusion (T12) injury, and quantifies the cell types that are affected by early opioid administration...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Marie-Pascale Côté, Marion Murray, Michel A Lemay
Body-weight supported locomotor training (BWST) promotes recovery of load-bearing stepping in lower mammals, but its efficacy in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited and highly dependent on injury severity. While animal models with complete spinal transections recover stepping with step-training, motor complete SCI individuals do not, despite similarly intensive training. In this review, we examine the significant differences between humans and animal models that may explain this discrepancy in the results obtained with BWST...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
K Mugundhan, Rajesh Shankar Iyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Akira Ikumi, Shigeki Kubota, Yukiyo Shimizu, Hideki Kadone, Aiki Marushima, Tomoyuki Ueno, Hiroaki Kawamoto, Yasushi Hada, Akira Matsumura, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki
CONTEXT: Recently, locomotor training with robotic assistance has been found effective in treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Our case report examined locomotor training using the robotic suit hybrid assistive limb (HAL) in a patient with complete C4 quadriplegia due to chronic SCI. This is the first report examining HAL in complete C4 quadriplegia. FINDINGS: The patient was a 19-year-old man who dislocated C3/4 during judo 4 years previously. Following the injury, he underwent C3/4 posterior spinal fusion but remained paralyzed despite rehabilitation...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Özlem Taşoğlu, Engin Koyuncu, Rabia Daylak, Derya Yumuşak Karacif, Zerrin I Nce, Didem Yenigün, Neşe Özgirgin
OBJECTIVE: To define the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons with spinal cord injury, rehabilitated in a primary referral rehabilitation center in Turkey. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Methods: Medical records of all patients with spinal cord injury (acute-subacute-chronic) at a single academic referral center over the course of one year were reviewed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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