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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128108/rebalancing-the-addicted-brain-oxytocin-interference-with-the-neural-substrates-of-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
Drugs that act on the brain oxytocin (OXT) system may provide a much-needed treatment breakthrough for substance-use disorders. Targeting the brain OXT system has the potential to treat addiction to all major classes of addictive substance and to intervene across all stages of the addiction cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that OXT is able to interfere with such a wide range of addictive behaviours for such a wide range of addictive substances by rebalancing core neural systems that become dysregulated over the course of addiction...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120706/administration-of-cloprostenol-and-oxytocin-before-electroejaculation-in-goat-bucks-reduces-the-needed-amount-of-electrical-stimulation-without-affecting-seminal-quality
#2
Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Daniela Casuriaga, Julia Giriboni, Aline Freitas-de-Melo, Patricia Silveira, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
Electroejaculation (EE) is a widely used semen collection technique; but, it is stressful and painful for the animals. Considering these concerns, it may be important to develop practices to decrease the negative implications of EE on animals. Oxytocin and prostaglandin-F2alpha (PGF2α) stimulate the contractions of the muscles of the male genital tract. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the administration of oxytocin and/or a PGF2α analogue (cloprostenol) to bucks in relation to their stress response and sperm parameters before semen collection by EE was performed...
October 28, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118105/neuropeptide-s-activates-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurons-to-induce-anxiolysis
#3
Thomas Grund, Stephanie Goyon, Yuting Li, Marina Eliava, Haikun Liu, Alexandre Charlet, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide S (NPS) and oxytocin (OXT) represent potential options for the treatment of anxiety disorders due to their potent anxiolytic profile. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the behavioral action of NPS, and present a chain of evidence that the effects of NPS within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are mediated via actions on local OXT neurons in male Wistar rats. First, retrograde studies identified NPS fibers originating in the brainstem locus coeruleus and projecting to the PVN...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108778/the-timing-and-duration-of-estradiol-treatment-in-a-rat-model-of-the-perimenopause-influences-on-social-behavior-and-the-neuromolecular-phenotype
#4
Alexandra N Garcia, Christina Depena, Kelsey Bezner, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore
This study tested the effects of timing and duration of estradiol (E2) treatment, factors that are clinically relevant to hormone replacement in perimenopausal women, on social behavior and expression of genes in brain regions that regulate these behaviors. Female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) at 1year of age, roughly equivalent to middle-age in women, and given E2 or vehicle for different durations (3 or 6months) and timing (immediately or after a 3-month delay) relative to OVX. Social and ultrasonic vocalization (USV) behaviors were assessed at the 3 and 6month timepoints, and the rats' brains were then used for gene expression profiling in hypothalamus (supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdala, and prefrontal cortex using a 48-gene qPCR platform...
November 8, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108272/up-regulated-expression-of-oxytocin-mrna-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#5
Xiudeng Yang, Yamei Tang, Qinling Wei, Bing Lang, Huai Tao, Xianghui Zhang, Yong Liu, Aiguo Tang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with significant social cognition impairment. Increasing evidence has suggested that neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are important mediators of complex social cognition and behavior associates with SZ. In the present study, forty-three first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and forty-seven healthy controls (HC) were included. The peripheral mRNA expression of OXT, OXT receptor (OXTR), AVP, AVP 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and CD38 was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055680/oxytocin-increases-attention-to-the-eyes-and-selectively-enhances-self-reported-affective-empathy-for-fear
#6
Kelly Hubble, Katie Daughters, Antony S R Manstead, Aled Rees, Anita Thapar, Stephanie H M van Goozen
Oxytocin (OXT) has previously been implicated in a range of prosocial behaviors such as trust and emotion recognition. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned the evidence for this link. In addition, there has been relatively little conclusive research on the effect of OXT on empathic ability and such studies as there are have not examined the mechanisms through which OXT might affect empathy, or whether OXT selectively facilitates empathy for specific emotions. In the current study, we used eye-tracking to assess attention to socially relevant information while participants viewed dynamic, empathy-inducing video clips, in which protagonists expressed sadness, happiness, pain or fear...
