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George Fokas, Li Ma, Vasilios Chronopoulos, Martin Janda, Nikos Mattheos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Evidence for micromorphology and precision of fit of third-party prosthetic components compared with the original manufacturer's components is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro pilot study was to evaluate the micromorphological differences among different commercial brands of zirconia, titanium, and gold abutments for dental implants in terms of tight surface contact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The following abutments (n=3 per type) were preloaded on Straumann Bone Level implants according to the manufacturer's instructions for zirconia (Zr, Zr2, Zr3), titanium (Ti and Ti2), and gold (Gold 1, Gold 2)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Gunjan S Aswal, Shashi K Mohanram, Chandrasekharan K Nair, Vishwanath Gurumurthy, Renu Rawat
Facial contractures caused by burns can collapse the nasal aperture and lead to airway obstruction. Management in such situations requires surgical and prosthetic intervention. Prosthetically, although a nasal conformer is the treatment of choice, even a well-fabricated nasal conformer may be esthetically unappealing and require an aid for enhanced retention. Expensive implant-aided conformers are not always a viable option. This article introduces a technique for fabricating a nasal conformer that is both esthetically appealing and cost-effective...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Zaid Ali, Sarah R Baker, Shirin Shahrbaf, Nicolas Martin, Mario V Vettore
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Clinicians are currently unable to quantify the psychosocial, functional, and esthetic effects of prosthetic interventions to replace teeth. Understanding the effects of treatment to replace teeth on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is important for informed consent. A systematic review of the evidence of OHRQoL improvements with prosthodontic tooth replacement and a comparison of outcomes between treatment modalities is therefore indicated. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the OHRQoL of patients with partial edentulism after different dental prosthetic treatments...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Anju Yadav, Pouya Alijanipour, Colin T Ackerman, Siddharth Karanth, William J Hozack, Edward J Filippone
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) can complicate primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip and knee, although the incidence of AKI following revision TJA including prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is poorly defined. We assessed the incidence and risk factors for AKI following revision TJA including surgical treatment of PJI with placement of an antibiotic-loaded cement (ALC) spacer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 3218 consecutive failed TJAs. Patients with aseptic failure were compared to those with PJI...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Hani Sbitany
Breast reconstruction is offered to women undergoing mastectomy or breast conservation, given its safe nature and highly aesthetic reconstructive outcomes. Breast implants are safe, offer flexibility of sizes and projections, and shorter recovery. Autologous flaps allow women to avoid prosthetic devices, using skin and fat to replace breast tissue. The increasing frequency of nipple-sparing mastectomy, autologous fat grafting, use of acellular dermal matrices, and prepectoral prosthetic reconstruction have enhanced aesthetic outcomes...
August 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
Manoj Gopal Madakshira, Amanjit Bal, ShivaPrakash, Manish Rathi, Rajesh Vijayvergiya
Candida parapsilosis is a rare cause of endocarditis, which is seen to affect the native valves in patients who are known intravenous drug abusers or following contamination during surgery for prosthetic valves. We discuss a unique constellation of autopsy findings in a 35-year-old chronic opium abuser who presented with left-sided weakness followed by low-grade fever. He was diagnosed to have C. parapsilosis native valve endocarditis with septic emboli involving the myocardial vessels, left middle cerebral artery, spleen, and common iliac artery...
June 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Jennifer L Hsu, Udit Bhatnagar, Maria Stys, Wendell Hoffman
We present the case of a 64-year-old man with Mycobacterium chimaera prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis likely acquired through exposure to a contaminated heater-cooler device used for cardiopulmonary bypass during valve replacement. This case demonstrates multi-system involvement with a non-tuberculous mycobacterial species that was previously not considered a significant human pathogen. We review the key features of the case and review published literature regarding an international outbreak of M. chimaera arising from point-source contamination during the manufacturing process...
June 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Udayan Ghosh, Shen Ning, Yuzhu Wang, Yong Lin Kong
Recent advances in 3D printing have enabled the creation of novel 3D constructs and devices with an unprecedented level of complexity, properties, and functionalities. In contrast to manufacturing techniques developed for mass production, 3D printing encompasses a broad class of fabrication technologies that can enable 1) the creation of highly customized and optimized 3D physical architectures from digital designs; 2) the synergistic integration of properties and functionalities of distinct classes of materials to create novel hybrid devices; and 3) a biocompatible fabrication approach that facilitates the creation and cointegration of biological constructs and systems...
July 13, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Kejia Hu, Mohsen Jamali, Ziev B Moses, Carlos A Ortega, Gabriel N Friedman, Wendong Xu, Ziv M Williams
Motor deficit is among the most debilitating aspects of injury to the central nervous system. Despite ongoing progress in brain-machine interface (BMI) development and in the functional electrical stimulation of muscles and nerves, little is understood about how neural signals in the brain may be used to potentially control movement in one's own unconstrained paralyzed limb. We recorded from high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of a rhesus macaque and used real-time motion tracking techniques to correlate spatial-temporal changes in neural activity with arm movements made towards objects in three-dimensional space at millisecond precision...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chiara Cosenza, Vincenzo Niola, Sergio Savino
The dynamical behavior study of a mechanical hand is a fundamental issue to verify its possible application as a prosthetic hand. Simulation approaches are widely used to predict the dynamics of mechanical components. In the context of mechanical hands, the multibody model represents a useful tool to predict the finger dynamics and therefore the phalanx rotations before the prototyping. The phalanx rotations drive the finger closure sequence and, consequently, influence the grasping ability of the whole mechanical hand...
