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Haoyi Ji, Na Liu, Yingchun Yin, Xinmei Wang, Xiaoyang Chen, Jing Li, Jingxin Li
Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this apparent clinical benefit is unknown. Oxytocin (OXT), a hypothalamic nonapetide, plays a crucial role in many reproductive and behavioural functions. In recent year, OXT acts as a growth regulator in many kind of tumor tissues, through the activation of a specific G-coupled transmembrane receptor, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). OXT has been proved to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells in vitro...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Tong Yue, Caizhen Yue, Guangyuan Liu, Xiting Huang
Although oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to increase the ability of face perception and processing, no study has explored whether it could improve the performance of working memory for emotional expression information in males and females. Thus, we performed a double-blind, mixed-design, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of OXT on temporary maintenance/manipulation of facial information through a facial expression (EMO) vs. identity (ID) working memory task, both for males ( N = 45) and females ( N = 46)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Wei Yang, Ning Zhang, Boyang Shi, Shen Zhang, Lihong Zhang, Weimin Zhang
The neurohypophyseal hormone oxytocin (Oxt) has been shown to stimulate prolactin (Prl) synthesis and release from the adenohypophysis in rats. However, little is known about the functional roles of Oxt-like neuropeptides in the adenohypophysis of non-mammalian vertebrates. In this study, cDNAs encoding ricefield eel oxytocin-like receptors (Oxtlr), namely isotocin (Ist) receptor 1 (Istr1) and 2 (Istr2), were isolated and specific antisera were generated, respectively. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis detected the presence of both Istr1 and Istr2 in the brain and pituitary, but differential expression in some peripheral tissues, including the liver and kidney, where only Istr1 was detected...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ayline Maier, Dirk Scheele, Franny B Spengler, Tugba Menba, Franziska Mohr, Onur Güntürkün, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Thomas M Kinfe, Wolfgang Maier, Sahib S Khalsa, René Hurlemann
Social transmission of fear is not restricted to visual or auditory cues, but extends to the phylogenetically more ancient olfactory domain. Anxious individuals exhibit heightened sensitivity towards chemosensory stress signals in sweat; however, it is still unknown whether endogenous neuromodulators such as the peptide hormone oxytocin (OXT) influence the chemosensory communication of stress. Here, we investigated whether OXT selectively diminishes behavioral and neural responses to social chemosensory stress cues utilizing a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLC)-controlled, within-subject functional MRI study design...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amy S Kohtz, Belle Lin, Michael E Smith, Gary Aston-Jones
RATIONALE: Initial drug abstinence (modeled here as Extinction Day 1, ED1) is a critical time point in the progression of addiction that is strongly influenced by stress and sex. ED1 induces corticosterone release in both sexes, and cocaine-seeking during ED1 can be mitigated by corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonists more effectively in female rats. Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that has several biological functions, including regulation of stress pathways. METHODS: To investigate a relationship between OXT, sex, and cocaine-seeking, we examined Fos on ED1 in OXT neurons of paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) compared to homecage (cocaine experienced) or naïve male and female rats...
April 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Bibiana S O Fam, Pamela Paré, Aline B Felkl, Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Domestication is of unquestionable importance to the technological revolution that has given rise to modern human societies. In this study, we analyzed the DNA and protein sequences of six genes of the oxytocin and arginine vasopressin systems (OXT-OXTR; AVP-AVPR1a, AVPR1b and AVPR2) in 40 placental mammals. These systems play an important role in the control of physiology and behavior. According to our analyses, neutrality does not explain the pattern of molecular evolution found in some of these genes. We observed specific sites under positive selection in AVPR1b (ω = 1...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Yusuke Miwa, Hidekazu Furuya, Ryo Yanai, Tsuyoshi Kasama, Kenji Sanada
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with depression, including serum oxytocin (OXT) levels, disease activity, activities of daily living (ADL), and quality of life (QOL), and their effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: This study included 42 RA patients who received treatment with a biological agent. We measured the following variables before and after 6 months of treatment: baseline characteristics, including age, sex, disease duration, smoking, and body mass index (BMI); prednisolone and methotrexate dose; serum level of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3); erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); and C-reactive protein (CRP) level...
