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Rachit Bakshi, Yuehang Xu, Kaly A Mueller, Xiqun Chen, Eric Granucci, Sabrina Paganoni, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Michael A Schwarzschild
Dominant mutations in an antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. Oxidative stress has also been linked to many of the neurodegenerative diseases and is likely a central mechanism of motor neuron death in ALS. Astrocytes derived from mutant SOD1G93A mouse models or patients play a significant role in the degeneration of spinal motor neurons in ALS through a non-cell-autonomous process...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Bruna Dos Santos Ramalho, Fernanda Martins de Almeida, Conrado Mendonça Sales, Silmara de Lima, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
In spite of advances in surgical care and rehabilitation, the consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) are still challenging. Several experimental therapeutic strategies have been studied in the SCI field, and recent advances have led to the development of therapies that may act on the inhibitory microenvironment. Assorted lineages of stem cells are considered a good treatment for SCI. This study investigated the effect of systemic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a compressive SCI model...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Mathieu Dubé, Alain Le Coupanec, Alan H M Wong, James M Rini, Marc Desforges, Pierre J Talbot
Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are recognized respiratory pathogens for which accumulating evidence indicates that in vulnerable patients, the infection can cause more severe pathologies. HCoVs are not always confined to the upper respiratory tract and can invade the CNS upon still unclear circumstances. HCoV-induced neuropathologies in human are difficult to diagnose early enough to allow therapeutic interventions. Making use of our already described animal model of HCoV neuropathogenesis, we describe the route of neuropropagation from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex then brainstem...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Mark R Griffiths, Marina Botto, B Paul Morgan, J W Neal, P Gasque
Microglia and non-professional immune cells (endothelial cells, neurons) participate in the recognition and removal of pathogens and tissue-debris in the injured CNS through major pro-inflammatory processes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating these responses remain ill-characterised. We herein show that CD93 also known as complement C1qRp/AA4 stem cell marker has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. The role of CD93 was evaluated in two models of neuroinflammation. We used the MOG-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and the antibody-dependent EAE (ADEAE) which were induced in wild type and CD93 knockout mice...
June 20, 2018: Immunology
Tetsuya Itabashi, Yasunobu Arima, Daisuke Kamimura, Kotaro Higuchi, Yoshio Bando, Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga, Masaaki Murakami, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Junko Nio-Kobayashi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which pathogenic T cells play an important role, and an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is used as an animal model of MS. Galectins are β-galactoside-binding lectins and involved in various physiological and pathological events. Among fifteen members of galectins, galectin-1, -8, and -9 play immunosuppressive roles in MS and EAE; however, the role of galectin-3 (gal-3) is complex and controversial. We examined expression of gal-3 in the spinal cord and nerve roots of EAE mice...
June 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Boram Nho, Junghun Lee, Junsub Lee, Kyeong Ryang Ko, Sung Joong Lee, Sunyoung Kim
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional protein that contains angiogenic and neurotrophic properties. In the current study, we investigated the analgesic effects of HGF by using a plasmid DNA that was designed to express 2 isoforms of human HGF-pCK-HGF-X7 (or VM202)-in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) -induced mouse neuropathic pain model. Intramuscular injection of pCK-HGF-X7 into proximal thigh muscle induced the expression of HGF in the muscle, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
April 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Emerson Krock, Magali Millecamps, J Brooke Currie, Laura S Stone, Lisbet Haglund
OBJECTIVE: Intervertebral disc degeneration is a leading cause of chronic low back pain but current treatment is limited. Toll-like receptors (TLR) on disc cells are activated by endogenous extracellular matrix fragments and modulate degeneration in vitro. This study investigated whether inhibiting TLR4 slows disc degeneration and reduces behavioral signs of LBP in vivo. DESIGN: 7-9-month old wild-type and SPARC-null (a model of disc degeneration and LBP) male mice were treated with TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) once, and following a 10-day washout, mice were treated 3 times/week for 8 weeks...
