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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536567/the-repurposing-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-quetiapine-and-olanzapine-as-anti-cryptococcus-drugs
#1
Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Olihile M Sebolai
The management of cryptococcal infections is often difficult. This can, in part, be attributed to the fungistatic nature of fluconazole, which may result in cells disseminating to give rise to pathogen-emergent psychosis following brain inflammation. This chance at treatment failure has necessitated the current study wherein the antimicrobial quality of anti-psychotic drugs viz. quetiapine and olanzapine, was assessed. The response of test strains toward quetiapine or olanzapine alone and in combined therapy with fluconazole or amphotericn B was measured...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528230/effect-of-childhood-trauma-on-cognitive-functions-in-a-sample-of-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Xian-Bin Li, Qi-Jing Bo, Guang-Ping Zhang, Wei Zheng, Zhi-Min Wang, An-Ning Li, Qing Tian, Jin-Tong Liu, Yi-Lang Tang, Chuan-Yue Wang
In this study, we aimed to determine the influence of various types of childhood trauma (CT) on cognitive functions in Chinese patients presented with schizophrenia. One hundred sixty-two patients were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). We investigated the correlations between various types of CT, demographic characteristics, and cognitive functions. Significant negative correlations were observed in physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) with the language score (r=-0...
May 5, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465247/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-on-the-expression-of-cd68-on-the-peripheral-blood-monocytes-of-alzheimer-patients-with-psychotic-symptoms
#3
Reza Bahramabadi, Morteza Samadi, Alireza Vakilian, Elham Jafari, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies approved the important roles of CD68, as scavenger receptors, in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with anti-psychotic drugs and vitamin B12 on the expression levels of CD68 in monocytes of psychotic AD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression of CD68 on the monocytes was evaluated in the following groups: 1. age and sex matched healthy controls (Group 1), 2. non-psychotic AD patients (Group 2), 3...
April 29, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464848/experiences-perspectives-and-priorities-of-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-regarding-sleep-disturbance-and-its-treatment-a-qualitative-study
#4
Sophie Faulkner, Penny Bee
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are very common in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and impact negatively on functioning and wellbeing. Research regarding interventions to improve sleep in this population has been lacking. Little is known regarding these patient's perspectives on sleep problems and their treatment, providing very little foundation on which to develop acceptable and patient-centred treatments. METHODS: This study aims to explore perspectives and priorities of participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders regarding sleep and sleep disturbance, and their perspectives on existing treatments...
May 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462841/design-and-optimization-of-purine-derivatives-as-in-vivo-active-pde10a-inhibitors
#5
Liu Chen, Danqi Chen, Le Tang, Jing Ren, Jiaojiao Chen, Xuechu Zhen, Yu-Chih Liu, Chenhua Zhang, Haibin Luo, Jingkang Shen, Bing Xiong
Phosphodiesterases are important enzymes regulating signal transduction mediated by second messenger molecules cAMP or cGMP. PDE10A is a unique member in the PDE family because of its selective expression in medium spiny neurons. It is recognized as anti-psychotic drug target. Based on the structural similarity between our previous chemistry work on 8-aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines and the PDE10A inhibitors reported by Bartolome-Nebreda et al., we initialized a project for developing PDE10A inhibitors. After several rounds of optimization, we were able to obtain a few compounds with good PDE10A enzymatic activity...
