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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921352/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-unexpected-death-of-a-loved-one-cross-national-findings-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#1
Lukoye Atwoli, Dan J Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Margreet Ten Have, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. METHODS: Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917464/relation-of-dysglycemia-to-structural-brain-changes-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-cohort
#2
Christiane Reitz, Vanessa A Guzman, Atul Narkhede, Charles DeCarli, Adam M Brickman, José A Luchsinger
OBJECTIVES: Abnormally high glucose levels (dysglycemia) increase with age. Epidemiological studies suggest that dysglycemia is a risk factor for cognitive impairment but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of dysglycemia clinical categories (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, known diabetes) with brain structure in older adults. We also assessed the relation between dysglycemia and cognitive performance...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917152/amyloid-dysmetabolism-relates-to-reduced-glucose-uptake-in-white-matter-hyperintensities
#3
Lisa Flem Kalheim, Per Selnes, Atle Bjørnerud, Christopher Coello, Kjetil Vegge, Tormod Fladby
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia and is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. AD has traditionally been considered to primarily affect gray matter, but multiple lines of evidence also indicate white matter (WM) pathology and associated small-vessel cerebrovascular disease. WM glucose delivery and metabolism may have implications for local tissue integrity, and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be helpful to assess neuroglial and axonal function in WM...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#4
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866355/the-descriptive-epidemiology-of-dsm-iv-adult-adhd-in-the-world-health-organization-world-mental-health-surveys
#5
John Fayyad, Nancy A Sampson, Irving Hwang, Tomasz Adamowski, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Laura H S G Andrade, Guilherme Borges, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G Karam, Sing Lee, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Miguel Xavier, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2...
November 19, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864579/automated-segmentation-reveals-silent-radiographic-progression-in-adult-onset-vanishing-white-matter-disease
#6
Thomas Huber, Marina Herwerth, Esther Alberts, Jan S Kirschke, Claus Zimmer, Ruediger Ilg
Adult-onset vanishing white-matter disease (VWM) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with neurological symptoms such as ataxia and paraparesis, showing extensive white-matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Besides symptom-specific scores like the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), there is no established tool to monitor disease progression. Because of extensive WMH, visual comparison of MR images is challenging. Here, we report the results of an automated method of segmentation to detect alterations in T2-weighted fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences in a one-year follow-up study of a clinically stable patient with genetically diagnosed VWM...
November 18, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824925/impact-of-strategically-located-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-cognition-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-small-vessel-disease
#7
J Matthijs Biesbroek, Nick A Weaver, Saima Hilal, Hugo J Kuijf, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Xin Xu, Boon Yeow Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Albert Postma, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher P L H Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies on the impact of small vessel disease (SVD) on cognition generally focus on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. The extent to which WMH location relates to cognitive performance has received less attention, but is likely to be functionally important. We examined the relation between WMH location and cognition in a memory clinic cohort of patients with sporadic SVD. METHODS: A total of 167 patients with SVD were recruited from memory clinics...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816937/contributors-to-poor-mobility-in-older-adults-integrating-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-conditions-affecting-other-systems
#8
Andrea L Rosso, Stephanie A Studenski, W T Longstreth, Jennifer S Brach, Robert M Boudreau, Caterina Rosano
BACKGROUND: Age-related mobility limitations are debilitating and common. Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and conditions affecting other systems are known contributors, but have been studied in isolation. METHODS: In 2,703 adults aged 65 years or older, we assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal gait speed and mobility disability (self-reported difficulty walking half mile) in those with and without high burden of MRI-defined WMH along with six other conditions (OCs) affecting mobility: gender-specific weak grip; poor self-reported vision; gender-specific lowest quartile of forced vital capacity; self-reported joint pain; ankle-arm index less than 0...