June 14, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
James B Hilton, Kai Kysenius, Anthony R White, Peter J Crouch
Mutations to the copper-dependent enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans, and transgenic overexpression of mutant SOD1 represents a robust murine model of the disease. We have previously shown that the copper-containing compound CuII (atsm) phenotypically improves mutant SOD1 mice and delivers copper to copper-deficient SOD1 in the CNS to restore its physiological function. CuII (atsm) is now in clinical trials for the treatment of ALS. In this study, we demonstrate that cuproenzyme dysfunction extends beyond SOD1 in SOD1G37R mice to also affect the endogenous copper-dependent ferroxidase ceruloplasmin...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Quitterie Venot, Thomas Blanc, Smail Hadj Rabia, Laureline Berteloot, Sophia Ladraa, Jean-Paul Duong, Estelle Blanc, Simon C Johnson, Clément Hoguin, Olivia Boccara, Sabine Sarnacki, Nathalie Boddaert, Stephanie Pannier, Frank Martinez, Sato Magassa, Junna Yamaguchi, Bertrand Knebelmann, Pierre Merville, Nicolas Grenier, Dominique Joly, Valérie Cormier-Daire, Caroline Michot, Christine Bole-Feysot, Arnaud Picard, Véronique Soupre, Stanislas Lyonnet, Jeremy Sadoine, Lotfi Slimani, Catherine Chaussain, Cécile Laroche-Raynaud, Laurent Guibaud, Christine Broissand, Jeanne Amiel, Christophe Legendre, Fabiola Terzi, Guillaume Canaud
CLOVES syndrome (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal naevi, scoliosis/skeletal and spinal syndrome) is a genetic disorder that results from somatic, mosaic gain-of-function mutations of the PIK3CA gene, and belongs to the spectrum of PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndromes (PROS). This rare condition has no specific treatment and a poor survival rate. Here, we describe a postnatal mouse model of PROS/CLOVES that partially recapitulates the human disease, and demonstrate the efficacy of BYL719, an inhibitor of PIK3CA, in preventing and improving organ dysfunction...
June 13, 2018: Nature
Youfen Xu, Katherine Halievski, Masahisa Katsuno, Hiroaki Adachi, Gen Sobue, S Marc Breedlove, Cynthia L Jordan
A distinguishing aspect of spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is its androgen-dependence, possibly explaining why only males are clinically affected. This disease, which impairs neuromuscular function, is linked to a polyglutamine expansion mutation in the androgen receptor (AR). In mouse models of SBMA, motor dysfunction is associated with pronounced defects in neuromuscular transmission, including defects in evoked transmitter release (quantal content, QC) and fiber membrane excitability (based on the resting membrane potential, RMP)...
April 20, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, L Anne Walker, Meagan A Quinlan, Ana M D Carneiro, Ji-Ying Sze, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells comprise the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and secrete catecholamines to coordinate the appropriate stress response. Deletion of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) gene in mice (SERT-/- mice) or pharmacological block of SERT function in rodents and humans augments this sympathoadrenal stress response (epinephrine secretion). The prevailing assumption is that loss of CNS SERT alters central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells also prominently express SERT where it might coordinate accumulation of 5-HT for reuse in the autocrine control of stress-evoked catecholamine secretion...
June 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ming-Dong Zhang, Jie Su, Csaba Adori, Valentina Cinquina, Katarzyna Malenczyk, Fatima Girach, Changgeng Peng, Patrik Ernfors, Peter Löw, Lotta Borgius, Ole Kiehn, Masahiko Watanabe, Mathias Uhlén, Nicholas Mitsios, Jan Mulder, Tibor Harkany, Tomas Hökfelt
Painful signals are transmitted by mutisynaptic glutamatergic pathways. Their first synapse between primary nociceptors and excitatory spinal interneurons gates sensory load. Glutamate release herein is orchestrated by Ca2+ sensor proteins with neuronal calcium-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) being particularly abundant. However, neither the importance of NECAB2+ neuronal contingents in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord nor function-determination by NECAB2 has been defined. A combination of histochemistry and single-cell RNA-seq showed NECAB2 in small/medium-sized C- and Aδ D-hair low threshold mechanoreceptors in DRG, as well as in protein kinase γ-positive excitatory spinal interneurons...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xiangbing Wu, Wenrui Qu, Adewale Bakare, Yi-Ping Zhang, Collin M Fry, Lisa Shields, Christopher B Shields, Xiao-Ming Xu
Mouse models are unique for studying molecular mechanisms of neurotrauma due to the availability of various genetic modified mouse lines. For spinal cord injury (SCI) research, producing an accurate injury is essential but is challenging due to the small size of the mouse cord and inconsistency of injury production. The Louisville Injury System Apparatus (LISA) impactor has been shown to produce precise contusive SCI in adult rats. Here we examined whether the LISA impactor could be used to create accurate and graded contusive SCIs in mice...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Liujing Xing, Teni Anbarchian, Jonathan M Tsai, Giles W Plant, Roeland Nusse
