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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870209/bridging-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-through-inflammation-and-biomarkers-pre-clinical-and-clinical-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Joana Prata, Susana G Santos, Maria Inês Almeida, Rui Coelho, Mário A Barbosa
In recent years, evidence supporting a link between inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been mounting. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia share some clinical similarities which we hypothesize might reflect the same biological basis, namely, in terms of inflammation. However, the diagnosis of ASD and schizophrenia relies solely on clinical symptoms, and to date, there is no clinically useful biomarker to diagnose or monitor the course of such illnesses.The focus of this review is the central role that inflammation plays in ASD and schizophrenia...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860773/can-melatonin-prevent-or-improve-metabolic-side-effects-during-antipsychotic-treatments
#2
Maria-Cristina Porfirio, Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida, Maddalena Stornelli, Silvia Giovinazzo, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Gabriele Masi
In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807443/acute-mass%C3%A4-ve-pulmonary-embolism-assoc%C3%A4-ated-w%C3%A4-th-olanzap%C3%A4-ne-a-case-report
#3
Emine Keles, Sevinc Sarinc Ulasli, Nursel Calik Basaran, Elif Babaoglu, Deniz Koksal
Treatment with low-potency anti-psychotic agents is an important risk factor in the development of pulmonary embolism (PE). We report a case of 74years old female patient receiving olanzapine for psychotic depression admitted to the emergency service with the complaints of chest pain and shortness of breath. She had tachypnea, hypotension and tachycardia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed hypoxemia-hypocapnia and D-dimer level was high. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) demonstrated pulmonary embolism in both main pulmonary arteries, through lobar and segmental branches...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805144/a-qm-protein-ligand-investigation-of-antipsychotic-drugs-with-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-d2r
#4
Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Yusuf Serhat Is, Serdar Durdagi, Matthias Stein, Mine Yurtsever
The dopamine D2 Receptor (D2R) is a member of the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor family and plays a critical role in neurotransmission activities in the human brain. Dysfunction in dopamine receptor signaling may lead to mental health illnesses such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. D2R is the target protein of the commonly used antipsychotic drugs such as risperidone, clozapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and quetiapine. Due to their significant side effects and non-selective profiles, the discovery of novel drugs has become a challenge for researchers working in this field...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802219/development-and-validation-of-a-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-to-quantify-ly-354-740-in-rat-and-marmoset-plasma
#5
Fleur Gaudette, Adjia Hamadjida, Dominique Bédard, Stephen G Nuara, Francis Beaudry, Philippe Huot
LY-354,740 (eglumegad) is a selective and potent agonist of the metabotropic glutamate group II receptors (mGluR2,3) that has already entered clinical trials as a potential anti-psychotic agent and therefore has well-documented pharmacokinetic (PK), safety and tolerability profiles in human. Whereas its development as an anti-psychotic agent has not been pursued, LY-354,740 may have potential in other neuroscience-related fields, notably anxiety and neuro-protection. The common marmoset is a small primate that has long been used in neuroscience...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725312/two-cases-of-pneumatosis-cystoides-intestinalis-with-intraperitoneal-free-air
#6
Kensuke Wada, Nobuhiro Takeuchi, Masakazu Emori, Masanori Takada, Yusuke Nomura, Akihito Otsuka
Intraperitoneal free air (IFA) is sometimes accompanied by pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI); therefore, proper diagnosis is essential for PCI management. We report two cases of PCI with IFA. A 70-year-old female taking anti-psychotic medication for schizophrenia presented with repeated vomiting and high-grade fever. Computed tomography revealed small, linear gaseous cysts in the intestinal wall along with IFA. Although there was no sign of peritoneal irritation, intestinal perforation was not excluded...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647179/euphorbia-neriifolia-l-review-on-botany-ethnomedicinal-uses-phytochemistry-and-biological-activities
#7
REVIEW
Prashant Y Mali, Shital S Panchal
The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596687/relationship-between-use-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Wan-Tzu Lin, Yi-Jun Liao, Yen-Chun Peng, Chung-Hsin Chang, Ching-Heng Lin, Hong-Zen Yeh, Chi-Sen Chang
AIM: To investigate the relationship between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and the subsequent development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: This retrospective, observational, population-based cohort study collected data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 19653 patients newly using SSRIs and 78612 patients not using SSRIs, matched by age and sex at a ratio of 1:4, were enrolled in the study from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552049/1-4-benzothiazines-a-biologically-attractive-scaffold
#9
Amit Rai, Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Sudipta Saha
1,4-benzothiazine (1,4-B), a pharmacophore of anti-psychotic drug phenothiazines, is a vital class of heterocyclic compounds implicating versatile biological activities. Among offering several interesting biological activities, 1,4-benzothiazines (1,4-Bs) have a tremendous ability to regulate diverse range of cellular pathways that can be explored for selective anticancer activity. Synthetic chemists have discovered numerous routes for the syntheses of various 1,4-B analogues that show excellent activities through multiple mechanisms...
