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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245067/lin28a-functionally-modulates-bupivacaine-induced-dorsal-root-ganglion-neuron-apoptosis-through-trka-activation
#1
Liangsheng Yu, Yuanxu Jiang, Bin Tang
PURPOSE: Lin-28 Homolog A gene (Lin28a) is an important regulator in nerve system. In this study, we investigated the functional mechanism of Lin28a during the process of bupivacaine (BUP)-induced neuronal apoptosis of spinal cord dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). METHODS: Young mouse DRGNs were cultured in vitro and treated with series concentrations of BUP. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Corresponding Lin28a mRNA and protein expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot (WB) assays...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243319/zebrafish-rfx4-controls-dorsal-and-ventral-midline-formation-in-the-neural-tube
#2
Irina Sedykh, Abigail N Keller, Baul Yoon, Laura Roberson, Oleg V Moskvin, Yevgenya Grinblat
BACKGROUND: Rfx winged-helix transcription factors, best known as key regulators of core ciliogenesis, also play ciliogenesis-independent roles during neural development. Mammalian Rfx4 controls neural tube morphogenesis via both mechanisms. RESULTS: We set out to identify conserved aspects of rfx4 gene function during vertebrate development and to establish a new genetic model in which to analyze these mechanisms further. To this end, we have generated frame-shift alleles in the zebrafish rfx4 locus using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240990/wnt-signaling-loss-accelerates-the-appearance-of-neuropathological-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-j20-app-transgenic-and-wild-type-mice
#3
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein, synaptic dysfunction, and spatial memory impairment. The Wnt signaling pathway has several key functions in the adult brain and has been associated with AD, mainly as a neuroprotective factor against Aβ toxicity and tau phosphorylation. However, dysfunction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might also play a role in the onset and development of the disease. J20 APPswInd transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD was treated i...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233995/adeno-associated-virus-serotype-rh10-is-a-useful-gene-transfer-vector-for-sensory-nerves-that-innervate-bone-in-immunodeficient-mice
#4
Sun H Park, Matthew R Eber, Shunsuke Tsuzuki, Mary E Booker, Aaron G Sunil, D Brooke Widner, Renee A Parker, Christopher M Peters, Yusuke Shiozawa
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is frequently used to manipulate gene expression in the sensory nervous system for the study of pain mechanisms. Although some serotypes of AAV are known to have nerve tropism, whether AAV can distribute to sensory nerves that innervate the bone or skeletal tissue has not been shown. This information is crucial, since bone pain, including cancer-induced bone pain, is an area of high importance in pain biology. In this study, we found that AAVrh10 transduces neurons in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of immunodeficient mice with higher efficacy than AAV2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 when injected intrathecally...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229059/the-reliability-of-standing-sagittal-measurements-of-spinal-curvature-and-range-of-motion-in-older-women-with-and-without-hyperkyphosis-using-a-skin-surface-device
#5
Tayebeh Roghani, Minoo Khalkhali Zavieh, Abbas Rahimi, Saeed Talebian, Farideh Dehghan Manshadi, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Nicole King, Wendy Katzman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrarater reliability of a skin-surface instrument (Spinal Mouse, Idiag, Voletswil, Switzerland) in measuring standing sagittal curvature and global mobility of the spine in older women with and without hyperkyphosis. METHODS: Measurements were made in 19 women with hyperkyphosis (thoracic kyphosis angle ≥50°), mean age 67 ± 5 years, and 14 women without hyperkyphosis (thoracic kyphosis angle <50°), mean age 63 ± 6 years...
November 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228660/motor-deficits-are-independent-of-axonopathy-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-of-tgcrnd8-mice
#6
Qiuju Yuan, Jian Yang, Wutian Wu, Zhi-Xiu Lin
There have been an increasing number of reports of non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some symptoms are associated with the loss of motor functions, e.g. gait disturbances, disturbed activity level and balance. Consistent with clinical findings, several AD mouse models harboring amyloid pathology develop motor impairment. Although the factors that contribute to the motor deficits have not yet been determined, it has been suggested that axonopathy is one of the key factors that may contribute to this particular feature of the disease...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226998/antisense-suppression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-as-a-treatment-for-alexander-disease
#7
Tracy L Hagemann, Berit Powers, Curt Mazur, Aneeza Kim, Steven Wheeler, Gene Hung, Eric Swayze, Albee Messing
OBJECTIVE: Alexander disease is a fatal leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein primarily expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system. A key feature of pathogenesis is over-expression and accumulation of GFAP, with formation of characteristic cytoplasmic aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers. Here we investigate whether suppressing GFAP with antisense oligonucleotides could provide a therapeutic strategy for treating Alexander disease...
