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A Kenneth MacLeod, Lesley A McLaughlin, Colin J Henderson, C Roland Wolf
Tamoxifen is an oestrogen-receptor (ER) antagonist used in the treatment of breast cancer. It is a pro-drug, converted by several P450 enzymes to a primary metabolite, N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDT), which is then further modified by CYP2D6 to a pharmacologically potent secondary metabolite, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen). Anti-depressants (ADs), which are often co-prescribed to patients receiving tamoxifen, are also metabolised by CYP2D6 and evidence suggests that a drug-drug interaction (DDI) between these agents adversely affects the outcome of tamoxifen therapy by inhibiting endoxifen formation...
October 18, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Gitta Wörtwein, Jonas Folke, Bente Pakkenberg
Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is one of the strongest stimulators of hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents that represents a plausible mechanism for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder. Using design-based stereological cell counting, we recently documented an initial 2.6-fold increase in neurogenesis following a clinical relevant schedule of ECS, a treatment also rescuing depression-like behavior in rats. However, these results gave no demonstration of the longevity of newly-generated neurons...
October 18, 2016: Hippocampus
Alexandra S Creighton, Tanya E Davison, David W Kissane
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize and summarize the studies examining the correlates and predictors of anxiety in older adults living in residential aged care. METHODS: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, five electronic databases were searched using key terms and subject headings, as well as reference lists of relevant papers. The search was limited to peer-reviewed literature published in English. Eligible studies examined the association between at least one correlate/factor and anxiety disorders or symptoms in aged care residents aged 50+ years...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Santhanalakshmi Sundaramurthy, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Devadoss J Samuvel, Toni S Shippenberg, Lankupalle D Jayanthi, Sammanda Ramamoorthy
Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists produce dysphoria and psychotomimesis. While KOR agonists produce pro-depressant-like effects, KOR antagonists produce anti-depressant-like effects in rodent models. The cellular mechanisms and downstream effector(s) by which KOR ligands produce these effects are not clear. KOR agonists modulate serotonin (5-HT) transmission in the brain regions implicated in mood and motivation regulation. Presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) activity is critical in the modulation of synaptic 5-HT and, subsequently, in mood disorders...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Ghulam Dastagir, Muhammad Afzal Rizvi
Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Humera Ishaq
Present study was planned to search for neuropharmacological properties of methanolic extracts of different parts of Melia azedarach Linn. because conventional medicine shows adverse effects. Recently natural products are studied worldwide, as safer alternatives, which are not duly supported with scientifically proved data. Melia azedarach (Bakayan, China berry tree) is medium sized tree belonging to family Meliaceae. Traditional use of plant is as anthelmintic, antilithic and diuretic. Topical application of oil for cramps and rheumatism is beneficial...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Morten Tønning, Dorthe Petersen, Marie Steglich-Petersen, Claudio Csillag
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and body weight have been shown to be associated to treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder, but this relationship is not clear. Visceral fat might be an underlying mechanism explaining this relationship. AIMS: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether visceral fat, as measured by hip-to-waist ratio and waist circumference, affects treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder in patients attending a hospital psychiatric care unit in Denmark...
October 5, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah J Peterson, Elizabeth A McAninch, Antonio C Bianco
CONTEXT: Levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy is the standard of care for hypothyroidism. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether LT4 at doses that normalize the serum TSH is associated with normal markers of thyroid status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2012) was used to evaluate 52 clinical parameters. LT4-users were compared to healthy controls and controls matched for age, sex, race, and serum TSH...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lye Huey Shi, Kunasundari Balakrishnan, Kokila Thiagarajah, Nor Ismaliza Mohd Ismail, Ooi Shao Yin
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as "health friendly bacteria", which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller's diarrhoea...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Mohammad Yusuf, Maria Khan, Riaz A Khan, Ibrahim Abdullah Maghrabi, Bahar Ahmed
Depression is a modern world epidemic. Its main causative factor is oxidative stress, as reported in study subjects. Natural products are yet to show significant therapeutic effects in comparison with synthetic drugs. Current study deals with the preparation of brain-targeted polysorbate-80-coated curcumin PLGA nanoparticles (PS-80-CUR-NP), and their characterisation via Spectral and optical methods. PS-80-CUR-NP were evaluated against the oxidative stress-mediated depressant (OSMD) activity via Force despair, Tail suspension tests and stress biomarker assay (SOD and catalase activity)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
Yue Zhu, Xiuzhu Duan, Xiaoxuan Cheng, Xiaonan Cheng, Xu Li, Liu Zhang, Pei Liu, Su Shulan, Jin-Ao Duan, Tina Ting-Xia Dong, Karl Wah-Keung Tsim, Fei Huang
BACKGROUND: Kai-xin-san (KXS), composed of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Poria, is a famous Chinese medicinal formula applied for treating stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms such as depression, forgetfulness and dizziness. Dependent on the symptom differentiation of patients, the composition ratio of KXS was varied and one ratio of 3:2:2:3 was widely applied. However, its molecular mechanism has seldom been investigated. PURPOSE: We aimed to reveal the action mechanism of KXS on anti-depression on synaptic protein regulation in both in vivo and in vitro models...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cristina Lemini, María Estela Avila, Martha Medina, Carlos Sánchez, Alejandra Figueroa, Juana García-Mondragón, Arsenio Vargas-Vázquez, Alejandro Jiménez-Orozco
The 17β-aminoestrogens (AEs) prolame, butolame and pentolame are weakly oestrogenic in rodents and display anticoagulant properties in contrast to oestradiol (E2 ) which presents procoagulant effects, potentially thrombogenic. They possess anti-anxiety and anti-depressive properties, being good candidates for menopausal hormone therapy. Their capability to induce proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which proliferative rate depends on oestrogens, has not been explored; thus, the aim of this work was to characterize it...
