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Larisa Melnikova, Margarita Kostyuchenko, Varvara Molodina, Alexander Parshikov, Pavel Georgiev, Anton Golovnin
The best-studied Drosophila insulator complex consists of two BTB-containing proteins, the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 isoform and CP190, which are recruited to the chromatin through interactions with the DNA-binding Su(Hw) protein. It was shown previously that Mod(mdg4)-67.2 is critical for the enhancer-blocking activity of the Su(Hw) insulators and it differs from more than 30 other Mod(mdg4) isoforms by the C-terminal domain required for a specific interaction with Su(Hw) only. The mechanism of the highly specific association between Mod(mdg4)-67...
October 2017: Open Biology
Qianying Liu, Zhixin Lei, Anxiong Huang, Qirong Lu, Xu Wang, Saeed Ahmed, Ihsan Awais, Zonghui Yuan
Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent widely used in China since the 1980s. Although the toxicity of MEQ is well recognized, its testis toxicity has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, we provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and spermatogenesis deficiency in mice after exposure to MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg in the diet) for up to 18 months. The genotoxicity and adrenal toxicity may contribute to sperm abnormalities caused by MEQ. Moreover, using LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, two metabolites, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4) and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8), were detected in the serum of mice, which directly confirms the relationship between the N→O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and oxidative stress...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zhaobin Dong, Wei Li, Erica Unger-Wallace, Jinliang Yang, Erik Vollbrecht, George Chuck
Axillary branch suppression is a favorable trait bred into many domesticated crop plants including maize compared with its highly branched wild ancestor teosinte. Branch suppression in maize was achieved through selection of a gain of function allele of the teosinte branched1 (tb1) transcription factor that acts as a repressor of axillary bud growth. Previous work indicated that other loci may function epistatically with tb1 and may be responsible for some of its phenotypic effects. Here, we show that tb1 mediates axillary branch suppression through direct activation of the tassels replace upper ears1 (tru1) gene that encodes an ankyrin repeat domain protein containing a BTB/POZ motif necessary for protein-protein interactions...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hiroteru Hayashi, Daisaburo Kurosaka, Mitsuru Saito, Ryo Ikeda, Eiji Kijima, Yu Yamashita, Keishi Marumo
Good clinical results have been reported with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions in which rectangular bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) grafts were fixed into rectangular bone tunnels made at anatomic ACL insertion sites of the femur and tibia (anatomic rectangular tunnel BTB ACL reconstruction). Notwithstanding these good results, some problems have remained unsolved, including procedural complexity and risk of damage to the femoral posterior tunnel wall, damage to nerves and blood vessels, and damage to cartilage...
August 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
Sana-Kay Whyte-Allman, Md Tozammel Hoque, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Reina Bendayan
Poor antiretroviral drug (ARV) penetration in the testes could, in part, be due to the presence of ATP-binding cassette membrane-associated drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) expressed at the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The functional expression of these transporters is known to be regulated by ligand-activated nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), in various tissues...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Giovanni Marchetti, Gaia Tavosanis
The functional variety in neuronal composition of an adult brain is established during development. Recent studies proposed that interactions between genetic intrinsic programs and external cues are necessary to generate proper neural diversity [1]. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental process are still poorly understood. Three main subtypes of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons are sequentially generated during development and provide a good example of developmental neural plasticity [2]...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Miao Long, Shuhua Yang, Shuang Dong, Xinliang Chen, Yi Zhang, Jianbin He
A total of 95 8-week-old male Kunming mice were randomly assigned into five groups and exposed to zearalenone (ZEA) at doses of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg delivered by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection for 5 days. The testis and epididymis indices involving sperm quality and morphology, testis enzyme activities, serum concentrations of testosterone and estrogen, and the expression levels of the three gene and protein of N-cadherin, vimentin, and claudin 11 related to the blood testis barrier (BTB) were analyzed...
