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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#1
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527956/comparison-of-the-induction-of-c-fos-egfp-and-fos-protein-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-and-hypothalamus-resulting-from-subcutaneous-capsaicin-or-formalin-injection
#2
Yasuhito Motojima, Takanori Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Takashi Maruyama, Satomi Sonoda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Makoto Kawasaki, Hideo Ohnishi, Akinori Sakai, Yoichi Ueta
We evaluated whether a c-fos-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic rat line, which expresses the c-fos and eGFP fusion gene, can be useful for the study of nociceptive pathways and processing. Capsaicin solution (15%) or formalin (5%) was subcutaneously injected bilaterally into the hind paws (100 μL per each paw) of adult male c-fos-eGFP transgenic or wild type rats. Control rats were injected with ethanol or physiological saline respectively. Transgenic and wild type rats were perfused at 1...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512038/involvement-of-the-oxytocin-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-the-regulation-of-juvenile-social-novelty-seeking-behavior
#3
Caroline J W Smith, Jazmin N Mogavero, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
Exploration of novel environments, stimuli, and conspecifics is highly adaptive during the juvenile period, as individuals transition from immaturity to adulthood. We recently showed that juvenile rats prefer to interact with a novel individual over a familiar cage mate. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this juvenile social novelty-seeking behavior remain largely unknown. One potential candidate is the oxytocin (OXT) system, given its involvement in various motivated social behaviors. Here, we show that administration of the specific oxytocin receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4)]OVT reduces social novelty seeking-behavior in juvenile male rats when injected into the nucleus accumbens (10ng/0...
May 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487952/expression-of-reproductive-hormone-receptors-and-contraction%C3%A2-associated-genes-in-porcine-uterus-during-the-estrous-cycle
#4
Sung-Min An, Sun Suk Kim, Jun Kim, Mee-Na Park, Jae-Eon Lee, Seong Keun Cho, Kyu-Sup Lee, Beum-Soo An
Contraction of uterus tissue frequently occurs throughout the estrous cycle and is regulated by several endogenous factors, including estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle‑stimulating hormone, oxytocin (OXT) and contraction‑associated proteins (CAPs). Contraction activity of uterus tissue according to the estrous cycle is important, due to the fact that it is directly associated with balanced implantation and stable pregnancy. However, few studies have examined the mechanism of uterus contraction activity in a porcine model...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478728/variation-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-social-cognition-and-adhd
#5
Tuğba Kalyoncu, Burcu Özbaran, Sezen Köse, Hüseyin Onay
OBJECTIVE: Children with ADHD show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities. Oxytocin, mediated through its specific receptor (OXTR), is involved in the regulation of social behavior and social cognition. METHOD: The entire coding sequence of the human OXT and OXTR genes were sequenced to identify mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 151 children with ADHD (ADHD-combined, n = 51; inattentive subtype, n = 50; ADHD-C plus conduct disorder [CD], n = 50; 11-18 years) and 100 healthy controls...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472396/chronic-activation-of-hypothalamic-oxytocin-neurons-improves-cardiac-function-during-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-induced-heart-failure
#6
Kara Garrott, Jhansi Dyavanapalli, Edmund Cauley, Mary Kate Dwyer, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Xin Wang, David Mendelowitz, Matthew Kay
AIMS: A distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF...
May 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452807/oxytocin-inhibits-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-migration-by-early-growth-response-1-upregulation
#7
Jinkyung Kim, Sung-Min Kang, Heon-Jin Lee, So-Young Choi, Su-Hyung Hong
The effect of oxytocin (OXT) on cancer invasion is controversial. Few studies have examined the effect of early growth response-1 (EGR1) on the invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we evaluated how EGR1 affects HNSCC cell migration through the molecular mechanism of OXT in exerting anti-invasion activity. Matrigel invasion and wound-healing assays were used to measure the in-vitro cell migration. The molecular mechanism of OXT was assessed by knockdown or overexpression of EGR1 in HNSCC cells...
