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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#1
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
December 8, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927961/nasal-respiration-entrains-human-limbic-oscillations-and-modulates-cognitive-function
#2
Christina Zelano, Heidi Jiang, Guangyu Zhou, Nikita Arora, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow, Jay A Gottfried
: The need to breathe links the mammalian olfactory system inextricably to the respiratory rhythms that draw air through the nose. In rodents and other small animals, slow oscillations of local field potential activity are driven at the rate of breathing (∼2-12 Hz) in olfactory bulb and cortex, and faster oscillatory bursts are coupled to specific phases of the respiratory cycle. These dynamic rhythms are thought to regulate cortical excitability and coordinate network interactions, helping to shape olfactory coding, memory, and behavior...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924356/comparison-of-two-common-aeeg-classifications-for-the-prediction-of-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-infants
#3
Nora Bruns, Frauke Dransfeld, Britta Hüning, Julia Hobrecht, Tobias Storbeck, Christel Weiss, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Hanna Müller
: Neurodevelopmental outcome after prematurity is crucial. The aim was to compare two amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) classifications (Hellström-Westas (HW), Burdjalov) for outcome prediction. We recruited 65 infants ≤32 weeks gestational age with aEEG recordings within the first 72 h of life and Bayley testing at 24 months corrected age or death. Statistical analyses were performed for each 24 h section to determine whether very immature/depressed or mature/developed patterns predict survival/neurological outcome and to find predictors for mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) at 24 months corrected age...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923187/sleep-eeg-patterns-in-infants-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome
#4
Maria Durce Costa Gomes Carvalho, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Vanessa van der Linden, Paula Fabiana Sobral, Regina Coeli Ferreira Ramos, Maria Ângela Wanderley Rocha, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Sarah Pinheiro de Alencar, Magda Lahorgue Nunes
OBJECTIVES: To describe sleep EEG patterns of neonates, and infants with microcephaly due to congenital Zika virus (ZikV) syndrome. METHODS: A descriptive case series of EEGs performed in a cohort of neonates with microcephaly monitored from October 2015 to February 2016 at a University Hospital in Northeast Brazil. Infants were investigated following an established protocol that includes EEG, neuroimaging studies, PCR and specific antibodies for ZikV detection...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922904/utilization-of-quantitative-eeg-trends-for-critical-care-continuous-eeg-monitoring-a-survey-of-neurophysiologists
#5
Christa B Swisher, Saurabh R Sinha
PURPOSE: Quantitative EEG (QEEG) can be used to assist with review of large amounts of data generated by critical care continuous EEG monitoring. This study aimed to identify current practices regarding the use of QEEG in critical care continuous EEG monitoring of critical care patients. METHODS: An online survey was sent to 796 members of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS), instructing only neurophysiologists to participate. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 75 neurophysiologists that use QEEG in their practice...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919842/propagation-of-seizures-in-a-case-of-lesional-mid-cingulate-gyrus-epilepsy-studied-by-stereo-eeg
#6
Rafeed Alkawadri, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Nicolas Gaspard, Andreas V Alexopoulos
Little is known about the propagation of seizures arising from the cingulate gyrus, as cingulate coverage with interhemispheric subdural electrodes is usually challenging and incomplete due to inherent anatomical and vascular limitations. We present a case of lesional mid-cingulate epilepsy confirmed by stereotactically implanted intracranial depth electrodes and subsequent surgical resection. Hypermotor symptomatology was seen during the first seven seconds of seizure onset while the seizure was still confined to the mid-cingulate gyrus contacts...
December 5, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919003/altered-patterns-of-directed-connectivity-within-the-reading-network-of-dyslexic-children-and-their-relation-to-reading-dysfluency
#7
Gojko Žarić, João M Correia, Gorka Fraga González, Jurgen Tijms, Maurtis W van der Molen, Leo Blomert, Milene Bonte
Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR) and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD) and moderately dysfluent (MDD) dyslexics...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915117/from-intentions-to-actions-neural-oscillations-encode-motor-processes-through-phase-amplitude-and-phase-amplitude-coupling
#8
Etienne Combrisson, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Juan Lp Soto, Golnoush Alamian, Philippe Kahane, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Aymeric Guillot, Karim Jerbi
Goal-directed motor behavior is associated with changes in patterns of rhythmic neuronal activity across widely distributed brain areas. In particular, movement initiation and execution are mediated by patterns of synchronization and desynchronization that occur concurrently across distinct frequency bands and across multiple motor cortical areas. To date, motor-related local oscillatory modulations have been predominantly examined by quantifying increases or suppressions in spectral power. However, beyond signal power, spectral properties such as phase and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) have also been shown to carry information with regards to the oscillatory dynamics underlying motor processes...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902711/eeg-to-primary-rewards-predictive-utility-and-malleability-by-brain-stimulation
#9
Nicole Prause, Greg J Siegle, Choi Deblieck, Allan Wu, Marco Iacoboni
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is thought to affect reward processing mechanisms, which may increase and decrease reward sensitivity. To test the ability of TBS to modulate response to strong primary rewards, participants hypersensitive to primary rewards were recruited. Twenty men and women with at least two opposite-sex, sexual partners in the last year received two forms of TBS. Stimulations were randomized to avoid order effects and separated by 2 hours to reduce carryover. The two TBS forms have been demonstrated to inhibit (continuous) or excite (intermittent) the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using different pulse patterns, which links to brain areas associated with reward conditioning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900920/-sudden-loss-of-consciousness-during-labour
#10
L T van Genugten, L P Morssink, E L van der Kooi
This case describes a 36-year-old woman, gravida 4 para 2 at 41 weeks and 3 days gestation, who appeared unconscious during labour for 75 minutes. After excluding physical disorders, it transpired that she was having a conversion disorder. A patient with a decreased level of consciousness in childbirth must be assessed using the ABCDE method, positioned in left lateral tilt to prevent inferior vena cava compression. After stabilization of the vital functions and establishing the patient's history, physical examination and laboratory tests are components of the initial clinical assessment...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899291/dynamic-changes-in-sleep-pattern-during-post-partum-in-normal-pregnancy-in-rat-model
#11
Neelima Sivadas, Arathi Radhakrishnan, B S Aswathy, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
To develop an animal model for studies on peri-partum sleep disorders, sleep patterns in female Wistar rats during pregnancy, post-partum and after weaning, were assessed and associated adaptive changes in their anxiety were examined. Adult nulliparous female rats, maintained in standard laboratory conditions with ad libitum food and water, were surgically implanted with electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes under anaesthesia for objective assessment of sleep-wakefulness (S-W). After post-surgical recovery, three control recordings of S-W were taken for 24h before the animals were kept for mating...
