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Mariana Fortunata Donadon, Rocio Martin-Santos, Flávia de Lima Osório
Studies have shown that traumatic experiences may affect hormonal systems mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the oxytocinergic system. This effect is the result of long-term impairments in hypothalamic structures and negative feedback mechanisms within the HPA axis, structures that mediate the response to stress. This deregulation reduces the production and release of cortisol and oxytocin (OXT), which may alter stress responses and lead to increased vulnerability to impairments from stressful experiences...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sabrina Krause, Christina Boeck, Anja M Gumpp, Edit Rottler, Katharina Schury, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Buchheim, Harald Gündel, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christiane Waller
Background: Child maltreatment (CM) and attachment experiences are closely linked to alterations in the human oxytocin (OXT) system. However, human data about oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels in circulating immune cells and related them to circulating levels of OXT in peripheral blood. We hypothesized reduced OXTR protein levels, associated with both, experiences of CM and an insecure attachment representation. Methods: OXTR protein expressions were analyzed by western blot analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma OXT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 49 mothers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Emma D Spikol, Eric Glasgow
Transcriptional control of oxytocinergic cell development influences social, sexual, and appetite related behaviors, and is implicated in disorders such as autism and Prader-Willi syndrome. Mediator 12 (Med12) is a transcriptional coactivator required for multiple facets of brain development including subsets of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. We surveyed hormone gene expression within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of med12 mutant zebrafish embryos with a focus on oxytocin ( oxt ) expression. Some transcripts, such as oxt , vasopressin ( avp ) and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( crh ) are undetectable in the med12 mutant, while others are upregulated or downregulated to varying degrees...
March 12, 2018: Biology Open
Anne Chong, Soo Hong Chew, Poh San Lai, Richard P Ebstein, Jean-Philippe Gouin
Oxytocin (OT) plays a salient role in contributing to the high levels of human sociality that characterize our species. Across the lifespan this nonapeptide promotes prosocial behaviors and modulates stress responses. Curiously, the OXT-Neurophysin I gene has been little studied despite the fact this is the structural gene for the OT nonapeptide. In a large group of Han Chinese undergraduate students (n = 1593) we examined associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the OXT- Neurophysin I gene with personality traits...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jellina Prinsen, Stephanie Brams, Kaat Alaerts
The eyes constitute a highly salient cue to communicate social intent. Previous research showed that direct eye contact between two individuals can readily evoke an increased propensity to 'mirror' other peoples' actions. Considering the implicated role of the prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in enhancing the saliency of social cues and modulating approach/avoidance motivational tendencies, the current study adopted the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore whether a single dose of intranasal OXT (24 IU) modulated (enhanced) a person's propensity to show heightened mirroring or motor resonance upon salient social cues, such as eye contact...
February 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ilaria Cataldo, Atiqah Azhari, Gianluca Esposito
Oxytocin ( OXT ) and arginine-vasopressin ( AVP ) play a key regulatory part in social and affiliative behaviors; two aspects highly compromised in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Furthermore, variants in the adjacent oxytocin-vasopressin gene regions have been found to be associated with ASD diagnosis and endophenotypes. This review focuses mainly on common OXTr single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AVPR1a microsatellites and AVPR1b polymorphisms in relation to the development of autism. Although these genes did not surface in genome-wide association studies, evidence supports the hypothesis that these receptors and their polymorphisms are widely involved in the regulation of social behavior, and in modulating neural and physiological pathways contributing to the etiology of ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ravjibhai K Chaudhari, Ajit Singh Mahla, Amit Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Abhijit M Pawde, G V P P S Ravi Kumar, GyanendraSingh, Mihir Sarkar, Harendra Kumar, Krishnaswamy Narayanan
Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F 2α and E 2 during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days...
February 8, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Natascia Brondino, Laura Fusar-Poli, Matteo Rocchetti, Federico Bertoglio, Nora Bloise, Livia Visai, Pierluigi Politi
Evidence supports the notion that autistic symptoms and behaviors should be regarded as dimensional traits. The present study aimed to investigate the role of vasopressin (AVP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxytocin (OXT) as potential biochemical correlates of subclinical autistic traits in a cohort of healthy young adults. One hundred and fifty-three subjects (80 males, 73 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a widely used measure for the identification of autistic traits in the general population...
January 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lucía Colodro-Conde, Juan F Sanchez-Romera, Penelope A Lind, Gu Zhu, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Juan R Ordoñana
Oxytocin has an important function in breastfeeding via its role in the milk ejection reflex and in attachment and bonding processes. Genetic factors account for a significant part of the individual differences in breastfeeding behaviour. OXT and OXTR have been proposed as gene candidates for breastfeeding. Previous studies have focused on certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes, finding null or inconsistent results. The present study analyses the associations between a wide coverage of polymorphisms in OXT and OXTR and breastfeeding duration from two large and independent unselected samples comprising a total of 580 and 2,112 female twin mothers from the Murcia Twin Registry (MTR; Spain) and QIMR (Australia), respectively...
February 7, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Hehe Liu, Jiwen Wang, Liang Li, Chunchun Han, Hua He, Hengyong Xu
Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese...
