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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392207/elevated-clozapine-levels-associated-with-infection-a-systematic-review
#1
Scott R Clark, Nicola S Warren, Gajin Kim, David Jankowiak, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Steve Kisely, Tori Forrester, Bernhard T Baune, Dan J Siskind
Clozapine is the most effective anti-psychotic medication for treatment refractory schizophrenia. A growing number of case reports have linked infection to high clozapine levels and associated adverse outcomes. We present a systematic review of published cases to clarify the relationship between infection and elevated clozapine levels. The case reports were located through PubMed and Embase. In addition, 8 new cases from two Australian states were included. Demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and medical morbidities, medications, clinical symptoms, clozapine levels, inflammatory markers and final clinical outcome were extracted...
April 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369185/lower-likelihood-of-falling-at-age-90-is-associated-with-daily-exercise-a-quarter-of-a-century-earlier-the-90-study
#2
Annlia Paganini-Hill, Dana E Greenia, Shawna Perry, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Claudia H Kawas, Maria M Corrada
Objective: to explore the relationship between risk of falling at age 90+ and prior physical activity at age 60-70s. Design: population-based cohort study (The 90+ Study). Setting: California retirement community. Participants: of 1596 cohort members, 1536 had both falls and prior activity data. Mean age = 94 years; 78% female; 99% Caucasian. Methods: time spent in active physical activity was self-reported in 1980s; medical history, medication, assistive devices, residence type, and falls (outcome) was collected in 2000s...
March 21, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350411/employees-drug-purchases-before-and-after-organizational-downsizing-a-natural-experiment-on-the-norwegian-working-population-2004-2012
#3
Silje L Kaspersen, Kristine Pape, Fredrik Carlsen, Solveig Osborg Ose, Johan Håkon Bjorngaard
Objectives This study investigated the association between organizational downsizing and purchases of prescribed drugs by private sector employees in Norway. Methods A natural experiment was constructed using individual-level employer and employee data linked to the national prescription database for the period 2004-2012. The study population comprised 144 089 employees who had been exposed to major downsizing in the same period. Random effects logistic regression models were used to investigate relative changes in drug purchases (antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics, and anti-psychotics, as well as anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular, and thyroid drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and analgesics/antipyretics) in the five-year-period before and after exposure to downsizing...
March 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325253/efficacy-and-safety-of-olanzapine-for-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Jukapun Yoodee, Unchalee Permsuwan, Mantiwee Nimworapan
BACKGROUND: Olanzapine is an anti-psychotic drug that has been used for preventing and treating Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV). This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the efficacy and safety of olanzapine for prophylaxis and treatment of CINV. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials-CENTRAL up to July 15, 2016. All observational and intervention studies were included, but only the intervention studies were pooled for meta-analysis...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304340/neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-psychosis-and-psychosis-risk
#6
REVIEW
Henry Barron, Sina Hafizi, Ana C Andreazza, Romina Mizrahi
Although our understanding of psychotic disorders has advanced substantially in the past few decades, very little has changed in the standard of care for these illnesses since the development of atypical anti-psychotics in the 1990s. Here, we integrate new insights into the pathophysiology with the increasing interest in early detection and prevention. First, we explore the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in a subpopulation of cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs). Postmortem and preclinical data has implicated these neurons in the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267031/young-women-s-experiences-of-psychotic-illness-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-research
#7
Wanda M Chernomas, Kendra L Rieger, Jane V Karpa, Diana E Clarke, Shelley Marchinko, Lisa Demczuk
BACKGROUND: The relationship between young adulthood, women and psychosis was the focus for this systematic review. Age and gender are factors that can influence responses to illness. Research indicates that there are differences in how young men and women are affected biologically and psychosocially, including the presentation of a constellation of symptoms, response to anti-psychotic medications and how they assess their life circumstances. Yet in literature that examines experiences of young people with psychosis, the specific needs of young women are usually not presented separately...
