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Toilet training

Ersan Arda, Basri Cakiroglu, David T Thomas
CONTEXT: Nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting is the most common type of urinary incontinence in children. It has significant psychological effects on both the child and the family. Enuresis nocturna is defined as the inability to hold urine during the night in children who have completed toilet training. It is termed as being "primary" if no continence has ever been achieved or "secondary if it follows at least 6 months of dry nights. The aim of this review was to assemble the pathophysiological background and general information about nocturnal enuresis...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Natasha Kwendakwema, Ragheed Al-Dulaimi, Angela P Presson, Sarah Zobell, Austin M Stevens, Brian T Bucher, Douglas C Barnhart, Michael D Rollins
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of trisomy 21 (T21) on enterocolitis rates and bowel function among children with Hirschsprung disease (HD). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with HD treated at our tertiary children's hospital (2000-2015) and a cohort of patients with HD treated in our pediatric colorectal center (CRC) (2011-2015) were performed. RESULTS: 26/207 (13%) patients with HD had T21...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kumara V Nibhanipudi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. METHODS: This was a prospective institutional review board-approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number)...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
Marieke L van Engelenburg-van Lonkhuyzen, Esther M J Bols, Marc A Benninga, Wim A Verwijs, Rob A de Bie
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Functional constipation (FC) is a common childhood problem often related to pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. We compared the effectiveness of pelvic physiotherapy (PPT) vs standard medical care (SMC) in children with FC. METHODS: We performed a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 53 children (5-16 years old) with FC according to the Rome III criteria, at hospitals in The Netherlands from December 2009 to May 2014. Group allocation was concealed using a central computer system...
September 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Katarzyna Wojtyniak, Andrea Horvath, Piotr Dziechciarz
AIM: This study assessed the inter-rater variability of stool assessment, comparing the judgement of parents and a physician using the Amsterdam Infant Stool Scale (AISS) and the evaluation by another physician using photographs. METHODS: The stools of children aged two to 18 months, who were not toilet-trained, were independently assessed in vivo using the AISS by the parents and the first physician. Another physician, unaware of the results of the in vivo evaluation, assessed two stool photographs taken by the first physician with a smartphone...
September 8, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Thomas Frieling
Fecal incontinence is defined by the unintentional loss of solid or liquid stool, and anal incontinence includes leakage of gas and / or fecal incontinence. Anal-fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a symptom. Many patients hide the problem from their families, friends, and even their doctors. Epidemiologic studies indicate a prevalence between 7-15 %, up to 30 % in hospitals and up to 70 % in longterm care settings. Anal-fecal incontinence causes a significant socio-economic burden. There is no widely accepted approach for classifying anal-fecal incontinence available...
August 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Seyedeh-Sanam Ladi-Seyedian, Lida Sharifi-Rad, Navid Manouchehri, Bahar Ashjaei
PURPOSE: We assessed the effectiveness of transcutaneous interferential (IF) electrical stimulation on constipation in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease (HD) patients. METHODS: Thirty HD children (18 boys and 12 girls) with constipation who had no surgical complication were enrolled and then randomly divided into two treatment groups. The control group underwent only behavioral therapy comprising high fiber diet, hydration, toilet training and pelvic floor muscles exercises while; the IF group underwent behavioral therapy plus IF electrical stimulation...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Minkyu Park, Yun Gyu Bang, Ky Young Cho
Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the development of functional constipation (FC) in young children attending daycare centers. A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire based on the Rome III criteria was conducted in children aged 25 to 84 months from 3 randomly selected daycare centers in January 2016. The items in a questionnaire were statistically compared in the constipated and non-constipated groups. A total of 212 children were included and FC was found in 8.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that maternal history of constipation (odds ratio [OR] = 4...
August 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Lijing L Yan, Shu Chen, Bo Zhou, Jing Zhang, Bin Xie, Rong Luo, Ninghua Wang, Richard Lindley, Yuhong Zhang, Yi Zhao, Xian Li, Xiao Liu, Nicholas Peoples, Janet Prvu Bettger, Craig Anderson, Sarah E Lamb, Yangfeng Wu, Jingpu Shi
RATIONALE: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in rural China. For stroke patients residing in resource-limited rural areas, secondary prevention and rehabilitation are largely unavailable, and where present, are far below evidence-based standards. AIM: This study aims to develop and implement a simplified stroke rehabilitation program that utilizes nurses and family caregivers for service delivery, and evaluate its feasibility and effectiveness in rural China...
October 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Mario C Vieira, Isadora Carolina Krueger Negrelle, Karla Ulaf Webber, Marjorie Gosdal, Sabine Krüger Truppel, Solena Ziemer Kusma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pediatrician's knowledge regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of childhood functional constipation. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with the application of a self-administered questionnaire concerning a hypothetical clinical case of childhood functional constipation with fecal incontinence to physicians (n=297) randomly interviewed at the 36th Brazilian Congress of Pediatrics in 2013. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were females, the mean age was 44...
