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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878417/neurobehavioural-evaluation-of-resveratrol-in-murine-models-of-anxiety-and-schizophrenia
#1
Mohammed Garba Magaji, Loretta Oghenekome Iniaghe, Mutiat Abolarin, Opeyemi Isa Abdullahi, Rabiu Abdusalam Magaji
Resveratrol, a caloric restriction mimetic, is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety and schizophrenia. This study investigated the anxiolytic and antipsychotic potentials of resveratrol in murine models of anxiety and schizophrenia. Mice were pretreated with resveratrol (200 and 400 mg/kg) in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose for 14 days and subjected to behavioural tests on the 15th day...
November 22, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842767/drug-hepatotoxicity-newer-agents
#2
REVIEW
Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul, K Rajender Reddy
Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity is one of the most common reasons for an approved drug being restricted. This article focuses on hepatotoxicity of selected and recently introduced agents, such as, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, novel oral anticoagulants, newer antiplatelets, antibiotics, anti-diabetics, anti-epileptics, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics and anti-retrovirals. Overall, the incidence of clinically relevant hepatotoxicity from newer agents seems to be lower than that of the older agents...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779081/calixarene-a-versatile-material-for-drug-design-and-applications
#3
Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Umer Ashraf, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
The review summarizes the efforts to fabricate inclusion complexes of different therapeutic agents based on a versatile material . is a macrocyclic nano-basket which is the marvelous host with distinct hydrophobic three dimensional cavities to entrap and encapsulate biologically active guest drugs. and its derivatives are used as carriers (host-guest) for anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anthelmentic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-psychotic drugs, etc. They are the important biocompatible materials to improve solubility and chemical reactivity, and decrease cytotoxicity of poorly soluble drugs...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750102/maldi-ms-analysis-and-theoretical-evaluation-of-olanzapine-as-a-uv-laser-desorption-ionization-ldi-matrix
#4
Syed Ghulam Musharraf, Mariam Ameer, Arslan Ali
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) being soft ionization technique, has become a method of choice for high-throughput analysis of proteins and peptides. In this study, we have explored the potential of atypical anti-psychotic drug olanzapine (OLZ) as a matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of peptides aided with the theoretical studies. Seven small peptides were employed as target analytes to check performance of olanzapine and compared with conventional MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729950/prevention-of-post-operative-delirium-in-the-elderly-using-pharmacological-agents
#5
Patrice Tremblay, Susan Gold
INTRODUCTION: Post-operative delirium (POD) is a serious surgical complication that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay, delayed admission to rehabilitation programs, persistent cognitive deficits, marked health-care costs, and more. The pathophysiology is multi-factorial and not completely understood, which complicates the optimal management. Non-pharmacological measures have been the mainstay of treatment, but there has been an ongoing interest in the medical literature on the prevention of post-operative delirium using medications...
September 2016: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711049/clozapine-modulates-glucosylceramide-clears-aggregated-proteins-and-enhances-atg8-lc3-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Limin Hao, Oshrit Ben-David, Suzann M Babb, Anthony H Futerman, Bruce M Cohen, Edgar A Buttner
Defining the mechanisms of action of the antipsychotic drug (APD), clozapine, is of great importance, as clozapine is more effective and has therapeutic benefits in a broader range of psychiatric disorders compared with other APDs. Its range of actions have not been fully characterized. Exposure to APDs early in development causes dose-dependent developmental delay and lethality in Caenorhabditis elegans. A previous genome-wide RNAi screen for suppressors of clozapine-induced developmental delay and lethality revealed 40 candidate genes, including sms-1, which encodes a sphingomyelin synthase...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621706/evaluation-of-two-commercially-available-cannabidiol-formulations-for-use-in-electronic-cigarettes
#7
Michelle R Peace, Karen E Butler, Carl E Wolf, Justin L Poklis, Alphonse Poklis
Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527887/-mania-induced-by-antibiotic-therapy
#8
T R W M Walrave, S Mohammad, R R Ploeger