May 28, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536567/the-repurposing-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-quetiapine-and-olanzapine-as-anti-cryptococcus-drugs
#10
Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Olihile M Sebolai
The management of cryptococcal infections is often difficult. This can, in part, be attributed to the fungistatic nature of fluconazole, which may result in cells disseminating to give rise to pathogen-emergent psychosis following brain inflammation. This chance at treatment failure has necessitated the current study wherein the antimicrobial quality of anti-psychotic drugs viz. quetiapine and olanzapine, was assessed. The response of test strains toward quetiapine or olanzapine alone and in combined therapy with fluconazole or amphotericn B was measured...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528230/effect-of-childhood-trauma-on-cognitive-functions-in-a-sample-of-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Xian-Bin Li, Qi-Jing Bo, Guang-Ping Zhang, Wei Zheng, Zhi-Min Wang, An-Ning Li, Qing Tian, Jin-Tong Liu, Yi-Lang Tang, Chuan-Yue Wang
In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of various types of childhood trauma (CT) on cognitive functions in Chinese patients presented with schizophrenia. One hundred sixty-two patients were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). We investigated the correlations between various types of CT, demographic characteristics, and cognitive functions. Significant negative correlations were observed in physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) with the language score (r=-0...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465247/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-on-the-expression-of-cd68-on-the-peripheral-blood-monocytes-of-alzheimer-patients-with-psychotic-symptoms
#12
Reza Bahramabadi, Morteza Samadi, Alireza Vakilian, Elham Jafari, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies approved the important roles of CD68, as scavenger receptors, in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with anti-psychotic drugs and vitamin B12 on the expression levels of CD68 in monocytes of psychotic AD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression of CD68 on the monocytes was evaluated in the following groups: 1. age and sex matched healthy controls (Group 1), 2. non-psychotic AD patients (Group 2), 3...
June 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464848/experiences-perspectives-and-priorities-of-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-regarding-sleep-disturbance-and-its-treatment-a-qualitative-study
#13
Sophie Faulkner, Penny Bee
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are very common in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and impact negatively on functioning and wellbeing. Research regarding interventions to improve sleep in this population has been lacking. Little is known regarding these patient's perspectives on sleep problems and their treatment, providing very little foundation on which to develop acceptable and patient-centred treatments. METHODS: This study aims to explore perspectives and priorities of participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders regarding sleep and sleep disturbance, and their perspectives on existing treatments...