March 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187217/electrophysiological-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles-of-at-risk-mental-state-the-longitudinal-minds-in-transition-mint-study
#8
Rebbekah J Atkinson, W Ross Fulham, Patricia T Michie, Philip B Ward, Juanita Todd, Helen Stain, Robyn Langdon, Renate Thienel, Georgie Paulik, Gavin Cooper, Ulrich Schall
The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186680/the-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-agonist-ly354740-and-the-d2-receptor-antagonist-haloperidol-reduce-locomotor-hyperactivity-but-fail-to-rescue-spatial-working-memory-in-glua1-knockout-mice
#9
Thomas Boerner, Alexei M Bygrave, Jingkai Chen, Anushka Fernando, Stephanie Jackson, Chris Barkus, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, Gary Gilmour, David M Bannerman, David J Sanderson
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists have been suggested as potential anti-psychotics, at least in part, based on the observation that the agonist LY354740 appeared to rescue the cognitive deficits caused by non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, including spatial working memory deficits in rodents. Here, we tested the ability of LY354740 to rescue spatial working memory performance in mice that lack the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA glutamate receptor, encoded by Gria1, a gene recently implicated in schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies...
April 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185872/neuronal-and-molecular-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-implications-for-novel-schizophrenia-treatments
#10
REVIEW
Justine Renard, Christopher Norris, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Growing clinical and pre-clinical evidence points to a critical role for cannabidiol (CBD), the largest phytochemical component of cannabis, as a potential pharmacotherapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is associated with acute and neurodevelopmental pro-psychotic side-effects, CBD possesses no known psychoactive or dependence-producing properties. However, evidence has demonstrated that CBD strongly modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and may possess promising anti-psychotic properties...
April 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160655/factors-associated-with-complete-discontinuation-of-medication-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-in-the-year-after-hospital-discharge
#11
Yanling Zhou, Robert Rosenheck, Somaia Mohamed, Yuping Ning, Hongbo He
Medication discontinuation is a major risk factor for relapse in schizophrenic patients. The present study investigated the rate and clinical correlates of complete medication discontinuation in the year after hospital discharge. Data collected from 236 schizophrenia patients who were prescribed anti-psychotics documented socio-demographic characteristics, symptom severity, insight, and attitudes towards medication in the week before their discharge and the experience of caregiver burden for their primary caregiver as recorded at the time of hospitalization...
January 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130646/the-effect-of-mirtazapine-on-dopaminergic-psychosis-and-dyskinesia-in-the-parkinsonian-marmoset
#12
Adjia Hamadjida, Stephen G Nuara, Nicolas Veyres, Imane Frouni, Cynthia Kwan, Lamia Sid-Otmane, Mery-Jane Harraka, Jim C Gourdon, Philippe Huot
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) psychosis is encountered in as many as 50% of patients with advanced disease. Treatment options for PD psychosis are few. In fact, only clozapine and pimavanserin have shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials. Clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe the former, due to the risk of agranulocytosis, while the latter is not widely available yet. Because it is already clinically available and exhibits high affinity for serotonin 2A receptors, a target with which both clozapine and pimavanserin interact, we hypothesised that the anti-depressant mirtazapine might be effective to alleviate PD psychosis...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096857/the-effect-of-fluphenazine-and-thioridazine-on-toxoplasma-gondii-in-vivo
#13
Mehrzad Saraei, Yosef Ghaderi, Tahereh Mosavi, Mojtaba Shahnazi, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Hassan Jahanihashemi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common parasite causing latent cerebral infections in human. It has been shown that some anti-psychotic drugs are able to inhibit the proliferation of the parasite in in vitro study. There is very limited data regarding the inhibitory effect of anti-psychotics on Toxoplasma in in vivo. In this study, we evaluated anti-Toxoplasma activity of fluphenazine and thioridazine drugs on T. gondii in mice. METHODS: Mice were divided into six groups: Control, sesame as vehicle, thioridazine 10 mg/kg, thioridazine 20 mg/kg, fluphenazine 0...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000884/thioridazine-elicits-potent-antitumor-effects-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Chen Zhang, Ping Gong, Pengfei Liu, Ning Zhou, Yulai Zhou, Yi Wang
As a member of the phenothiazine family, thioridazine (THIO) is a potent anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic drug. Recent studies have reported that THIO could suppress the growth of several types of cancer cells. However, the effect of THIO on colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effect of THIO on viability of CSCs isolated from the human colon cancer cell line HCT116 and its colony-formation ability, along with its stem cell-specific gene expression...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993107/anti-psychotic-activity-of-aqueous-root-extract-of-hemidesmus-indicus-a-time-bound-study-in-rats
#15
Madhu Sudan, Gaurav Gupta, Bharati Arali, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Kamal Dua
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a neurological disorder which is usually defined as "loss of contact with reality." As medicine 'Hemidesmusindicus' hold a reputed place in all systems of medicine in India. It is given in the form of infusion, fine particles, or syrup. It is also a component of several medicinal preparations. The present research work is pertaining to find out an anti-psychotic activity of an aqueous root extract of Hemidesmusindicus- a time bound study in rats. METHODS: In the present study, the dried roots of Hemidesmusindicus were crushed to a coarse powder and extracted with water under reflux for 36 hours to obtain the aqueous extract of roots of Hemidesmusindicus (AERHI)...