April 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454291/thioridazine-has-potent-antitumor-effects-on-lung-cancer-stem-like-cells
#6
Jiani Shen, Buyun Ma, Xinmin Zhang, Xiaozhu Sun, Jiancui Han, Yigang Wang, Liang Chu, Haineng Xu, Yu Yang
Thioridazine (TDZ), originally an anti-psychotic drug, suppresses several types of cancer and has specificity for leukemia stem cells. The present study was performed to assess its effect on lung cancer stem-like cells, as its effect remains unknown. TDZ was utilized to treat lung cancer stem-like cells (A549 sphere cells) and its cytotoxic effect and mechanism were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. TDZ elicited cytotoxicity in A549 sphere cells and inhibited their proliferation in a dose-dependent pattern. A549 sphere cells treated with TDZ showed nuclear fragmentation, increased G0/G1 phase distribution, positive Annexin V staining, and a change in the expression of caspase family and cell cycle-associated proteins...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450912/effects-of-the-modified-electric-convulsive-treatment-mect-on-cell-factors-of-schizophrenia
#7
Yong-Fang Guo, Hua-Bin Fu, Zhi-Yuan Liu, Wei Lu, Ke-Yong Luo, Hong-Ri Zhu, Wei-Dong Ning, Feng Chen, Li-Yu Yang, Xiao-Dong Zhou
The expression of cell factors of schizophrenia and the effect of the modified electric convulsive treatment (MECT) were studied. In total, 156 patients with schizophrenia were selected, and divided into the drug group (70 cases) and the drug combined with MECT group (combined group) (86 cases) according to the treatment methods. In addition, 70 cases of healthy volunteers (control group) were selected according to the closest matching method based on 1:1 of age and gender. The drug treatment, consisted of anti-psychotic drugs, such as risperidone 2-8, quetiapine 300-750, ziprasidone 80-160 or aripiprazole 10-30 mg/day, and for the control group, we used the electric spasm therapeutic instrument, Thymatron(®)IV Systems up to 6 times, 3 times a week...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392207/elevated-clozapine-levels-associated-with-infection-a-systematic-review
#8
Scott R Clark, Nicola S Warren, Gajin Kim, David Jankowiak, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Steve Kisely, Tori Forrester, Bernhard T Baune, Dan J Siskind
Clozapine is the most effective anti-psychotic medication for treatment refractory schizophrenia. A growing number of case reports have linked infection to high clozapine levels and associated adverse outcomes. We present a systematic review of published cases to clarify the relationship between infection and elevated clozapine levels. The case reports were located through PubMed and Embase. In addition, 8 new cases from two Australian states were included. Demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and medical morbidities, medications, clinical symptoms, clozapine levels, inflammatory markers and final clinical outcome were extracted...
April 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369185/lower-likelihood-of-falling-at-age-90-is-associated-with-daily-exercise-a-quarter-of-a-century-earlier-the-90-study
#9
Annlia Paganini-Hill, Dana E Greenia, Shawna Perry, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Claudia H Kawas, Maria M Corrada
Objective: to explore the relationship between risk of falling at age 90+ and prior physical activity at age 60-70s. Design: population-based cohort study (The 90+ Study). Setting: California retirement community. Participants: of 1596 cohort members, 1536 had both falls and prior activity data. Mean age = 94 years; 78% female; 99% Caucasian. Methods: time spent in active physical activity was self-reported in 1980s; medical history, medication, assistive devices, residence type, and falls (outcome) was collected in 2000s...
March 21, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350411/employees-drug-purchases-before-and-after-organizational-downsizing-a-natural-experiment-on-the-norwegian-working-population-2004-2012
#10
Silje L Kaspersen, Kristine Pape, Fredrik Carlsen, Solveig Osborg Ose, Johan Håkon Bjorngaard
Objectives This study investigated the association between organizational downsizing and purchases of prescribed drugs by private sector employees in Norway. Methods A natural experiment was constructed using individual-level employer and employee data linked to the national prescription database for the period 2004-2012. The study population comprised 144 089 employees who had been exposed to major downsizing in the same period. Random effects logistic regression models were used to investigate relative changes in drug purchases (antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics, and anti-psychotics, as well as anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular, and thyroid drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and analgesics/antipyretics) in the five-year-period before and after exposure to downsizing...
March 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325253/efficacy-and-safety-of-olanzapine-for-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Jukapun Yoodee, Unchalee Permsuwan, Mantiwee Nimworapan
BACKGROUND: Olanzapine is an anti-psychotic drug that has been used for preventing and treating Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV). This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the efficacy and safety of olanzapine for prophylaxis and treatment of CINV. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials-CENTRAL up to July 15, 2016. All observational and intervention studies were included, but only the intervention studies were pooled for meta-analysis...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304340/neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-psychosis-and-psychosis-risk
#13
REVIEW
Henry Barron, Sina Hafizi, Ana C Andreazza, Romina Mizrahi
Although our understanding of psychotic disorders has advanced substantially in the past few decades, very little has changed in the standard of care for these illnesses since the development of atypical anti-psychotics in the 1990s. Here, we integrate new insights into the pathophysiology with the increasing interest in early detection and prevention. First, we explore the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in a subpopulation of cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs). Postmortem and preclinical data has implicated these neurons in the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267031/young-women-s-experiences-of-psychotic-illness-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-research
#14
Wanda M Chernomas, Kendra L Rieger, Jane V Karpa, Diana E Clarke, Shelley Marchinko, Lisa Demczuk
BACKGROUND: The relationship between young adulthood, women and psychosis was the focus for this systematic review. Age and gender are factors that can influence responses to illness. Research indicates that there are differences in how young men and women are affected biologically and psychosocially, including the presentation of a constellation of symptoms, response to anti-psychotic medications and how they assess their life circumstances. Yet in literature that examines experiences of young people with psychosis, the specific needs of young women are usually not presented separately...