October 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044774/3d-distribution-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-transparent-postnatal-mouse-brain
#7
David Godefroy, Chloé Dominici, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet, Youssef Anouar, Stéphane Melik-Parsadaniantz, William Rostene, Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
Over the years, advances in immunohistochemistry techniques have been a critical step in detecting and mapping neuromodulatory substances in the central nervous system. The better quality and specificity of primary antibodies, new staining procedures and the spectacular development of imaging technologies have allowed such progress. Very recently, new methods permitting tissue transparency have been successfully used on brain tissues. In this work, we combined whole-mount immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), with iDISCO+ clearing method, light-sheet microscopy and semi automated counting of 3D-labelled neurons to obtain a 3D distribution of these neuronal populations in a 5-day postnatal (P5) mouse brain...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040351/oxytocin-genotype-moderates-the-impact-of-social-support-on-psychiatric-distress-in-alcohol-dependent-patients
#8
Tiffany M Love, James A Cranford, Margit Burmeister, Marcin Wojnar, Robert A Zucker, Kirk J Brower
Aims: The social environment strongly influences individual mental health. Individuals with strong social support systems tend to experience higher levels of well-being, lower levels of psychological distress and exhibit fewer psychiatric symptoms. However, there is a significant degree of individual variability as to the extent to which social support is beneficial to overall mental health. From a neurobiological perspective, it is suggested that the social hormone, oxytocin, may moderate the favorable effects of social interaction...
October 13, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024132/expression-of-isotocin-is-male-specifically-upregulated-by-gonadal-androgen-in-the-medaka-brain
#9
Junpei Yamashita, Yukika Kawabata, Kataaki Okubo
Oxytocin, a mammalian neuropeptide primarily synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, mediates a variety of physiological and behavioral processes ranging from parturition and lactation to affiliation and prosociality. Multiple studies in rodents have shown that the expression of the oxytocin gene (Oxt) is stimulated by estrogen, while androgen has no apparent effect. However, this finding is not consistent across all studies, and no study has examined sex steroid regulation of Oxt or its orthologs in other animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021442/the-relationship-between-the-serum-oxytocin-levels-disease-activity-the-adls-and-the-qol-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Yusuke Miwa, Hidekazu Furuya, Ryo Yanai, Tsuyoshi Kasama, Kenji Sanada
Objective To investigate the factors associated with depression, including the serum oxytocin (OXT) levels, disease activity, activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QOL), and their effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods This study included 42-RA-patients. We measured the following variables before and after 6 months of treatment with biological disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs): the baseline characteristics (including age, sex, disease duration, smoking, and body mass index), the doses of prednisolone and methotrexate, the serum level of matrix metalloprotease-3, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the C-reactive protein level...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017419/effect-of-normal-pregnancy-followed-by-lactation-on-long-term-maternal-health-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Egle Bytautiene Prewit, Talar Kechichian, Deborah Okunade, Huaizhi Yin, Alison M Stuebe
Although it has been widely accepted that pregnancies with complications are associated with increased maternal cardiovascular risk later in life, there is no consensus if noncomplicated pregnancy followed by lactation plays a protective role or is a risk factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of normal pregnancy and lactation on long-term maternal health in a mouse model. CD-1 mice were allocated to breeding (primigravid [PG]) and nonbreeding (nulligravid [NG]) groups. The PG group proceeded through normal pregnancy and delivery...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963257/gating-of-social-reward-by-oxytocin-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#12
Lin W Hung, Sophie Neuner, Jai S Polepalli, Kevin T Beier, Matthew Wright, Jessica J Walsh, Eastman M Lewis, Liqun Luo, Karl Deisseroth, Gül Dölen, Robert C Malenka
The reward generated by social interactions is critical for promoting prosocial behaviors. Here we present evidence that oxytocin (OXT) release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node of the brain's reward circuitry, is necessary to elicit social reward. During social interactions, activity in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) OXT neurons increased. Direct activation of these neurons in the PVN or their terminals in the VTA enhanced prosocial behaviors. Conversely, inhibition of PVN OXT axon terminals in the VTA decreased social interactions...