December 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225143/valproic-acid-disrupts-the-biomechanics-of-late-spinal-neural-tube-closure-in-mouse-embryos
#8
Amy Hughes, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp, Gabriel L Galea
Failure of neural tube closure in the early embryo causes neural tube defects including spina bifida. Spina bifida lesions predominate in the distal spine, particularly after exposure to the anticonvulsant valproic acid (VPA). How VPA specifically disturbs late stages of neural tube closure is unclear, as neurulation is usually viewed as a uniform 'zippering' process along the spine. We recently identified a novel closure site ("Closure 5") which forms at the caudal extremity of the mouse posterior neuropore (PNP) when completion of closure is imminent...
December 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222849/bone-marrow-transplantation-improves-motor-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-ataxia
#9
David Díaz, Marina Piquer-Gil, Javier Sánchez Recio, María Magdalena Martínez-Losa, José Ramón Alonso, Eduardo Weruaga, Manuel Álvarez-Dolado
Ataxias are locomotor disorders that can have an origin both neural and muscular, although both impairments are related. Unfortunately, ataxia has no cure and the current therapies are aimed at motor re-education or muscular reinforcement. Nevertheless, cell therapy is becoming a promising approach to deal with incurable neural diseases, including neuro-muscular ataxias. Here we have used a model of ataxia, the PCD mutant mouse, to study the effect of healthy (wild-type) bone marrow transplantation on the restoration of defective mobility...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222797/an-in-vivo-compression-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Irene Paterniti, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models have proven highly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in the injury process and evaluating the effectiveness of experimental therapeutic interventions. Over the last years, substantial improvements have been made in producing consistent and reproducible animal SCI models. Different SCI models have been developed to address the mechanism of injury, being divided into contusion, compression, distraction, dislocation, transection, or chemical models. The method described here is a mouse compression model of SCI that, in many respects, faithfully reproduces SCI in man...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222772/culture-of-neonatal-rodent-microglia-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-from-the-cortex-spinal-cord-and-cerebellum
#11
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci
The protocol described in this chapter covers the preparation and culture of enriched populations of microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from the cortex and spinal cord of neonatal rat and mouse. The procedure is based on enzymatic digestion of the tissue, followed by the culture of a mixed glial cell population which is then utilized as the starting point for the isolation, via differential attachment, of the different cell types.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222419/probenecid-arrests-the-progression-of-pronounced-clinical-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Nadine Hainz, Sandra Wolf, Artjom Beck, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Thomas Tschernig, Carola Meier
While it has been established that Probenecid (PBN) prevents the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, it is not clear whether it has any effect on already manifest EAE. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the therapeutic effect of PBN in pronounced EAE. Mice with manifest clinical symptoms of EAE were either treated with PBN or solvent for 20 days, or they were left untreated. The clinical symptoms were monitored daily. Inflammation, demyelination and oligodendrocyte numbers were determined in the spinal cord...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220503/downregulation-of-survivin-contributes-to-cell-cycle-arrest-during-postnatal-cardiac-development-in-a-severe-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mouse-model
#13
Lei Sheng, Bo Wan, Pengchao Feng, Junjie Sun, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, Martin Akerman, Adrian R Krainer, Yimin Hua
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, characterized by progressive degeneration of spinal-cord motor neurons, leading to atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that it is a multi-system disorder, particularly in its severe forms. Several studies delineated structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in SMA patients and mouse models, yet the abnormalities have been primarily attributed to autonomic dysfunction. Here, we show in a severe mouse model that its cardiomyocytes undergo G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and enhanced apoptosis during postnatal development...