December 16, 2016: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984131/enhanced-photo-geno-toxicity-of-demethylated-chlorpromazine-metabolites
#16
Fabrizio Palumbo, Guillermo Garcia-Lainez, Daniel Limones-Herrero, M Dolores Coloma, Javier Escobar, M Consuelo Jiménez, Miguel A Miranda, Inmaculada Andreu
Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression. Unfortunately, CPZ exhibits undesirable side effects such as phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in humans. In general, the influence of drug metabolism on this type of these reactions has not been previously considered in photosafety testing. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the possible photo(geno)toxic potential of drug metabolites, using CPZ as an established reference compound...
October 27, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973692/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-people-with-severe-mental-illness-inequalities-by-ethnicity-and-age-cross-sectional-analysis-of-588-408-records-from-the-uk
#17
J Das-Munshi, M Ashworth, M E Dewey, F Gaughran, S Hull, C Morgan, J Nazroo, I Petersen, P Schofield, R Stewart, G Thornicroft, M J Prince
AIMS: To investigate whether the association of severe mental illness with Type 2 diabetes varies by ethnicity and age. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from an ethnically diverse sample of 588 408 individuals aged ≥18 years, registered to 98% of general practices (primary care) in London, UK. The outcome of interest was prevalent Type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Relative to people without severe mental illness, the relative risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with severe mental illness was greatest in the youngest age groups...
December 14, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917874/discovery-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-structure-based-optimization-of-novel-piperidine-derivatives-as-acetylcholine-binding-protein-ligands
#18
Jian Shen, Xi-Cheng Yang, Ming-Cheng Yu, Li Xiao, Xun-Jie Zhang, Hui-Jiao Sun, Hao Chen, Guan-Xin Pan, Yu-Rong Yan, Si-Chen Wang, Wei Li, Lu Zhou, Qiong Xie, Lin-Qian Yu, Yong-Hui Wang, Li-Ming Shao
The homomeric α7 nicotinic receptor (α7 nAChR) is widely expressed in the human brain that could be activated to suppress neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuropathic pain. Consequently, a number of α7 nAChR agonists have entered clinical trials as anti-Alzheimer's or anti-psychotic therapies. However, high-resolution crystal structure of the full-length α7 receptor is thus far unavailable. Since acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) from Lymnaea stagnalis is most closely related to the α-subunit of nAChRs, it has been used as a template for the N-terminal domain of α-subunit of nAChR to study the molecular recognition process of nAChR-ligand interactions, and to identify ligands with potential nAChR-like activities...
January 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878417/neurobehavioural-evaluation-of-resveratrol-in-murine-models-of-anxiety-and-schizophrenia
#19
Mohammed Garba Magaji, Loretta Oghenekome Iniaghe, Mutiat Abolarin, Opeyemi Isa Abdullahi, Rabiu Abdusalam Magaji
Resveratrol, a caloric restriction mimetic, is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety and schizophrenia. This study investigated the anxiolytic and antipsychotic potentials of resveratrol in murine models of anxiety and schizophrenia. Mice were pretreated with resveratrol (200 and 400 mg/kg) in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose for 14 days and subjected to behavioural tests on the 15th day...
April 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842767/drug-hepatotoxicity-newer-agents
#20
REVIEW
Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul, K Rajender Reddy
Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity is one of the most common reasons for an approved drug being restricted. This article focuses on hepatotoxicity of selected and recently introduced agents, such as, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, novel oral anticoagulants, newer antiplatelets, antibiotics, anti-diabetics, anti-epileptics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics and anti-retrovirals. Overall, the incidence of clinically relevant hepatotoxicity from newer agents seems to be lower than that of the older agents...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
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