September 29, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959197/choir-versus-solo-singing-effects-on-mood-and-salivary-oxytocin-and-cortisol-concentrations
#13
T Moritz Schladt, Gregory C Nordmann, Roman Emilius, Brigitte M Kudielka, Trynke R de Jong, Inga D Neumann
The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT) concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918249/perinatal-depression-and-dna-methylation-of-oxytocin-related-genes-a-study-of-mothers-and-their-children
#14
Leonora King, Stephanie Robins, Gang Chen, Volodymyr Yerko, Yi Zhou, Corina Nagy, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Gustavo Turecki, Phyllis Zelkowitz
The present study investigated the association of perinatal depression (PD) with differential methylation of 3 genomic regions among mother and child dyads: exon 3 within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and 2 intergenic regions (IGR) between the oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) genes. Maternal PD was assessed at 5 time-points during pregnancy and postpartum. Four groups were established based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) cut-off scores: no PD, prenatal or postpartum depressive symptoms only and persistent PD (depressive symptoms both prenatally and postpartum)...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912554/oxytocin-stimulates-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-oxytocin-receptor-expressed-in-ca3-pyramidal-neurons
#15
Yu-Ting Lin, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kuei-Sen Hsu
In addition to the regulation of social and emotional behaviors, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to stimulate neurogenesis in adult dentate gyrus; however, the mechanisms underlying the action of oxytocin are still unclear. Taking advantage of the conditional knockout mouse model, we show here that endogenous oxytocin signaling functions in a non-cell autonomous manner to regulate survival and maturation of newly generated dentate granule cells in adult mouse hippocampus via oxytocin receptors expressed in CA3 pyramidal neurons...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889022/injection-of-oxytocin-into-paraventricular-nucleus-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-the-postpartum-depression-rat-model
#16
Tong Wang, Cuige Shi, Xiaoxiao Li, Pan Zhang, Bo Liu, Hao Wang, Yongjun Wang, Yutao Yang, Yan Wu, Hui Li, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Oxytocin (OXT) has been considered as a neuroregulator mediating social behaviors and stress-related disorders. Recent clinical studies suggest that OXT might also act as antidepressant in postpartum depression (PPD) patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we explored the effect of OXT in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and possible signaling pathway involved in a PPD rat model induced by gestation restraint stress (GRS). PPD rats exhibited depressive-like behaviors with significantly longer immobility time, shorter climbing time, and lower sucrose consumption compared to the control rats...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877512/sex-dependent-neural-effect-of-oxytocin-during-subliminal-processing-of-negative-emotion-faces
#17
Lizhu Luo, Benjamin Becker, Yayuan Geng, Zhiying Zhao, Shan Gao, Weihua Zhao, Shuxia Yao, Xiaoxiao Zheng, Xiaole Ma, Zhao Gao, Jiehui Hu, Keith M Kendrick
In line with animal models indicating sexually dimorphic effects of oxytocin (OXT) on social-emotional processing, a growing number of OXT-administration studies in humans have also reported sex-dependent effects during social information processing. To explore whether sex-dependent effects already occur during early, subliminal, processing stages the present pharmacological fMRI-study combined the intranasal-application of either OXT or placebo (n = 86-43 males) with a backward-masking emotional face paradigm...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864977/oxytocin-and-animal-models-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Shlomo Wagner, Hala Harony-Nicolas
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by deficits in social communication and by repetitive and stereotypic patterns of behaviors, with no pharmacological treatments available to treat these core symptoms. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that powerfully regulates mammalian social behavior and has been shown to exert pro-social effects when administered intranasally to healthy human subjects. In the last decade, there has been a significant interest in using oxytocin to treat social behavior deficits in ASD...
September 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864974/oxytocin-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#19
Ulrich Ettinger, René Hurlemann, Raymond C K Chan
In this chapter, we present an overview of studies of oxytocin (OXT) in schizophrenia and the schizophrenia spectrum. We first outline the current state of pharmacological treatment of the symptoms of schizophrenia and point to unmet clinical needs. These relate particularly to the debilitating negative symptoms and social cognitive deficits that are frequently observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. We argue that new treatments are needed to alleviate these impairments. As OXT has been proposed and investigated as a putative treatment, we will then summarise evidence from studies in patients with schizophrenia that have investigated the effects of OXT at several levels, i...
September 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819236/impact-of-sex-fat-distribution-and-initial-body-weight-on-oxytocin-s-body-weight-regulation
#20
Yuko Maejima, Masato Aoyama, Kazuho Sakamoto, Teruo Jojima, Yoshimasa Aso, Katsuya Takasu, Seiichi Takenosihita, Kenju Shimomura
Obesity is considered as a worldwide problem in both males and females. Although many studies have demonstrated the efficiency of oxytocin (Oxt) as an anti-obesity peptide, there is no comparative study of its effect in males and females. This study aims to determine factors (sex, initial body weight, and fat distribution) that may affect the ability of Oxt to regulate body weight (BW). With regard to sex, Oxt reduced BW similarly in males and females under both high fat diet (HFD) and standard chow-fed condition...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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