March 2018: European Journal of Rheumatology
Isao Kii, Shino Hirahara-Owada, Masataka Yamaguchi, Takashi Niwa, Yuka Koike, Rie Sonamoto, Harumi Ito, Kayo Takahashi, Chihiro Yokoyama, Takuya Hayashi, Takamitsu Hosoya, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are structurally similar neuropeptide hormones that function as neurotransmitters in the brain, and have opposite key roles in social behaviors. These peptides bind to their G protein-coupled receptors (OXTR and AVPRs), inducing calcium ion-dependent signaling pathways and endocytosis of these receptors. Because selective agonists and antagonists for these receptors have been developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for diseases such as psychiatric disorders, facile methods are in demand for the evaluation of selectivity between these receptors...
April 5, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Alfredo Pauciullo, Danlami Moses Ogah, Marco Iannaccone, Georg Erhardt, Liliana Di Stasio, Gianfranco Cosenza
Oxytocin is a neurohypophysial peptide linked to a wide range of biological functions, including milk ejection, temperament and reproduction. Aims of the present study were a) the characterization of the OXT (Oxytocin-neurophysin I) gene and its regulatory regions in Old and New world camelids; b) the investigation of the genetic diversity and the discovery of markers potentially affecting the gene regulation. On average, the gene extends over 814 bp, ranging between 825 bp in dromedary, 811 bp in Bactrian and 810 bp in llama and alpaca...
2018: PloS One
D E Olazábal
Both animal and human studies have provided conclusive evidence that oxytocin (OXT) acts in the brain (e.g. medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens) to promote parental behaviour under different reproductive and physiological conditions. OXT seems to accelerate and strengthen the neural process that makes newborns attractive or rewarding. Besides, OXT reduces stress/anxiety, and might improve mood and well being resulting in indirect benefits for parents. However, OXT also plays a role in the development of species reproductive and social strategies, making some species or individuals more prone to display caring activities in non-reproductive contexts...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Tillmann H C Kruger, Frank Deiter, Yuanyuan Zhang, Stefanie Jung, Cordula Schippert, Kai G Kahl, Markus Heinrichs, Manfred Schedlowski, Uwe Hartmann
PURPOSE: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has a variety of physiological functions in maternal behavior and attachment including sexual behavior. Based on animal research and our previous human studies, we set out to investigate intranasal administration of OXT and hypothesized that OXT should be able to modulate sexual function in women. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory setting, the acute effects of intranasal administered OXT (24 international units) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm, and refractory aspects of sexual behavior were analyzed in 27 healthy females (mean age ± SD, 27...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Amal Akour, Violet Kasabri, Nailya Bulatova, Suha Al Muhaissen, Randa Naffa, Hiba Fahmawi, Munther Momani, Ayman Zayed, Yasser Bustanji
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the differences in OXT levels in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and prediabetes subjects vs. MetS subjects without glucose intolerance (non-diabetic MetS). It was also intended to determine the relationship between plasma OXT levels and inflammatory markers in those subjects. METHODS: Along with 45 lean and normoglycemic controls, a total of 190 MetS subjects (61 men, 129 women) were enrolled...
2018: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Rohit Menon, Thomas Grund, Iulia Zoicas, Ferdinand Althammer, Dominik Fiedler, Verena Biermeier, Oliver J Bosch, Yuichi Hiraoka, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Marina Eliava, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Oxytocin (OXT)-mediated behavioral responses to social and stressful cues have extensively been studied in male rodents. Here, we investigated the capacity of brain OXT receptor (OXTR) signaling in the lateral septum (LS) to prevent social fear expression in female mice using the social-fear-conditioning paradigm. Utilizing the activated OXT system during lactation, we show that lactating mice did not express fear 24 hr after social fear conditioning. Supporting the role of OXTR signaling in the LS in attenuation of social fear, synthetic OXT infusion or overexpression of OXTR in the LS diminished social fear expression, whereas constitutive OXTR knockout severely impaired social fear extinction in virgin mice...