November 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897031/abnormal-coupling-between-dmn-and-delta-and-beta-band-eeg-in-psychotic-patients
#12
Anja Baenninger, Vanessa A Palzes, Brian J Roach, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith Ford, Thomas Koenig
Common-phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations is a mechanism by which distributed brain regions can be integrated into transiently stable networks. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in functional integration within neuronal networks, this study aimed to explore whether psychotic patients exhibit differences in brain regions involved in integrative mechanisms. We report an EEG-informed fMRI analysis of eyes-open resting state data collected from patients and healthy controls at two study sites...
November 29, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893495/integration-of-eeg-into-psychiatric-practice-a-step-toward-precision-medicine-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Ronald J Swatzyna, Jay D Tarnow, Robert P Turner, Alexandra J Roark, Erin K MacInerney, Gerald P Kozlowski
INTRODUCTION: Data from an EEG is not commonly used by psychiatrists to plan treatment and medication. However, EEG abnormalities such as isolated epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are found to be more prevalent in psychiatric patients, particularly those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most medications prescribed for ASD lower seizure threshold and increase side-effects. Therefore, it may be prudent to order an EEG for ASD cases, especially those categorized as refractory...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891256/scale-dependent-signal-identification-in-low-dimensional-subspace-motor-imagery-task-classification
#14
Qingshan She, Haitao Gan, Yuliang Ma, Zhizeng Luo, Tom Potter, Yingchun Zhang
Motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG) has been successfully used in locomotor rehabilitation programs. While the noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) algorithm has been utilized to extract task-specific frequency bands from all channels in the same scale as the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), identifying and extracting the specific IMFs that contain significant information remain difficult. In this paper, a novel method has been developed to identify the information-bearing components in a low-dimensional subspace without prior knowledge...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891195/reflections-on-a-giant-of-brain-science-how-lucky-we-are-having-walter-j-freeman-as-our-beacon-in-cognitive-neurodynamics-research
#15
REVIEW
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#16
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890810/interaction-of-language-auditory-and-memory-brain-networks-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#17
REVIEW
Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, Judith Ford, Daniela Hubl, Natasza D Orlov, Iris E Sommer, Flavie Waters, Paul Allen, Renaud Jardri, Peter W Woodruff, David Olivier, Christoph Mulert, Todd S Woodward, André Aleman
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890323/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-generates-pre-stimulus-theta-coherence-desynchronization-a-schema-instantiation-hypothesis
#18
Asaf Gilboa, Morris Moscovitch
The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in monitoring of memory veracity, and more recently also in memory schema functions. In our model of strategic retrieval the two are related. We have proposed that the vmPFC has two schema-dependent functions: (i) to establish context-relevant templates against which the output of memory systems can be compared; (ii) to mediate automatic decision monitoring processes to ensure that only those responses that meet the criterion are enacted...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889818/somatosensory-reflex-seizures-in-a-child-with-epilepsy-related-to-novel-scn1a-mutation
#19
Pinar Arican, Nihal Olgac Dundar, Dilek Cavusoglu, Taha Resid Ozdemır, Pinar Gencpinar
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in SCN1A have been reported in patients with different types of epilepsy, including generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy, and other infantile epileptic encephalopathies. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 10-month-old girl presented with reflex epileptic seizures provoked by somatosensory stimuli with a novel de novo mutation of SCN1A gene. She was observed to have seizures with eye deviation, unresponsiveness provoked by somatosensory stimuli of the face...
November 26, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886628/eeg-utilization-in-canadian-intensive-care-units-a-multicentre-prospective-observational-study
#20
Andrea Park, Martin Chapman, Victoria A McCredie, Derek Debicki, Teneille Gofton, Loretta Norton, J Gordon Boyd
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that electroencephalography (EEG) may be an underutilized monitoring modality in a single general medical-surgical ICU, that does not have a specific neurocritical care consultation service or neurocritical care unit. The present study was designed to describe the pattern of EEG utilization across 3 academic ICUs in Ontario, Canada that use different models of neurocritical care. METHOD: In this prospective multicentre observational study, ICU patients were screened weekly for 6 non-consecutive weeks to determine if they met the ESICM's recommendations or suggestions for EEG monitoring...
November 13, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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