We report two cases of adults who developed mania after taking the antibiotic clarithromycin. Clarithromycin is a frequently used antibiotic, but it can lead to a rare but significant psychiatric complication in the form of a manic episode. Mania is commonly associated with bipolar disorder, but the causes can be pharmacological, metabolic or neurologic, particularly when it occurs in patients who themselves or whose families have no past history of psychiatric illness. New-onset mania calls for detailed clinical and laboratory testing and neuro-imaging so that somatic causes can be ruled out...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493747/improving-the-physical-health-monitoring-of-city-hackney-assertive-outreach-service-patients
#9
Elvan Akyuz, Amit Jain, Declan Phelan, Susham Gupta
Improving physical healthcare to reduce premature mortality in people with SMI (Serious Mental Illness) is a priority for ELFT (East London NHS Foundation Trust) and NHS England. It is well know that people with schizophrenia have a life expectancy which is approximately 20% shorter than that of the general population and a substantial mortality difference exists between people with schizophrenia and the general community.[1-2] Among other risk factors, such as poor diet, physical inactivity, and high rates of smoking, the iatrogenic effects of anti-psychotic medications have been found to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398159/the-important-application-of-thioridazine-in-the-endometrial-cancer
#10
Qiong Meng, Xiao Sun, Jing Wang, Yudong Wang, Lihua Wang
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer (ECa) is one of the serious healthy burden for female worldwide. The treatments of ECa focus on the application of endocrine therapy and aberrant signaling proteins expression recently years. Medroxyprogesterone acrtate (MPA) plays crucial role in the endocrine therapy for ECa patients. However, the outcomes are still not ideal in the advanced stage tumor, especially in the progesterone-resistant ECa. Thioridazine (THIO) is an anti-psychotic agent, which has been reported to suppress the development of several human cancers...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381554/the-%C3%AE-2c-adrenoceptor-antagonist-orm-10921-has-antipsychotic-like-effects-in-social-isolation-reared-rats-and-bolsters-the-response-to-haloperidol
#11
Madeleine Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Jukka Sallinen, Walter Dreyer, Marike Cockeran, Brian H Harvey
Early studies suggest that selective α2C-adrenoceptor (AR)-antagonism has anti-psychotic-like and pro-cognitive properties. However, this has not been demonstrated in an animal model of schizophrenia with a neurodevelopmental construct. The beneficial effects of clozapine in refractory schizophrenia and associated cognitive deficits have, among others, been associated with its α2C-AR modulating activity. Altered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to schizophrenia and cognitive deficits...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328427/patients-receiving-lithium-therapy-have-a-reduced-prevalence-of-neurological-and-cardiovascular-disorders
#12
James M Prosser, Ronald R Fieve
A variety of evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that lithium has neurotrophic and cytoprotective properties, and may ameliorate or prevent some disease states. We investigated whether such a protective effect can be observed in human psychiatric patients receiving lithium therapy. We carried out a retrospective chart review of 1028 adult psychiatric male and female outpatients attending four lithium clinics in metropolitan New York City. Patients were divided into two groups based on lithium usage, and the prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular disorders was compared...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303662/housing-as-a-social-determinant-of-health-in-singapore-and-its-association-with-readmission-risk-and-increased-utilization-of-hospital-services
#13
Lian Leng Low, Win Wah, Matthew Joo Ng, Shu Yun Tan, Nan Liu, Kheng Hock Lee
BACKGROUND: Residence in public rental housing is an area-level measure of socioeconomic status, but its impact as a social determinant of health in Singapore has not been studied. We therefore aimed to examine the association of public rental housing with readmission risk and increased utilization of hospital services in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using retrospective 2014 data from Singapore General Hospital's electronic health records...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273703/early-intervention-for-incipient-insanity-early-notions-from-the-19-th-century-english-literature
#14
Hang Sze Chau, Wai Sun Chong, Josephine Grace Wing San Wong, Gabriel Bing Kei Hung, Simon Sai Yu Lui, Sherry Kit Wa Chan, Wing Chung Chang, Christy Lai Ming Hui, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Patrick D McGorry, Peter B Jones, Eric Yu Hai Chen
AIM: Early intervention programmes in mental illnesses started to bloom in the 1990s, and many programmes have been established worldwide during the past twenty years. However, the concept of early intervention has emerged during the 19th century but it did not make much impact on practice. The aim of this review is to identify the difficulties appeared during that period of time which could provide insight into the modern development of early intervention initiatives. METHODS: A narrative review which focused on English literature about early intervention for insanity during the 19th century was undertaken...