July 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447621/direct-involvement-of-androgen-receptor-in-oxytocin-gene-expression-possible-relevance-for-mood-disorders
#8
Dan Dai, Qiao-Chu Li, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Shao-Hua Hu, Rawien Balesar, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
Oxytocin (OXT), synthesized in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and then released into different brain areas, may play a crucial role in various behaviors and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Testosterone has been proposed by clinical studies to have the opposite effect of oxytocin in these disorders. We began by studying, in the postmortem hypothalamus of fifteen patients with mood disorders and fifteen matched controls, the expression of OXT in the PVN by means of immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the co-localization of OXT and androgen receptor (AR) by means of double labeling ICC...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444316/oxytocin-facilitates-reciprocity-in-social-communication
#9
Franny B Spengler, Dirk Scheele, Nina Marsh, Charlotte Kofferath, Aileen Flach, Sarah Schwarz, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Wolfgang Maier, René Hurlemann
Synchrony in social groups may confer significant evolutionary advantages by improving group cohesion and social interaction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms translating social synchrony into refined social information transmission between interacting individuals are still elusive. In two successively conducted experiments involving a total of 199 healthy volunteers, we explored the involvement of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in reciprocal social interaction. First, we show that synchronous social interactions evoke heightened endogenous OXT release in dyadic partners...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435979/oxytocin-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-old-concept-new-insights
#10
Afzal Misrani, Sidra Tabassum, Cheng Long
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that plays a pivotal role among species peripherally and centrally. It recently has attracted much attention for its involvement in anxiety-related behavior, stress regulation, social behavior and various neuropsychiatric disorders. OXT is one of the important mediators of emotional and social behaviors such as maternal behavior, fear extinction, social support, happiness, and trust. It is also involved in learning and memory process. The recent progresses in OXT system have put this neuropeptide as an important psychotherapeutic intervention for various psychiatric disorders such as stress, anxiety disorders, social phobia, postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, autism, and schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402515/oxytocin-differentially-modulates-pavlovian-cue-and-context-fear-acquisition
#11
Juliana Cavalli, Michaela Ruttorf, Mario Rosero Pahi, Francesca Zidda, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees
Background: Fear acquisition and extinction have been demonstrated as core mechanisms for the development and maintenance of mental disorders, with different contributions of processing cues versus contexts. The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) may have a prominent role in this context, as it has been shown to affect fear learning. However, investigations have focused on cue conditioning, and fear extinction. Its differential role for cue and context fear acquisition is still not known...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397403/the-neurobiology-of-social-deficits-in-female-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-the-importance-of-oxytocin
#12
Anne Cathrine Bomann, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Sune Bo, Marianne Nielsen, Lene Bjerring Gede, Betina Elfving, Erik Simonsen
BACKGROUND: Social deficits and emotional dysregulation have been suggested as explanations for the relational difficulties experienced by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a possible neurobiological underpinning of these adversities, and this study examines possible correlations between BPD symptomatology and serum OXT. METHODS: Thirty-eight female participants (BPD group n = 18, matched control group n = 20) with a mean age of 29...
April 11, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367113/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-altered-expression-of-memory-and-neurotransmission-associated-genes-in-the-rem-sleep-deprived-rat-brain
#13
Santosh C Narwade, Birendra N Mallick, Deepti D Deobagkar
Sleep disorders are associated with cognitive impairment. Selective rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation (REMSD) alters several physiological processes and behaviors. By employing NGS platform we carried out transcriptomic analysis in brain samples of control rats and those exposed to REMSD. The expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly, methylation, learning, memory, regulation of synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity and neurohypophysial hormone synthesis were altered. Increased transcription of BMP4, DBH and ATP1B2 genes after REMSD supports our earlier findings and hypothesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346939/a-b12-dependent-radical-sam-enzyme-involved-in-oxetanocin-a-biosynthesis
#14
Jennifer Bridwell-Rabb, Aoshu Zhong, He G Sun, Catherine L Drennan, Hung-Wen Liu