November 5, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816667/correlation-between-brain-damage-associated-biomarkers-and-medication-in-psychiatric-inpatients-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Madoka Yoshida, Tetsuto Kanzaki, Mutsumi Mizoi, Mizuho Nakamura, Takeshi Uemura, Seisuke Mimori, Yoriyasu Uju, Keisuke Sekine, Yukihiro Ishii, Taro Yoshimi, Reiko Yasui, Asuka Yasukawa, Mamoru Sato, Seiko Okamoto, Tetsuya Hisaoka, Masafumi Miura, Shun Kusanishi, Kanako Murakami, Chieko Nakano, Yasuhiko Mizuta, Shunichi Mishima, Tatsuro Hayakawa, Kazumi Tsukada, Keiko Kashiwagi, Kazuei Igarashi
BACKGROUND: We clarified the correlation between brain damage, associated biomarkers and medication in psychiatric patients, because patients with schizophrenia have an increased risk of stroke. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was performed from January 2013 to December 2015. Study participants were 96 hospitalized patients (41 men and 55 women) in the Department of Psychiatry at Kohnodai Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba, Japan...
November 3, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807615/the-role-of-religious-advisors-in-mental-health-care-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#10
Vivianne Kovess-Masfety, Sara Evans-Lacko, David Williams, Laura Helena Andrade, Corina Benjet, Margreet Ten Have, Klaas Wardenaar, Elie G Karam, Ronny Bruffaerts, Jibril Abdumalik, Josep Maria Haro Abad, Silvia Florescu, Benjamin Wu, Peter De Jonge, Yasmina Altwaijri, Hristo Hinkov, Norito Kawakami, Jose Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Evelyn Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, José Posada-Villa, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Yueqin Huang, Chiyi Hu, Maria Carmen Viana, John Fayyad, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Koen Demyttenaere, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Samuel Murphy, Miguel Xavier, Tadashi Takeshima, Oye Gureje
OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. METHODS: Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five low/lower-middle (LLMI) income countries totalling 101,258 adults interviewed with the WMH CIDI plus questions on use of care for mental health problems and religiosity. RESULTS: 1...
November 2, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796861/recent-advances-in-leukoaraiosis-white-matter-structural-integrity-and-functional-outcomes-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Mark R Etherton, Ona Wu, Natalia S Rost
Leukoaraiosis, a radiographic marker of cerebral small vessel disease detected on T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as white matter hyperintensity (WMH), is a key contributor to the risk and severity of acute cerebral ischemia. Prior investigations have emphasized the pathophysiology of WMH development and progression; however, more recently, an association between WMH burden and functional outcomes after stroke has emerged. There is growing evidence that WMH represents macroscopic injury to the white matter and that the extent of WMH burden on MRI influences functional recovery in multiple domains following acute ischemic stroke (AIS)...
December 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796731/mental-speed-is-associated-with-the-shape-irregularity-of-white-matter-mri-hyperintensity-load
#12
Catharina Lange, Per Suppa, Anja Mäurer, Kerstin Ritter, Uwe Pietrzyk, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Jochen B Fiebach, Lothar Spies, Ralph Buchert
Brain MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are common in elderly subjects. Their impact on cognition, however, appears highly variable. Complementing conventional scoring of WMH load (volume and location) by quantitative characterization of the shape irregularity of WMHs might improve the understanding of the relationship between WMH load and cognitive performance. Here we propose the "confluency sum score" (COSU) as a marker of the total shape irregularity of WMHs in the brain. The study included two independent patient samples: 87 cognitively impaired geriatric inpatients from a prospective neuroimaging study (iDSS) and 198 subjects from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) database (132 with, 66 w/o cognitive impairment)...