September 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniel M Pinkas, Caroline E Sanvitale, Joshua C Bufton, Fiona J Sorrell, Nicolae Solcan, Rod Chalk, James Doutch, Alex N Bullock
Members of the potassium channel tetramerization domain (KCTD) family are soluble non-channel proteins that commonly function as Cullin3 (Cul3)-dependent E3 ligases. Solution studies of the N-terminal BTB domain have suggested that some KCTD family members may tetramerize similarly to the homologous tetramerization domain (T1) of the voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. However, available structures of KCTD1, KCTD5 and KCTD9 have demonstrated instead pentameric assemblies. To explore other phylogenetic clades within the KCTD family, we determined the crystal structures of the BTB domains of a further five human KCTD proteins revealing a rich variety of oligomerization architectures, including monomer (SHKBP1), a novel two-fold symmetric tetramer (KCTD10 and KCTD13), open pentamer (KCTD16) and closed pentamer (KCTD17)...
September 28, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Kung-Wen Lu, Yi-Shih Ma, Fu-Shun Yu, Yi-Ping Huang, Yung-Lin Chu, Rick Sai-Chuen Wu, Ching-Lung Liao, Fu-Shin Chueh, Jing-Gung Chung
Gypenosides (Gyp), the primary components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, have long been used as a Chinese herbal medicine. In the present study, the effects of Gyp on cell viability, the cell cycle, cell apoptosis, DNA damage and chromatin condensation were investigated in vitro using human oral cancer HSC-3 cells. The results of the present study indicated that Gyp induces cell death, G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in HSC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also demonstrated that Gyp decreased the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in a time-dependent manner...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Anu Sharma, Kishore Babu Bandamaravuri, Anjana Sharma, Dillip K Arora
In the present study, heterogeneity in natural chickpea rhizobia populations associated with 18 different chickpea (Cicer arientinum) cultivars of India was investigated. Physiological diversity of 20 chickpea rhizobia was characterized based on phenotypic parameters such as Bromothymol blue (BTB) test, pH, temperature and salinity tolerance. Based on response to BTB test and pH tolerance, all chickpea rhizobia were further divided into slow growers/alkali producers (14 isolates) and fast growers/acid producers (6 isolates)...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Lian-Ju Shen, Xiang-Liang Tang, Chun-Lan Long, Xi-Ning Cao, Yi Wei, Yang-Cai Wang, Mang Sun, Yue Zhou, Yang Liu, Bo Liu, Fang-Yuan Huang, Guang-Hui Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanism of di-(2-ethylhcxyl)phthalate (DEHP) exposure in causing blood-testis barrier (BTB) impairment in rats. METHODS: Two-months-old male SD rats were randomly divided into corn oil control group and DEHP (750 mg/kg) exposure group for daily intragastic treatment for 30 consecutive days. After the treatments the rats were examined for histomorphological changes of the testicle using HE staining and the expressions of the junction proteins N-cadherin β-catenin, occludin and connexin43 of the BTB using Western blot...
September 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
O Šeda, L Šedová, J Včelák, M Vaňková, F Liška, B Bendlová
Metabolic syndrome is a prevalent, complex condition. The search for genetic determinants of the syndrome is currently undergoing a paradigm enhancement by adding systems genetics approaches to association studies. We summarize the current evidence on relations between an emergent new candidate, zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) transcription factor and the major components constituting the metabolic syndrome. Information stemming from studies on experimental models with altered Zbtb16 expression clearly shows its effect on adipogenesis, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, lipid levels and insulin sensitivity...
September 26, 2017: Physiological Research
Liu Yang, Tiejun Wang, Jun Zhang, Xuxia Wang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complicated process that has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis as well as the formation of many tissues and organs. BTB/POZ domain-containing protein 7 (BTBD7) is reported to regulate transcriptional factors and involved in the process of invasion and metastasis of some malignant tumors. Additionally, our preliminary studies have confirmed that BTBD7 expression was significantly correlated with Slug expression and poor prognosis of primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC)...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Larisa Melnikova, Margarita Kostyuchenko, Varvara Molodina, Alexander Parshikov, Pavel Georgiev, Anton Golovnin
The best-studied Drosophila insulator complex consists of two BTB-containing proteins, the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 isoform and CP190, which are recruited cooperatively to chromatin through interactions with the DNA-binding architectural protein Su(Hw). While Mod(mdg4)-67.2 interacts only with Su(Hw), CP190 interacts with many other architectural proteins. In spite of the fact that CP190 is critical for the activity of Su(Hw) insulators, interaction between these proteins has not been studied yet. Therefore, we have performed a detailed analysis of domains involved in the interaction between the Su(Hw) and CP190...