In the adult mouse spinal cord, the ependymal cell population that surrounds the central canal is thought to be a promising source of quiescent stem cells to treat spinal cord injury. Relatively little is known about the cellular origin of ependymal cells during spinal cord development, or the molecular mechanisms that regulate ependymal cells during adult homeostasis. Using genetic lineage tracing based on the Wnt target gene Axin2 , we have characterized Wnt-responsive cells during spinal cord development...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rong Li, Sudhanshu Sahu, Melitta Schachner
BACKGROUND: Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 contributes to nervous system development and maintenance by promoting neuronal survival, neuritogenesis, axonal regrowth/sprouting, myelination, and synapse formation and plasticity. L1 also enhances recovery after spinal cord injury and ameliorates neurodegenerative processes in experimental rodent models. Aiming for clinical translation of L1 into therapy we screened for and functionally characterized in vitro the small organic molecule phenelzine, which mimics characteristic L1 functions...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Wenzhao Wang, Shi Tang, Hongfei Li, Ronghan Liu, Yanlin Su, Lin Shen, Mingjie Sun, Bin Ning
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent disability to at least 180,000 people per year worldwide. Early regulation of spinal fibroblast proliferation may inhibit fibrotic scar formation, allowing the creation of a favorable environment for neuronal regeneration and thereby enhancing recovery from traumatic SCIs. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of microRNA-21-5p (miR-21a-5p) in regulating spinal fibroblasts after mechanical trauma and to investigate the dysregulation of miR-21a-5p in the pathological process of spinal SCI...
June 5, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Wenwen Huo, Ying Zhang, Yue Liu, Yishan Lei, Rao Sun, Wei Zhang, Yulin Huang, Yanting Mao, Chenchen Wang, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
Bone cancer pain remains a major challenge in patients with primary or metastatic bone cancer due to a lack of understanding the mechanisms. Previous studies have revealed the two distinct functional polarization states of microglia (classically activated M1 and alternatively activated M2) in the spinal cord in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, whether microglia in the spinal cord polarize to M1 and M2 phenotypes and contribute to the development of bone cancer pain remains unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model with bone cancer to characterize the M1/M2 polarization of microglia in the spinal cord during the development of bone cancer pain, and investigated the antinociceptive effects of dehydrocorydaline, an alkaloidal component isolated from Rhizoma corydalis on bone cancer pain...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Daria Guseva, Igor Jakovcevski, Andrey Irintchev, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Melitta Schachner
The close homolog of L1 (CHL1) is a cell adhesion molecule involved in regulation of neuronal differentiation and survival, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance during development. In the mature nervous system, CHL1 regulates synaptic activity and plasticity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of CHL1 on peripheral nerve regeneration after trauma. Using the established model of mouse femoral nerve regeneration, CHL1 knock-out mice were investigated in comparison to the wild type littermates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sharon Jiyoon Jung, Myung Geun Kook, Sungchul Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Kwang-Sup Soh
Homing of stem cells (SCs) to desired targets such as injured tissues remains a lingering problem in cell-based therapeutics. Studies on the biodistribution of intravenously administered SCs have shown the inefficacy of blood vessels as the homing path because most of the injected SCs are captured in the capillary beds of the lungs. We considered an alternative administration method utilizing the acupuncture meridians or the primo vascular system (PVS). We injected SCs at the acupoint Zusanli (ST-36) below the knee of a nude mouse with a spinal cord injured at the thoracic T9-10 vertebrae...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Harun Najib Noristani, Guillaume Patrick Saint-Martin, Maida Cardoso, Rahima Sidiboulenouar, Mathias Catteau, Christophe Coillot, Christophe Goze-Bac, Florence Evelyne Perrin
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are disastrous neuropathologies causing permanent disabilities. The availability of different strains of mice is valuable for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in SCI. However, strain differences have a profound effect on spontaneous functional recovery after SCI. CX3CR1+/eGFP and Aldh1l1-EGFP mice that express green fluorescent protein in microglia/monocytes and astrocytes respectively are particularly useful to study glial reactivity. Whereas CX3CR1+/eGFP mice have C57BL/6 background, Aldh1l1-EGFP are in Swiss Webster background...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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