September 16, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Éva Borbély, Zsófia Hajna, Liza Nabi, Bálint Scheich, Valéria Tékus, Kristóf László, Tamás Ollmann, Viktória Kormos, Balázs Gaszner, Zoltán Karádi, László Lénárd, Christopher J Paige, John P Quinn, János Szolcsányi, Erika Pintér, Julie Keeble, Alexandra Berger, Zsuzsanna Helyes
The tachykinin NK1 receptor was suggested to be involved in psychiatric disorders, but its antagonists have failed to be effective as antidepressants in clinical trials. Hemokinin-1 (HK-1), the newest tachykinin, is present in several brain regions and activates the NK1 receptor similarly to substance P (SP), but acts also through other mechanisms. Therefore, we investigated the roles of the Tac4 gene-derived HK-1 in comparison with SP and neurokinin A (NKA) encoded by the Tac1 gene, as well as the NK1 receptor in anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice...
September 9, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Davor Kin-Fan Chau, Angus Yiu-Ting Choi, Wen Yang, Wing Nang Leung, Chun Wai Chan
The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) remains controversial. Deficits in social communication are one of the key criteria for ASD diagnosis. Valproic acid (VPA), which is an anti-epileptic and anti-depressive drug, is one of the teratogens to cause ASD onset. Moreover, synaptic dysfunction is suggested as one of the major causative factor in VPA-induced ASD in vitro and in vivo studies. Herein, this study aimed to determine the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic mRNA and protein expression in VPA-induced autistic mice...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Antonella Pollano, María I Zalosnik, Patricia E Durando, Marta M Suárez
Early maternal separation (MS) may produce lasting effects in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) that can change its response to chronic stress in adulthood. Chronic stress affects DH morphology and function, but tianeptine (an anti-depressant) can reverse the stress-induced morphological impairments. Morphologic alterations of hippocampus can affect contextual memory. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of tianeptine in MS and chronically stressed rats, on: 1) volume of the DH and its areas using stereology, and 2) hippocampal dependent memory using a fear conditioning test...
September 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Pamela Ovadje, Saleem Ammar, Jose-Antonio Guerrero, John Thor Arnason, Siyaram Pandey
Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
James White, Mika Kivimäki, Markus Jokela, G David Batty
Elevated levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein, are well documented in people with depression. Few studies have examined whether the association between inflammation and depression is symptom specific, and differs according to antidepressant treatment. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (N = 5 909), cross-sectional analyses revealed a significant dose-response association between C-reactive protein and the symptoms of fatigue (P < 0.001), restless sleep (P = 0.03), low energy (P = 0...
August 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Chao-Wei Huang, Tzu-Wen Hong, Ying-Jing Wang, Ko-Chien Chen, Ju-Chun Pei, Tai-Yuan Chuang, Wen-Sung Lai, Sheng-Hong Tsai, Richard Chu, Wei-Cheng Chen, Lee-Yan Sheen, Satoru Takahashi, Shih-Torng Ding, Tang-Long Shen
BACKGROUND: A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Tu M Ha, Qian Wang, Jieping Zhu
A copper-catalysed cyanoalkylative cycloetherification of alkenes was developed. Heating a solution of substituted (2-vinylphenyl)methanol in MeCN/MeOH (v/v 7/3) in the presence of a catalytic amount of copper(ii) tetrafluoroborate hydrate [Cu(BF4)2·6H2O], bathophenanthroline, K3PO4, BnOH and (tBuO)2 afforded 1,3-dihydroisobenzofurans (phthalanes) via formation of one C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) and one C(sp(3))-O bonds. A concise synthesis of citalopram, a marketed anti-depressant drug, was accomplished by applying this novel synthetic transformation...
September 25, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner...
October 2016: Neurochemistry International
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