March 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Mariana Fortunata Donadon, Rocio Martin-Santos, Flávia de Lima Osório
Studies have shown that traumatic experiences may affect hormonal systems mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the oxytocinergic system. This effect is the result of long-term impairments in hypothalamic structures and negative feedback mechanisms within the HPA axis, structures that mediate the response to stress. This deregulation reduces the production and release of cortisol and oxytocin (OXT), which may alter stress responses and lead to increased vulnerability to impairments from stressful experiences...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sabrina Krause, Christina Boeck, Anja M Gumpp, Edit Rottler, Katharina Schury, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Buchheim, Harald Gündel, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christiane Waller
Background: Child maltreatment (CM) and attachment experiences are closely linked to alterations in the human oxytocin (OXT) system. However, human data about oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels in circulating immune cells and related them to circulating levels of OXT in peripheral blood. We hypothesized reduced OXTR protein levels, associated with both, experiences of CM and an insecure attachment representation. Methods: OXTR protein expressions were analyzed by western blot analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma OXT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 49 mothers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Emma D Spikol, Eric Glasgow
Transcriptional control of oxytocinergic cell development influences social, sexual, and appetite related behaviors and is implicated in disorders such as autism and Prader-Willi syndrome. Mediator 12 (Med12) is a transcriptional coactivator required for multiple facets of brain development including subsets of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. We surveyed hormone gene expression within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of med12 mutant zebrafish embryos with a focus on oxytocin ( oxt ) expression. Some transcripts, such as oxt , vasopressin ( avp ) and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( crh ) are undetectable in the med12 mutant, while others are upregulated or downregulated to varying degrees...
March 28, 2018: Biology Open
Anne Chong, Soo Hong Chew, Poh San Lai, Richard P Ebstein, Jean-Philippe Gouin
Oxytocin (OT) plays a salient role in contributing to the high levels of human sociality that characterize our species. Across the lifespan this nonapeptide promotes prosocial behaviors and modulates stress responses. Curiously, the OXT-Neurophysin I gene has been little studied despite the fact this is the structural gene for the OT nonapeptide. In a large group of Han Chinese undergraduate students (n = 1593) we examined associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the OXT- Neurophysin I gene with personality traits...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jellina Prinsen, Stephanie Brams, Kaat Alaerts
The eyes constitute a highly salient cue to communicate social intent. Previous research showed that direct eye contact between two individuals can readily evoke an increased propensity to 'mirror' other peoples' actions. Considering the implicated role of the prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in enhancing the saliency of social cues and modulating approach/avoidance motivational tendencies, the current study adopted the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore whether a single dose of intranasal OXT (24 IU) modulated (enhanced) a person's propensity to show heightened mirroring or motor resonance upon salient social cues, such as eye contact...
April 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ilaria Cataldo, Atiqah Azhari, Gianluca Esposito
Oxytocin ( OXT ) and arginine-vasopressin ( AVP ) play a key regulatory part in social and affiliative behaviors; two aspects highly compromised in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Furthermore, variants in the adjacent oxytocin-vasopressin gene regions have been found to be associated with ASD diagnosis and endophenotypes. This review focuses mainly on common OXTr single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AVPR1a microsatellites and AVPR1b polymorphisms in relation to the development of autism. Although these genes did not surface in genome-wide association studies, evidence supports the hypothesis that these receptors and their polymorphisms are widely involved in the regulation of social behavior, and in modulating neural and physiological pathways contributing to the etiology of ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ravjibhai K Chaudhari, Ajit Singh Mahla, Amit Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Abhijit M Pawde, Ravi Kumar Gandham, Gyanendra Singh, Mihir Sarkar, Harendra Kumar, Narayanan Krishnaswamy
Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F2α and E2 during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days...
March 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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