March 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187217/electrophysiological-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles-of-at-risk-mental-state-the-longitudinal-minds-in-transition-mint-study
#15
Rebbekah J Atkinson, W Ross Fulham, Patricia T Michie, Philip B Ward, Juanita Todd, Helen Stain, Robyn Langdon, Renate Thienel, Georgie Paulik, Gavin Cooper, Ulrich Schall
The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186680/the-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-agonist-ly354740-and-the-d2-receptor-antagonist-haloperidol-reduce-locomotor-hyperactivity-but-fail-to-rescue-spatial-working-memory-in-glua1-knockout-mice
#16
Thomas Boerner, Alexei M Bygrave, Jingkai Chen, Anushka Fernando, Stephanie Jackson, Chris Barkus, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, Gary Gilmour, David M Bannerman, David J Sanderson
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists have been suggested as potential anti-psychotics, at least in part, based on the observation that the agonist LY354740 appeared to rescue the cognitive deficits caused by non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, including spatial working memory deficits in rodents. Here, we tested the ability of LY354740 to rescue spatial working memory performance in mice that lack the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA glutamate receptor, encoded by Gria1, a gene recently implicated in schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies...
April 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185872/neuronal-and-molecular-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-implications-for-novel-schizophrenia-treatments
#17
REVIEW
Justine Renard, Christopher Norris, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Growing clinical and pre-clinical evidence points to a critical role for cannabidiol (CBD), the largest phytochemical component of cannabis, as a potential pharmacotherapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is associated with acute and neurodevelopmental pro-psychotic side-effects, CBD possesses no known psychoactive or dependence-producing properties. However, evidence has demonstrated that CBD strongly modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and may possess promising anti-psychotic properties...
April 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160655/factors-associated-with-complete-discontinuation-of-medication-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-the-year-after-hospital-discharge
#18
Yanling Zhou, Robert Rosenheck, Somaia Mohamed, Yuping Ning, Hongbo He
Medication discontinuation is a major risk factor for relapse in schizophrenic patients. The present study investigated the rate and clinical correlates of complete medication discontinuation in the year after hospital discharge. Data collected from 236 schizophrenia patients who were prescribed anti-psychotics documented socio-demographic characteristics, symptom severity, insight, and attitudes towards medication in the week before their discharge and the experience of caregiver burden for their primary caregiver as recorded at the time of hospitalization...
January 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130646/the-effect-of-mirtazapine-on-dopaminergic-psychosis-and-dyskinesia-in-the-parkinsonian-marmoset
#19
Adjia Hamadjida, Stephen G Nuara, Nicolas Veyres, Imane Frouni, Cynthia Kwan, Lamia Sid-Otmane, Mery-Jane Harraka, Jim C Gourdon, Philippe Huot
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) psychosis is encountered in as many as 50% of patients with advanced disease. Treatment options for PD psychosis are few. In fact, only clozapine and pimavanserin have shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials. Clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe the former, due to the risk of agranulocytosis, while the latter is not widely available yet. Because it is already clinically available and exhibits high affinity for serotonin 2A receptors, a target with which both clozapine and pimavanserin interact, we hypothesised that the anti-depressant mirtazapine might be effective to alleviate PD psychosis...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096857/the-effect-of-fluphenazine-and-thioridazine-on-toxoplasma-gondii-in-vivo
#20
Mehrzad Saraei, Yosef Ghaderi, Tahereh Mosavi, Mojtaba Shahnazi, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Hassan Jahanihashemi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common parasite causing latent cerebral infections in human. It has been shown that some anti-psychotic drugs are able to inhibit the proliferation of the parasite in in vitro study. There is very limited data regarding the inhibitory effect of anti-psychotics on Toxoplasma in in vivo. In this study, we evaluated anti-Toxoplasma activity of fluphenazine and thioridazine drugs on T. gondii in mice. METHODS: Mice were divided into six groups: Control, sesame as vehicle, thioridazine 10 mg/kg, thioridazine 20 mg/kg, fluphenazine 0...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
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