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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715127/increased-aggression-and-lack-of-maternal-behavior-in-dio3-deficient-mice-are-associated-with-abnormalities-in-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-systems
#1
J Patrizia Stohn, M Elena Martinez, Maryam Zafer, Daniela López-Espíndola, Lauren M Keyes, Arturo Hernandez
Thyroid hormones regulate many aspects of brain development and function, and alterations in the levels of thyroid hormone action lead to abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A complement of factors in the brain function independently of circulating levels of hormone to strictly controlled local thyroid hormone signaling. A critical factor is the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which is located in neurons and protects the brain from excessive thyroid hormone. Here we examined whether a local increase in brain thyroid hormone action secondary to DIO3 deficiency is of consequence for social behaviors...
July 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696286/intranasal-oxytocin-treatment-for-social-deficits-and-biomarkers-of-response-in-children-with-autism
#2
Karen J Parker, Ozge Oztan, Robin A Libove, Raena D Sumiyoshi, Lisa P Jackson, Debra S Karhson, Jacqueline E Summers, Kyle E Hinman, Kara S Motonaga, Jennifer M Phillips, Dean S Carson, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by core social deficits. Prognosis is poor, in part, because existing medications target only associated ASD features. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may be a blood-based biomarker of social functioning and a possible treatment for ASD. However, prior OXT treatment trials have produced equivocal results, perhaps because of variability in patients' underlying neuropeptide biology, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of 4-wk intranasal OXT treatment (24 International Units, twice daily) in 32 children with ASD, aged 6-12 y...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694300/the-regulation-of-oxytocin-and-oxytocin-receptor-in-human-placenta-according-to-gestational-age
#3
Seung Chul Kim, Jae-Eon Lee, Seong Soo Kang, Hoe-Saeng Yang, Sun Suk Kim, Beum-Soo An
Oxytocin (OXT) is a peptide hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of parturition and lactation in the uterus. OXT signaling is mediated by OXT receptor (OXTR), which shows species- and tissue-specific expressions and gene regulation. In the present study, we examined synthesis of OXT and OXTR in human placenta tissue according to gestational age. A total of 48 placentas were divided into early preterm, late preterm, and term groups depending on gestational age, and expression of OXT and OXTR was evaluated...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684238/involvement-of-central-nesfatin-1-neurons-on-oxytocin-induced-feeding-suppression-in-rats
#4
Reiko Saito, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Kentaro Tanaka, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
Peripheral anorectic hormones, such as peptide YY (PYY) and oxytocin (OXT), suppress food intake. A newly identified anorectic neuropeptide, nesfatin-1, is synthesized in both peripheral tissue and the central nervous system, particularly by various nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Here, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administration of PYY3-36, OXT, and OXT analog, on nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat hypothalamus and brainstem, using Fos double fluorescence-immunohistochemistry...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629540/kinetics-and-dose-dependency-of-intranasal-oxytocin-effects-on-amygdala-reactivity
#5
Franny B Spengler, Johannes Schultz, Dirk Scheele, Maximiliane Essel, Wolfgang Maier, Markus Heinrichs, René Hurlemann
BACKGROUND: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both species. However, the translation of neuromodulatory OXT effects to novel treatment approaches is hampered by the absence of studies defining the most effective dose and dose-response latency for targeting the amygdala...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616820/possible-involvement-of-central-oxytocin-in-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-in-rats
#6
Koichi Arase, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Reiko Saito, Yasuhito Motojima, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Keiji Hirata, Yasuhito Uezono, Yoichi Ueta
During cancer chemotherapy, drugs such as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have typically been used to control vomiting and anorexia. We examined the effects of oxytocin (OXT), which has been linked to appetite, on cisplatin-induced anorexia in rats. Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) expressed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) after intraperitoneal (ip) administration of cisplatin. We also examined the fluorescence intensity of OXT-mRFP1 after ip administration of cisplatin in OXT-mRFP1 transgenic rats...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606214/differential-susceptibility-effects-of-oxytocin-gene-oxt-polymorphisms-and-perceived-parenting-on-social-anxiety-among-adolescents
#7
Susanne Olofsdotter, Cecilia Åslund, Tomas Furmark, Erika Comasco, Kent W Nilsson
Social anxiety is one of the most commonly reported mental health problems among adolescents, and it has been suggested that parenting style influences an adolescent's level of anxiety. A context-dependent effect of oxytocin on human social behavior has been proposed; however, research on the oxytocin gene (OXT) has mostly been reported without considering contextual factors. This study investigated the interactions between parenting style and polymorphic variations in the OXT gene in association with social anxiety symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (n = 1,359)...