Oxetanocin A (OXT-A) is a potent antitumour, antiviral and antibacterial compound. Biosynthesis of OXT-A has been linked to a plasmid-borne Bacillus megaterium gene cluster that contains four genes: oxsA, oxsB, oxrA and oxrB. Here we show that both the oxsA and oxsB genes are required for the production of OXT-A. Biochemical analysis of the encoded proteins, a cobalamin (Cbl)-dependent S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) radical enzyme, OxsB, and an HD-domain phosphohydrolase, OxsA, reveals that OXT-A is derived from a 2'-deoxyadenosine phosphate in an OxsB-catalysed ring contraction reaction initiated by hydrogen atom abstraction from C2'...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295370/the-human-endolymphatic-sac-expresses-natriuretic-peptides
#15
Martin Nue Møller, Svend Kirkeby, Jonas Vikeså, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Per Cayé-Thomasen
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The function of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) has been enigmatic for decades. Hypotheses include controlling endolymphatic fluid homeostasis and inner ear immunological defense. Additionally, several studies indicate a possible endocrine capacity and a yet undefined role in intracranial pressure homeostasis. However, no direct evidence of such capacity exists. This study aims to explore and identify the hypothesized endocrine capacity of the human ES. STUDY DESIGN: DNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses of fresh human ES tissue samples...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290268/molecular-characterisation-genetic-variability-and-detection-of-a-functional-polymorphism-influencing-the-promoter-activity-of-oxt-gene-in-goat-and-sheep
#16
Gianfranco Cosenza, Marco Iannaccone, Boipuso Alpheus Pico, Daniela Gallo, Rosanna Capparelli, Alfredo Pauciullo
The purpose of the study described in this Research Communication was to report the full characterisation of the goat and sheep oxytocin-neurophysin I gene (OXT), their promoters and amino acid sequences. Using the genomic DNA as template, we sequenced and compared the whole OXT gene (3 exons), plus 958/960 nucleotides at the 5' flanking region and 478/477 nucleotides at the 3' flanking region, in 46 sheep and 24 goats belonging to different breeds/genetic types reared in Italy, Greece and Germany. The comparison of the obtained sequences showed a high degree of genetic variability at these loci...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283809/genes-related-to-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-pathways-associations-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Rong Zhang, Hong-Feng Zhang, Ji-Sheng Han, Song-Ping Han
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behavior. Although the mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations are poorly understood, several lines of evidence from rodent and human studies suggest involvement of the evolutionarily highly-conserved oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP), as these neuropeptides modulate various aspects of mammalian social behavior. As far as we know, there is no comprehensive review of the roles of the OXT and AVP systems in the development of ASD from the genetic aspect...
April 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174180/suprachiasmatic-vasopressin-to-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurocircuit-in-the-hypothalamus-relays-light-reception-to-inhibition-of-feeding-behavior
#18
Putra Santoso, Masanori Nakata, Yoichi Ueta, Toshihiko Yada
Light syncronizes body's circadian rhythms by modulating the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In modern life, the extended and/or irregular light exposure impairs circadian rhythms and consequently promotes feeding and metabolic disorders. However, the neuronal pathway through which light is coupled to feeding behavior is less elucidated. The present study employed the light exposure during dark phase of the day in rats and observed its effect on neuronal activity and feeding behavior...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100688/the-use-of-oxytocin-to-improve-feeding-and-social-skills-in-infants-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#19
Maïthé Tauber, Kader Boulanouar, Gwenaelle Diene, Sophie Çabal-Berthoumieu, Virginie Ehlinger, Pascale Fichaux-Bourin, Catherine Molinas, Sandy Faye, Marion Valette, Jeanne Pourrinet, Catie Cessans, Sylvie Viaux-Sauvelon, Céline Bascoul, Antoine Guedeney, Patric Delhanty, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens, Françoise Muscatelli, David Cohen, Angèle Consoli, Pierre Payoux, Catherine Arnaud, Jean-Pierre Salles
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094761/homeodomain-protein-otp-affects-developmental-neuropeptide-switching-in-oxytocin-neurons-associated-with-a-long-term-effect-on-social-behavior
#20
Einav Wircer, Janna Blechman, Nataliya Borodovsky, Michael Tsoory, Ana Rita Nunes, Rui F Oliveira, Gil Levkowitz
Proper response to stress and social stimuli depends on orchestrated development of hypothalamic neuronal circuits. Here we address the effects of the developmental transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) on hypothalamic development and function. We show that developmental mutations in the zebrafish paralogous gene otpa but not otpb affect both stress response and social preference. These behavioral phenotypes were associated with developmental alterations in oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons. Thus, otpa and otpb differentially regulate neuropeptide switching in a newly identified subset of OXT neurons that co-express the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)...
January 17, 2017: ELife
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