October 28, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792692/-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-late-onset-mania
#13
Jesús Ramírez-Bermúdez, Roger Carrillo-Mezo, Carmen Atriano, Dora Sánchez, Óscar Marrufo-Meléndez, Cecilia Berlanga, Adilia Guadamuz, Jesús Taboada, Camilo Ríos
Bipolar disorder is characterized by affective episodes in the mania-depression spectrum. Ninety per cent of the cases have an onset before age 50. In the patients with late onset mania, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) may be seen in the MRI FLAIR sequence, although these are of uncertain significance. A case-control study was done, including patients with late onset mania attended at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, as well as healthy controls which were paired by age, sex, and academic level...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767995/association-of-kidney-function-biomarkers-with-brain-mri-findings-the-brink-study
#14
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Emily S Lundt, Stephen D Weigand, Samantha M Zuk, Kaely B Thostenson, Robert I Reid, Kejal Kantarci, Yelena Slinin, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Cynthia S Davey, Anne Murray
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies have reported variable prevalence of brain pathologies, in part due to low inclusion of participants with moderate to severe CKD. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between kidney function biomarkers and brain MRI findings in CKD. METHODS: In the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease) study, MRI was used to measure gray matter volumes, cerebrovascular pathologies (white matter hyperintensity (WMH), infarctions, microhemorrhages), and microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765441/health-conditions-and-role-limitation-in-three-european-regions-a-public-health-perspective
#15
Gabriela Barbaglia, Núria D Adroher, Gemma Vilagut, Ronny Bruffaerts, Brentan Bunting, José Miguel Caldas de Almeida, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Ron de Graaf, Josep Maria Haro, Hristo Hinkov, Vivianne Kovess-Masfety, Herbert Matschinger, Jordi Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. METHODS: Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3...
October 17, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752514/white-matter-hyperintensities-incident-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-cognitive-decline-in-old-age
#16
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Debra A Fleischman, Sue Leurgans, Jingyun Yang, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, Zoe Arvanitakis, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and rate of decline in multiple cognitive systems in community-based older persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 354) were older persons initially free of cognitive impairment from two ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic studies of aging. All underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of WMH and gray matter volumes and detailed annual clinical evaluations including 17 cognitive tests...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744126/cerebral-vascular-burden-on-hippocampal-subfields-in-first-onset-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-subjects-with-late-onset-depression
#17
Woo Hee Choi, Won Sang Jung, Yoo Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Young Ha Park, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although there is substantial evidence of associations between frontal-striatal circuits and cerebral vascular burden in late-onset depression (LOD), relationships between vascular burden and hippocampal subfields are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between cerebral vascular burden and hippocampal subfield volume in LOD patients. METHODS: Fifty subjects with LOD and 50 group-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733566/slow-gait-white-matter-characteristics-and-prior-10-year-interleukin-6-levels-in-older-adults
#18
Neelesh K Nadkarni, Robert M Boudreau, Stephanie A Studenski, Oscar L Lopez, Ge Liu, Stephen Kritchevsky, Kristine Yaffe, Anne B Newman, Caterina Rosano
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gait speed and prior 10 years interleukin-6 (IL-6) burden in older adults. We then assessed whether white matter characteristics influence this relationship. METHODS: In 179 community-dwelling older adults, gait speed was assessed on an automated walkway and serum IL-6 was assayed on ELISA. Concurrently, white matter characteristics were assessed on MRI by quantifying volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of small vessel disease, and normal-appearing white matter on fractional anisotropy (NAWM-FA), a marker of axonal integrity...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716145/kidney-function-is-associated-with-severity-of-white-matter-hyperintensity-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-tia
#19
Lixia Zong, Ming Yao, Jun Ni, Lixin Zhou, Jing Yuan, Bin Peng, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Liying Cui
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested the potential interactions between cerebrovascular diseases and impaired renal function. However, the relationship between renal function and white matter hyperintensity (WMH), marker of cerebral small vessel disease, in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 1632 subjects with AIS or TIA who underwent brain MRI for this analysis. The severity of WMH in both of periventricular (PVH) and deep subcortical white matter (SDWMH) was evaluated using Fazekas scale...
October 6, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694965/coronary-artery-calcium-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-in-cognitively-normal-individuals
#20
Jin San Lee, Danbee Kang, Young Kyoung Jang, Hee Jin Kim, Duk L Na, Hee Young Shin, Mira Kang, Jin-Ju Yang, Jong-Min Lee, Juyoun Lee, Yeo Jin Kim, Key-Chung Park, Eliseo Guallar, Sang Won Seo, Juhee Cho
To evaluate the association between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals, with special emphasis in determining if the association thickness has regional brain specificity and if it is mediated by white matter hyperintensities (WMH). A total of 512 participants were included in this study. CAC scores were assessed by multi-detector computed tomography. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association between CAC scores and cortical thickness...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
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