September 22, 2017: Chromosoma
Sunil Kumar Singh, Vajinder Kumar Kumar, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Paramvir Singh Ahuja, Shripad Ramchandra Bhat, Yelam Sreenivasulu
In plants, the role of TRAF-like proteins with meprin and the TRAF homology (MATH) domain is far from clear. In animals, these proteins serve as adapter molecules to mediate signal transduction from TNF-R to downstream effector molecules. A seed-sterile mutant with disrupted TRAF-like gene (At5g26290) exhibiting aberrant gametogenesis led us to investigate the developmental role of this gene in Arabidopsis. The mutation was semi-dominant and resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes with such features as short siliques with fewer ovules, pollen and seed sterility, altered MMC specification, and delayed programmed cell death in megaspores and the tapetum-features that overlapped those in other well-characterized mutants...
September 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Nina Kerres, Steffen Steurer, Stefanie Schlager, Gerd Bader, Helmut Berger, Maureen Caligiuri, Christian Dank, John R Engen, Peter Ettmayer, Bernhard Fischerauer, Gerlinde Flotzinger, Daniel Gerlach, Thomas Gerstberger, Teresa Gmaschitz, Peter Greb, Bingsong Han, Elizabeth Heyes, Roxana E Iacob, Dirk Kessler, Heike Kölle, Lyne Lamarre, David R Lancia, Simon Lucas, Moriz Mayer, Katharina Mayr, Nikolai Mischerikow, Katja Mück, Christoph Peinsipp, Oliver Petermann, Ulrich Reiser, Dorothea Rudolph, Klaus Rumpel, Carina Salomon, Dirk Scharn, Renate Schnitzer, Andreas Schrenk, Norbert Schweifer, Diane Thompson, Elisabeth Traxler, Roland Varecka, Tilman Voss, Alexander Weiss-Puxbaum, Sandra Winkler, Xiaozhang Zheng, Andreas Zoephel, Norbert Kraut, Darryl McConnell, Mark Pearson, Manfred Koegl
The transcription factor BCL6 is a known driver of oncogenesis in lymphoid malignancies, including diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Disruption of its interaction with transcriptional repressors interferes with the oncogenic effects of BCL6. We used a structure-based drug design to develop highly potent compounds that block this interaction. A subset of these inhibitors also causes rapid ubiquitylation and degradation of BCL6 in cells. These compounds display significantly stronger induction of expression of BCL6-repressed genes and anti-proliferative effects than compounds that merely inhibit co-repressor interactions...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
Li-Ying Lin, S E Evans, L Fairall, John W R Schwabe, Simon D Wagner, Frederick W Muskett
BCL6 is a transcriptional repressor. Two domains of the protein, the N-terminal BTB-POZ domain and the RD2 domain are responsible for recruitment of co-repressor molecules and histone deacetylases. The BTB-POZ domain is found in a large and diverse range of proteins that play important roles in development, homeostasis and neoplasia. Crystal structures of several BTB-POZ domains, including BCL6 have been determined. The BTB-POZ domain of BCL6 not only mediates dimerisation but is also responsible for recruitment of co-repressors such as SMRT, NCOR and BCOR...
September 19, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Yuanjun Hu, Lixuan Yang, Maolei Zhang, Zhengsong Huang, Jiaping Lin, Nu Zhang
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a type of malignant brain tumor in children. Although knowledge of MB is increasing and the survival rate of patients with MB has improved in previous years, the long-term treatment-associated complications remain unfavorable. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical for patients with MB, but effective molecular markers for MB remain elusive. The Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is a member of the MATH-BTB protein family and is a type of joint molecule for Cullin-3. SPOP inhibits tumor growth...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
R M Bennett
A brief history of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and its control in Great Britain (GB) is presented. Numerous diverse policies to control the disease in humans, cattle and wildlife have been pursued over the last 100 years and many millions of pounds have been spent. After notable success in reducing the incidence and prevalence of bTB in cattle in GB from the 1950s to the mid-1980s, the geographical spread of the disease and the number of cattle slaughtered have increased continually since that time, with a high point of bTB incidence in 2008...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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