2018: PloS One
Akiko Tanaka, Tomoyuki Furubayashi, Mari Arai, Daisuke Inoue, Shunsuke Kimura, Akiko Kiriyama, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Reiko Yutani, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
Oxytocin (OXT) is a cyclic nonapeptide, two amino acids of which are cysteine, forming an intramolecular disulfide bond. OXT is produced in the hypothalamus and is secreted into the bloodstream from the posterior pituitary. As recent studies have suggested that OXT is a neurotransmitter exhibiting central effects important for social deficits, it has drawn much attention as a drug candidate for the treatment of autism. Although human-stage clinical trials of the nasal spray of OXT for the treatment of autism have already begun, few studies have examined the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of OXT after nasal application...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Yu-Ting Lin, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Oxytocin (OXT) receptors (OXTRs) are prominently expressed in hippocampal CA2 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, but little is known about its physiological function. As the functional necessity of hippocampal CA2 for social memory processing, we tested whether CA2 OXTRs may contribute to long-term social recognition memory (SRM) formation. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Oxtr from forebrain (Oxtr-/-) or CA2/CA3a-restricted excitatory neurons in adult male mice impaired the persistence of long-term SRM but had no effect on sociability and preference for social novelty...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tong Yue, Yuhan Jiang, Caizhen Yue, Xiting Huang
Although oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to lead to reduced self-orientation, no study to date has directly and effectively weakened the egocentric tendencies in perspective taking tasks for both men and women. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, mixed design study we investigated the effects of OXT on men and women in visual perspective taking tasks. The results showed that OXT shortened the differences in response time between men and women in all experimental conditions. In addition, after OXT administration, the difference in reaction time between judging from one's own perspective and judging from others' perspectives decreased in female participants; however, this effect was not present in males...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
C D Guoynes, T C Simmons, G M Downing, S Jacob, M Solomon, K L Bales
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a neuropeptide with many functions, including modulation of social behavior(s) and anxiety. Due to its notable pro-social effects, it has been proposed as a treatment in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and social anxiety; however, effects of long-term daily treatment are still being explored. Previously, we have shown that in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) exposure to Oxt during the peri-adolescent period impaired adult pair bonding in a dose-dependent fashion...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
Drugs that act on the brain oxytocin (OXT) system may provide a much-needed treatment breakthrough for substance-use disorders. Targeting the brain OXT system has the potential to treat addiction to all major classes of addictive substance and to intervene across all stages of the addiction cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that OXT is able to interfere with such a wide range of addictive behaviours for such a wide range of addictive substances by rebalancing core neural systems that become dysregulated over the course of addiction...
December 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Daniela Casuriaga, Julia Giriboni, Aline Freitas-de-Melo, Patricia Silveira, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
Electroejaculation (EE) is a widely used semen collection technique; but, it is stressful and painful for the animals. Considering these concerns, it may be important to develop practices to decrease the negative implications of EE on animals. Oxytocin and prostaglandin-F2alpha (PGF2α) stimulate the contractions of the muscles of the male genital tract. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the administration of oxytocin and/or a PGF2α analogue (cloprostenol) to bucks in relation to their stress response and sperm parameters before semen collection by EE was performed...
February 2018: Theriogenology
Thomas Grund, Stephanie Goyon, Yuting Li, Marina Eliava, Haikun Liu, Alexandre Charlet, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide S (NPS) and oxytocin (OXT) represent potential options for the treatment of anxiety disorders due to their potent anxiolytic profile. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the behavioral action of NPS, and present a chain of evidence that the effects of NPS within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are mediated via actions on local OXT neurons in male Wistar rats. First, retrograde studies identified NPS fibers originating in the brainstem locus coeruleus and projecting to the PVN...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alexandra N Garcia, Christina Depena, Kelsey Bezner, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore
This study tested the effects of timing and duration of estradiol (E2 ) treatment, factors that are clinically relevant to hormone replacement in perimenopausal women, on social behavior and expression of genes in brain regions that regulate these behaviors. Female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) at 1year of age, roughly equivalent to middle-age in women, and given E2 or vehicle for different durations (3 or 6months) and timing (immediately or after a 3-month delay) relative to OVX. Social and ultrasonic vocalization (USV) behaviors were assessed at the 3 and 6month timepoints, and the rats' brains were then used for gene expression profiling in hypothalamus (supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdala, and prefrontal cortex using a 48-gene qPCR platform...
January 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Xiudeng Yang, Yamei Tang, Qinling Wei, Bing Lang, Huai Tao, Xianghui Zhang, Yong Liu, Aiguo Tang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with significant social cognition impairment. Increasing evidence has suggested that neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are important mediators of complex social cognition and behavior associates with SZ. In the present study, forty-three first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and forty-seven healthy controls (HC) were included. The peripheral mRNA expression of OXT, OXT receptor (OXTR), AVP, AVP 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and CD38 was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
Kelly Hubble, Katie Daughters, Antony S R Manstead, Aled Rees, Anita Thapar, Stephanie H M van Goozen
Oxytocin (OXT) has previously been implicated in a range of prosocial behaviors such as trust and emotion recognition. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned the evidence for this link. In addition, there has been relatively little conclusive research on the effect of OXT on empathic ability and such studies as there are have not examined the mechanisms through which OXT might affect empathy, or whether OXT selectively facilitates empathy for specific emotions. In the current study, we used eye-tracking to assess attention to socially relevant information while participants viewed dynamic, empathy-inducing video clips, in which protagonists expressed sadness, happiness, pain or fear...
November 2017: Neuropsychologia
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