December 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217355/crocetin-attenuates-spared-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in%C3%A2-mice
#14
Xiaolei Wang, Guangqing Zhang, Yong Qiao, Chang Feng, Xin Zhao
Crocetin is the main component of saffron and exhibits anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress have been recognized to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of crocetin in a mouse model with neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury (SNI). Crocetin was intrathecally perfused at various doses for up to 12 days starting 3 days before the surgery. Behavioral tests were performed to determine pain sensitivity. The concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured to assess neuroinflammation...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209804/efferents-of-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#15
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205322/a-targeted-sequencing-panel-identifies-rare-damaging-variants-in-multiple-genes-in-the-cranial-neural-tube-defect-anencephaly
#16
M Ishida, T Cullup, C Boustred, C James, J Docker, C English, GOSgene, N Lench, A J Copp, G E Moore, N D E Greene, P Stanier
Neural tube defects (NTDs) affecting the brain (anencephaly) are lethal before or at birth, whereas lower spinal defects (spina bifida) may lead to life-long neurological handicap. Collectively NTDs rank among the most common birth defects worldwide. This study focuses on anencephaly, which despite having a similar frequency to spina bifida and being the most common type of NTD observed in mouse models, has had more limited inclusion in genetic studies. A genetic influence is strongly implicated in determining risk of NTDs and a molecular diagnosis is of fundamental importance to families both in terms of understanding the origin of the condition and for managing future pregnancies...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198437/spinal-cord-injuries-and-nerve-dependence-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Alison Rutledge, Phillip Jobling, Marjorie M Walker, Jim W Denham, Hubert Hondermarck
Nerves are emerging as drivers of tumorigenesis, as demonstrated in the mouse where denervation suppresses prostate cancer; however, clinical evidence is needed. Patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) resulting in functional denervation of the prostate have a lower incidence of prostate cancer. This may constitute a clinical evidence for nerve dependence in human prostate tumorigenesis.
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194436/characterisation-of-the-pathogenic-effects-of-the-in-vivo-expression-of-an-als-linked-mutation-in-d-amino-acid-oxidase-phenotype-and-loss-of-spinal-cord-motor-neurons
#18
Nazanin Rahmani Kondori, Praveen Paul, Jacqueline P Robbins, Ke Liu, John C W Hildyard, Dominic J Wells, Jacqueline S de Belleroche
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset neuromuscular disorder characterised by selective loss of motor neurons leading to fatal paralysis. Current therapeutic approaches are limited in their effectiveness. Substantial advances in understanding ALS disease mechanisms has come from the identification of pathogenic mutations in dominantly inherited familial ALS (FALS). We previously reported a coding mutation in D-amino acid oxidase (DAOR199W) associated with FALS. DAO metabolises D-serine, an essential co-agonist at the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188135/benefits-of-prenatal-taurine-supplementation-in-preventing-the-onset-of-acute-damage-in-the-mdx-mouse
#19
Robert G Barker, Deanna Horvath, Chris van der Poel, Robyn M Murphy
Introduction: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating muscle wasting disorder with no cure. Safer supplements and therapies are needed to improve the severity of symptoms, as severe side effects are associated with the only effective treatment, corticosteroids. The amino acid taurine has shown promise in ameliorating dystrophic symptoms in mdx mice, an animal model of DMD, however little work is in 21-28 (d)ay animals, the period of natural peak damage. Methods: This study compares the effect of prenatal taurine supplementation on tibialis anterior (TA) in situ contractile function, histopathological characteristics and the abundance of Ca2+-handling as well as pathologically relevant proteins in non-exercised mdx mice at 28 and 70 d...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184437/antiallodynic-and-antihyperalgesic-activities-of-zerumbone-via-the-suppression-of-il-1%C3%AE-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#20
Banulata Gopalsamy, Ahmad Akira Omar Farouk, Tengku Azam Shah Tengku Mohamad, Mohd Roslan Sulaiman, Enoch Kumar Perimal
Background: Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that severely affects the quality of life for those with this pain condition, and treatment for pain relief is greatly sought-after. Zerumbone (Zer), a sesquiterpene compound isolated from the rhizomes of a Southeast Asian ginger plant, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Smith. (Zingiberaceae), showed antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties when previously tested on models of nociception and inflammation. Objective: This study investigated the effects of prophylactic administration of zerumbone on allodynia and hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
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