May 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462841/design-and-optimization-of-purine-derivatives-as-in-vivo-active-pde10a-inhibitors
#14
Liu Chen, Danqi Chen, Le Tang, Jing Ren, Jiaojiao Chen, Xuechu Zhen, Yu-Chih Liu, Chenhua Zhang, Haibin Luo, Jingkang Shen, Bing Xiong
Phosphodiesterases are important enzymes regulating signal transduction mediated by second messenger molecules cAMP or cGMP. PDE10A is a unique member in the PDE family because of its selective expression in medium spiny neurons. It is recognized as anti-psychotic drug target. Based on the structural similarity between our previous chemistry work on 8-aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines and the PDE10A inhibitors reported by Bartolome-Nebreda et al., we initialized a project for developing PDE10A inhibitors. After several rounds of optimization, we were able to obtain a few compounds with good PDE10A enzymatic activity...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454291/thioridazine-has-potent-antitumor-effects-on-lung-cancer-stem-like-cells
#15
Jiani Shen, Buyun Ma, Xinmin Zhang, Xiaozhu Sun, Jiancui Han, Yigang Wang, Liang Chu, Haineng Xu, Yu Yang
Thioridazine (TDZ), originally an anti-psychotic drug, suppresses several types of cancer and has specificity for leukemia stem cells. The present study was performed to assess its effect on lung cancer stem-like cells, as its effect remains unknown. TDZ was utilized to treat lung cancer stem-like cells (A549 sphere cells) and its cytotoxic effect and mechanism were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. TDZ elicited cytotoxicity in A549 sphere cells and inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent pattern. A549 sphere cells treated with TDZ showed nuclear fragmentation, increased G0/G1 phase distribution, positive Annexin V staining, and a change in the expression of caspase family and cell cycle-associated proteins...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450912/effects-of-the-modified-electric-convulsive-treatment-mect-on-cell-factors-of-schizophrenia
#16
Yong-Fang Guo, Hua-Bin Fu, Zhi-Yuan Liu, Wei Lu, Ke-Yong Luo, Hong-Ri Zhu, Wei-Dong Ning, Feng Chen, Li-Yu Yang, Xiao-Dong Zhou
The expression of cell factors of schizophrenia and the effect of the modified electric convulsive treatment (MECT) were studied. In total, 156 patients with schizophrenia were selected, and divided into the drug group (70 cases) and the drug combined with MECT group (combined group) (86 cases) according to the treatment methods. In addition, 70 cases of healthy volunteers (control group) were selected according to the closest matching method based on 1:1 of age and gender. The drug treatment, consisted of anti-psychotic drugs, such as risperidone 2-8, quetiapine 300-750, ziprasidone 80-160 or aripiprazole 10-30 mg/day, and for the control group, we used the electric spasm therapeutic instrument, Thymatron(®)IV Systems up to 6 times, 3 times a week...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392207/elevated-clozapine-levels-associated-with-infection-a-systematic-review
#17
Scott R Clark, Nicola S Warren, Gajin Kim, David Jankowiak, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Steve Kisely, Tori Forrester, Bernhard T Baune, Dan J Siskind
Clozapine is the most effective anti-psychotic medication for treatment refractory schizophrenia. A growing number of case reports have linked infection to high clozapine levels and associated adverse outcomes. We present a systematic review of published cases to clarify the relationship between infection and elevated clozapine levels. The case reports were located through PubMed and Embase. In addition, 8 new cases from two Australian states were included. Demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and medical morbidities, medications, clinical symptoms, clozapine levels, inflammatory markers and final clinical outcome were extracted...
April 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369185/lower-likelihood-of-falling-at-age-90-is-associated-with-daily-exercise-a-quarter-of-a-century-earlier-the-90-study
#18
Annlia Paganini-Hill, Dana E Greenia, Shawna Perry, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Claudia H Kawas, Maria M Corrada
Objective: to explore the relationship between risk of falling at age 90+ and prior physical activity at age 60-70s. Design: population-based cohort study (The 90+ Study). Setting: California retirement community. Participants: of 1596 cohort members, 1536 had both falls and prior activity data. Mean age = 94 years; 78% female; 99% Caucasian. Methods: time spent in active physical activity was self-reported in 1980s; medical history, medication, assistive devices, residence type, and falls (outcome) was collected in 2000s...
March 21, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350411/employees-drug-purchases-before-and-after-organizational-downsizing-a-natural-experiment-on-the-norwegian-working-population-2004-2012
#19
Silje L Kaspersen, Kristine Pape, Fredrik Carlsen, Solveig Osborg Ose, Johan Håkon Bjorngaard
Objectives This study investigated the association between organizational downsizing and purchases of prescribed drugs by private sector employees in Norway. Methods A natural experiment was constructed using individual-level employer and employee data linked to the national prescription database for the period 2004-2012. The study population comprised 144 089 employees who had been exposed to major downsizing in the same period. Random effects logistic regression models were used to investigate relative changes in drug purchases (antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics, and anti-psychotics, as well as anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular, and thyroid drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and analgesics/antipyretics) in the five-year-period before and after exposure to downsizing...
March 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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