June 17, 2016: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
A J Wright, O Fletcher, D Scrutton, G Baird
INTRODUCTION: The attainment of continence is an important milestone in all children, including those with disability. OBJECTIVE: To describe the age of bladder and bowel continence in children with bilateral cerebral palsy (BCP), and the association with intellectual impairment (II) and severity of motor disability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The parents of 346 children with BCP were interviewed as part of a population-based prospective study of the children at 3, 7, and 17 years of age...
June 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Toby O Smith, Paul Jepson, Andrew Beswick, Gina Sands, Avril Drummond, Edward T Davis, Catherine M Sackley
BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common orthopaedic operations performed worldwide. Painful osteoarthritis of the hip is the primary indication for THA. Following THA, people have conventionally been provided with equipment, such as raised toilet seats and chairs, and educated to avoid activities that could cause the hip joint to be in a position of flexion over 90 degrees, or adduction or rotation past the midline. These aspects of occupational therapy have been advocated to reduce the risks of prosthesis dislocation...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Valleix-Leclerc, C Bahans, A Tahir, S Faubert, A Fargeot, S Abouchi, A Dallocchio, M Mussgnug, V Guigonis
CONTEXT: When a urinary tract infection is suspected, it is recommended to capture a midstream sample of urine for analysis, but this strategy is difficult to apply before successful toilet training. A cutaneous stimulation technique has been reported to be effective in provoking micturition in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of this technique in a population of non-toilet-trained infants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifty infants were enrolled in this prospective non-controlled study in three pediatric emergency departments...
August 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Valerie Kimball
Although a child may meet the physiologic, developmental, and behavioral milestones required for potty training, the process of potty training remains a formidable task for many parents and toddlers. The primary care physician must be prepared to discuss the signs of readiness as well as the setbacks that may occur in the process of potty training, which include resistance to training, fears of toileting, stool toileting refusal, accidents, and persistent nocturnal enuresis. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(6):e199-e201...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Marco Pensabene, Fortunato Siracusa, Vito Rodolico, Giuseppe Li Voti, Elisa Zambaiti, Marcello Cimador
Visceral solitary myofibromas are uncommon in childhood. We report a case of a solitary asymptomatic visceral myofibroma of the bladder trigone occurring in a 3-month-old boy. Once malignancies were ruled out by cystoscopy, radical excision was performed in order to avoid any potential impairment of bladder dynamic. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient was discharged on day 3 after surgery. After 36 months of follow-up, the patient is toilet-trained and remains well; bladder function is normal.
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Bharat Choudhary, Rajesh Patil, Girish Chandra Bhatt, Abhijit P Pakhare, Abhishek Goyal, Aswin P, Bhavna Dhingra, K C Tamaria
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of primary monosymptopomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) in children aged 5-10 year and to find its association with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) by using a 22 item pediatric sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) scale. METHODS: This was a school based cross sectional epidemiological study from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on socio-demographic variables, nocturnal enuresis (NE) frequency, school performance and a validated 22 item pediatric sleep related breathing disorder scale (SRBDs) was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools...
2016: PloS One
Holly Morgan Phillips
During my nurse training, I was in a lecture, listening to a woman describing the problems she and her son experienced using the loo in outpatients. Her son had profound multiple learning disabilities, and what should have been a simple matter of gaining access to a toilet became a physical, and emotional, struggle.
May 18, 2016: Nursing Standard
Ujjal Poddar
PURPOSE: There is a scarcity of literature, and prevalent misconceptions about constipation in India. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed was conducted with regard to epidemiology, clinical features, and management of constipation. Special emphasis was paid to functional constipation and refractory constipation. English language studies available full text over the last 25 years were considered and relevant information was extracted. CONCLUSIONS: Estimated prevalence of constipation is 3% among toddlers and pre-school children worldwide and 95%, of them are considered functional...
April 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Ireneusz Jurczak, Maja Chrzęszczyk
UNLABELLED: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has an independent will, uncontrolled leakage of urine from the bladder during exercise, sneezing, coughing, laughing, bending or lifting heavy objects. It leads to an increase in abdominal pressure, resulting in a failure of muscular-ligamentous. This problem affects both women and men. Can lead to serious mental disorders such as depression, low self-esteem and dignity, decline in social status, deterioration of mood, anxiety and a decrease in sexual activity...
March 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
D Xu, L Chen, X Wan, Y Zhang, N Liu, K Wang
AIMS: To investigate the toileting behaviours that female nurses used to empty their bladders, health beliefs related to toileting behaviour and the relationships between the health beliefs and toileting behaviour based on the Health Belief Model. METHODS: A stratified cluster sampling strategy was used to recruit 636 female nurses from three tertiary hospitals in China. Reliable and valid questionnaires were used to assess female nurses' toileting behaviour and health beliefs related to toileting behaviour...
May 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
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