June 7, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271087/efficacy-and-safety-of-asenapine-in-asian-patients-with-an-acute-exacerbation-of-schizophrenia-a-multicentre-randomized-double-blind-6-week-placebo-controlled-study
#15
Toshihiko Kinoshita, Ya-Mei Bai, Jong-Hoon Kim, Mutsuo Miyake, Nobuyuki Oshima
RATIONALE: Asenapine is a second generation anti-psychotic approved in the USA in 2009 for the treatment of schizophrenia, but its efficacy has not been proven in Asian patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of asenapine in Asian patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind study, patients in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan were randomized (1:1:1) to asenapine 5 mg twice daily (bid), 10 mg bid or placebo for 6 weeks after a 3- to 7-day washout/screening period...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256515/effect-of-in-utero-exposure-to-the-atypical-anti-psychotic-risperidone-on-histopathological-features-of-the-rat-placenta
#16
K P Singh, Manoj K Singh, Shrikant Gautam
For clinical management of different forms of psychosis, both classical and atypical anti-psychotic drugs (APDs) are available. These drugs are widely prescribed, even during pregnancy considering their minimal extra-pyramidal side effects and teratogenic potential compared to classical APDs. Among AAPDs, risperidone (RIS) is a first-line drug of choice by physicians. The molecular weight of RIS is 410.49 g/mol; hence, it can easily cross the placental barrier and enter the foetal bloodstream. It is not known whether or not AAPDs like RIS may affect the developing placenta and foetus adversely...
April 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213404/pharmacologic-evaluation-of-antidepressant-activity-and-synthesis-of-2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6h-1-3-4-thiadiazine-hydrobromide
#17
Alexey P Sarapultsev, Oleg N Chupakhin, Petr A Sarapultsev, Larisa P Sidorova, Tatiana A Tseitler
Substituted thiadiazines exert a reliable therapeutic effect in treating stress, and a schematic description of their ability to influence all aspects of a stress response has been depicted. This study was conducted to pharmacologically evaluate compound L-17, a substituted thiadiazine, (2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine, hydrobromide) for possible anti-psychotic/antidepressant activity. Compound L-17 was synthesized by cyclocondensation of α-bromoacetophenone with the original morpholine-4-carbothionic acid hydrazide...
May 19, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180307/repositioning-of-drugs-for-intervention-in-tumor-progression-and-metastasis-old-drugs-for-new-targets
#18
Giridhar Mudduluru, Wolfgang Walther, Dennis Kobelt, Mathias Dahlmann, Christoph Treese, Yehuda G Assaraf, Ulrike Stein
The increasing unraveling of the molecular basis of cancer offers manifold novel options for intervention strategies. However, the discovery and development of new drugs for potential clinical applications is a tremendously time-consuming and costly process. Translating a novel lead candidate compound into an approved clinical drug takes often more than a decade, and the success rate is very low due to versatile efforts including defining its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, side effects as well as lack of sufficient efficacy...
May 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179911/the-induced-hyperactivity-test-for-the-de-risking-of-potential-off-target-activity-of-antihypertensive-drugs
#19
Herbert M Himmel, Michael Hoffmann
INTRODUCTION: Compound X is a new proprietary antihypertensive agent that induces its pharmacodynamic effect at an approximate plasma Cmax.u of 0.6nmol/L (rat hypertension model). However, Compound X also shows potent off-target activity at PDE-10a (IC50~12nmol/L). Since PDE-10a is expressed predominantly in brain (striatum) and inhibition/knockout of PDE-10a have been reported to result in anti-psychotic effects, we have established the "induced hyperactivity" test for CNS de-risking of Compound X...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132157/parkinson-s-disease-visual-hallucinations-and-apomorphine-a-review-of-the-available-evidence
#20
Robbert W K Borgemeester, Andrew J Lees, Teus van Laar
BACKGROUND: Visual hallucinations (VH) occur in the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are predictive for PD dementia. The genesis of VH is related to impaired bottom-up and/or top-down visual processing which can be linked to cholinergic dysfunction and mono-amine imbalance. The risk of developing VH with oral dopamine agonists seems to increase with advancing disease, while in contrast some clinical studies suggest that apomorphine does not worsen VH, or might even improve VH...
June 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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