June 13, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604123/oxytocin-plasma-levels-in-orgasmic-and-anorgasmic-women
#8
Salvatore Caruso, Diletta Mauro, Guido Scalia, Concetta Ilenia Palermo, Agnese Maria Chiara Rapisarda, Antonio Cianci
The study aimed to evaluate oxytocin (Oxt) serum levels before and after sexual intercourse in women affected by anorgasmia. The sample was constituted of 15 anorgasmic women and 16 orgasmic women. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, cutoff ≤26.55) and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS, cutoff ≥15) questionnaires were used to assess sexual function and sexual distress, respectively. Serum Oxt levels were measured before sexual intercourse (T0) and 5 min after coital sexual activity (T1). Anorgasmic women had an unpleasant sexual experience (FSFI total score, 20...
June 11, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603013/oxytocin-oxt-stimulated-inhibition-of-kir7-1-activity-is-through-pip2-dependent-ca-2-response-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-in-vitro
#9
Nathaniel York, Patrick Halbach, Michelle A Chiu, Ian M Bird, De-Ann M Pillers, Bikash R Pattnaik
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that activates the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), a rhodopsin family G-protein coupled receptor. Our localization of OXTR to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), in close proximity to OXT in the adjacent photoreceptor neurons, leads us to propose that OXT plays an important role in RPE-retinal communication. An increase of RPE [Ca(2+)]i in response to OXT stimulation implies that the RPE may utilize oxytocinergic signaling as a mechanism by which it accomplishes some of its many roles...
June 8, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588469/oxytocin-increases-the-perceived-value-of-both-self-and-other-owned-items-and-alters-medial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-in-an-endowment-task
#10
Weihua Zhao, Yayuan Geng, Lizhu Luo, Zhiying Zhao, Xiaole Ma, Lei Xu, Shuxia Yao, Keith M Kendrick
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) can influence self-processing and may help motivate us to value the attributes of others in a more self-like manner by reducing medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) responses. We do not know however whether this OXT effect extends to possessions. We tend to place a higher monetary value on specific objects that belong to us compared to others, known as the "endowment effect". In two double-blind, between-subject placebo (PLC) controlled experiments in subjects from a collectivist culture, we investigated the influence of intranasal OXT on the endowment effect, with the second study incorporating functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586943/oxytocin-and-its-relationship-to-body-composition-bone-mineral-density-and-hip-geometry-across-the-weight-spectrum
#11
Melanie Schorr, Dean A. Marengi, Reitumetse Pulumo, Elaine Yu, Kamryn T. Eddy, Anne Klibanski, Karen K. Miller, Elizabeth A. Lawson
Context: Oxytocin (OXT), an anorexigenic hypothalamic hormone anabolic to bone, may reflect energy availability. Basal serum OXT levels are lower in anorexia nervosa (AN, state of energy deficit) than healthy controls (HC) and negatively associated with spine bone density (BMD). However, reports are conflicting regarding OXT levels in overweight/obesity (OB, state of energy excess). Furthermore, relationships between OXT and BMD in OB and hip geometry across the weight spectrum are unknown...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580708/how-the-brain-codes-intimacy-the-neurobiological-substrates-of-romantic-touch
#12
Ann-Kathrin Kreuder, Dirk Scheele, Lea Wassermann, Michael Wollseifer, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Mary R Lee, Juergen Hennig, Wolfgang Maier, René Hurlemann
Humans belong to a minority of mammalian species that exhibit monogamous pair-bonds, thereby enabling biparental care of offspring. The high reward value of interpersonal closeness and touch in couples is a key proximate mechanism facilitating the maintenance of enduring romantic bonds. However, surprisingly, the neurobiological underpinnings mediating the unique experience of a romantic partner's touch remain unknown. In this randomized placebo (PLC)-controlled, between-group, pharmacofunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study involving 192 healthy volunteers (96 heterosexual couples), we intranasally administered 24 IU of the hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) to either the man or the woman...