July 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
J C Martín Del Olmo, M Toledano, M L Martín Esteban, M A Montenegro, J R Gómez, P Concejo, M Rodríguez de Castro, F Del Rio
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is an increasing medical problem with complex diagnostics and controversial surgical management. It causes a series of dysfunctions in the gynecological, urinary, and anorectal organs. Numerous procedures have been proposed to treat these conditions, but in recent years, ventral mesh rectocolposacropexy (VMRCS) has emerged as the procedure of choice for the surgical treatment of POP, especially by a laparoscopic approach. This surgical technique limits the risk of autonomic nerve damage, and the colpopexy allows the correction of concomitant prolapse of the middle compartment...
July 11, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Mauro Cerea, Giorgio Andrea Dolcini
Purpose: To present a digital technique for the fabrication of custom-made subperiosteal implants and to report on the survival and complication rates encountered when using these fixtures. Methods: The data used for this retrospective clinical study were derived from the medical records of five different private dental practices. Inclusion criteria were patients over the age of 60, treated with custom-made direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) titanium subperiosteal implants (Eagle-Grid®, BTK, Dueville, Vicenza) during a two-year period (2014-2015) and restored with fixed restorations; all enrolled patients needed to have complete pre- and postoperative clinical and radiographic documentation, with at least 2 years of follow-up...
2018: BioMed Research International
Wenjuan Zhang, Sun Myoung Kim, Wenwen Wang, Cuiyuan Cai, Yong Feng, Weijia Kong, Xi Lin
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) affects millions of people. Genetic mutations play a large and direct role in both congenital and late-onset cases of SNHL (e.g., age-dependent hearing loss, ADHL). Although hearing aids can help moderate to severe hearing loss the only effective treatment for deaf patients is the cochlear implant (CI). Gene- and cell-based therapies potentially may preserve or restore hearing with more natural sound perception, since their theoretical frequency resolution power is much higher than that of cochlear implants...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
P Girard, I Hassan-Farah, C S Bich, C Charpail, S Rigal, L Mathieu
Management of acute compartment syndrome is well known and based on emergent and generous fasciotomies. In absence of such fasciotomies, or if they are performed too late, the compartment syndrome leads to a Volkmann's syndrome or to a dramatic septic myonecrosis raising the question of an amputation. However, salvage treatment of these extreme clinical presentations may be preferable at the upper extremity, particularly in developing countries where access to sophisticated prosthetic devices is limited. The authors report four typical observations about management of upper extremity delayed compartment syndromes with severe infectious complications...
May 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Takashi Zaitsu, Tomoya Saito, Yoko Kawaguchi
This paper describes the present Japanese oral healthcare system and outlines the future challenges and perspectives for Japan. Japan has developed a system for providing high-quality and appropriate health care efficiently through a universal health insurance system which has been in operation since 1961. This health insurance covers most restorative, prosthetic and oral surgery treatment. Therefore, all people can receive dental treatment at a relatively low cost, with the same fees applying throughout the nation...
July 10, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Levon Doursounian, Julien Gaillard, Adeline Cambon-Binder, David Zbili, Alain Sautet
PURPOSE: Hemiarthroplasty (HA) for proximal humerus fracture (PHF) is associated with tuberosity complications like migration, non-union, and resorption. In order to improve the rate of consolidation of the greater tuberosity (GT), we have developed a hollow humeral head prosthesis in which the whole humeral head is inserted and used as autograft. This study is designed to evaluate the consolidation rate of the GT with this device. METHOD: Twenty-two patients at mean age of 68 were treated between 2015 and 2017 for four-part fractures, fracture-dislocations, and head-split fractures with HA including the bony humeral head...
July 11, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Mohamed Aboseria, Francesco Clemente, Leonard F Engels, Christian Cipriani
In the case of a hand amputation, the affected can use myoelectric prostheses to substitute the missing limb and regain motor functionality. Unfortunately, these prostheses do not restore sensory feedback, thus users are forced to rely on vision to avoid object slippage. This is cognitively taxing, as it requires continuous attention to the task. Thus, providing functionally effective sensory feedback is pivotal to reduce the occurrence of slip events and reduce the users' cognitive burden. However, only a few studies investigated which kind of feedback is the most effective for this purpose, mostly using unrealistic experimental scenarios...
June 29, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Lizhi Pan, Dustin L Crouch, He Helen Huang
This study aimed to develop a novel electromyography (EMG)-based neural-machine interface (NMI) that is user-generic for continuously predicting coordinated motion between metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist flexion/extension. The NMI requires a minimum calibration procedure that only involves capturing maximal voluntary muscle contraction for the monitored muscles for individual users. At the center of the NMI is a user-generic musculoskeletal model based on the experimental data collected from 6 able-bodied (AB) subjects and 9 different upper limb postures...
May 18, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Kathryn M Olesnavage, V Amos G Winter
This study presents a novel framework that quantitatively connects the mechanical design of a prosthetic foot to its anticipated biomechanical performance. The framework uses kinetic inputs (ground reaction forces and center of pressure) to predict kinematic outputs of the lower leg segment by knowing the geometry and stiffness of the foot. The error between the predicted and target kinematics is evaluated using a root-mean-square error function called the Lower Leg Trajectory Error (LLTE). Using physiological kinetic inputs and kinematic targets, three model foot architectures were optimized to minimize the LLTE...
June 18, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Matteo Rossi, Matteo Bianchi, Edoardo Battaglia, Manuel Giuseppe Catalano, Antonio Bicchi
OBJECTIVE: Myolectric hand prostheses have reached a considerable technological level and gained an increasing attention in assistive robotics. However, their abandonment rate remains high, with unintuitive control and lack of sensory feedback being major causes. Among the different types of sensory information, proprioception, e.g. information on hand aperture, is crucial to successfully perform everyday actions. Despite the many attempts in literature to restore and convey this type of feedback, much remains to be done to close the action-perception loop in prosthetic devices...
May 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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