June 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566999/communication-impairment-in-ultrasonic-vocal-repertoire-during-the-suckling-period-of-cd157-knockout-mice-transient-improvement-by-oxytocin
#13
Olga L Lopatina, Kazumi Furuhara, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Alla B Salmina, Haruhiro Higashida
Communication consists of social interaction, recognition, and information transmission. Communication ability is the most affected component in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, we reported that the CD157/BST1 gene is associated with ASD, and that CD157 knockout (Cd157(-/-)) mice display severe impairments in social behavior that are improved by oxytocin (OXT) treatment. Here, we sought to determine whether Cd157(-/-) mice can be used as a suitable model for communication deficits by measuring ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), especially in the early developmental stage...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551755/the-role-of-the-oxytocin-arginine-vasopressin-system-in-animal-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Rong Zhang, Xin-Jie Xu, Hong-Feng Zhang, Song-Ping Han, Ji-Sheng Han
The nonapeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are two key mediators in regulating various aspects of mammalian social behaviours. There are several lines of evidence that genetic variants of the OXT/AVP system exist in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that this system is dysfunctional at least in some ASD entities. These findings have stimulated the interest to perform studies testing the potential therapeutic application of OXT/AVP in ASD. In this respect animal models are critical for investigating the pathophysiology and for compound screening leading to new therapeutic approaches...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#15
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527956/comparison-of-the-induction-of-c-fos-egfp-and-fos-protein-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-and-hypothalamus-resulting-from-subcutaneous-capsaicin-or-formalin-injection
#16
Yasuhito Motojima, Takanori Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Takashi Maruyama, Satomi Sonoda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Makoto Kawasaki, Hideo Ohnishi, Akinori Sakai, Yoichi Ueta
We evaluated whether a c-fos-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic rat line, which expresses the c-fos and eGFP fusion gene, can be useful for the study of nociceptive pathways and processing. Capsaicin solution (15%) or formalin (5%) was subcutaneously injected bilaterally into the hind paws (100μL per each paw) of adult male c-fos-eGFP transgenic or wild-type rats. Control rats were injected with ethanol or physiological saline respectively. Transgenic and wild-type rats were perfused at 1...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512038/involvement-of-the-oxytocin-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-the-regulation-of-juvenile-social-novelty-seeking-behavior
#17
Caroline J W Smith, Jazmin N Mogavero, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
Exploration of novel environments, stimuli, and conspecifics is highly adaptive during the juvenile period, as individuals transition from immaturity to adulthood. We recently showed that juvenile rats prefer to interact with a novel individual over a familiar cage mate. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this juvenile social novelty-seeking behavior remain largely unknown. One potential candidate is the oxytocin (OXT) system, given its involvement in various motivated social behaviors. Here, we show that administration of the specific oxytocin receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4)]OVT reduces social novelty seeking-behavior in juvenile male rats when injected into the nucleus accumbens (10ng/0...
May 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487952/expression-of-reproductive-hormone-receptors-and-contraction%C3%A2-associated-genes-in-porcine-uterus-during-the-estrous-cycle
#18
Sung-Min An, Sun Suk Kim, Jun Kim, Mee-Na Park, Jae-Eon Lee, Seong Keun Cho, Kyu-Sup Lee, Beum-Soo An
Contraction of uterus tissue frequently occurs throughout the estrous cycle and is regulated by several endogenous factors, including estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle‑stimulating hormone, oxytocin (OXT) and contraction‑associated proteins (CAPs). Contraction activity of uterus tissue according to the estrous cycle is important, due to the fact that it is directly associated with balanced implantation and stable pregnancy. However, few studies have examined the mechanism of uterus contraction activity in a porcine model...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478728/variation-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-social-cognition-and-adhd
#19
Tuğba Kalyoncu, Burcu Özbaran, Sezen Köse, Hüseyin Onay
OBJECTIVE: Children with ADHD show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities. Oxytocin, mediated through its specific receptor (OXTR), is involved in the regulation of social behavior and social cognition. METHOD: The entire coding sequence of the human OXT and OXTR genes were sequenced to identify mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 151 children with ADHD (ADHD-combined, n = 51; inattentive subtype, n = 50; ADHD-C plus conduct disorder [CD], n = 50; 11-18 years) and 100 healthy controls...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472396/chronic-activation-of-hypothalamic-oxytocin-neurons-improves-cardiac-function-during-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-induced-heart-failure
#20
Kara Garrott, Jhansi Dyavanapalli, Edmund Cauley, Mary Kate Dwyer, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Xin Wang, David Mendelowitz, Matthew Kay
AIMS: A distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF...
May 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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