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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334352/the-human-neural-alpha-response-to-speech-is-a-proxy-of-attentional-control
#1
Malte Wöstmann, Sung-Joo Lim, Jonas Obleser
Human alpha (~10 Hz) oscillatory power is a prominent neural marker of cognitive effort. When listeners attempt to process and retain acoustically degraded speech, alpha power enhances. It is unclear whether these alpha modulations reflect the degree of acoustic degradation per se or the degradation-driven demand to a listener's attentional control. Using an irrelevant-speech paradigm and measuring the electroencephalogram (EEG), the current experiment demonstrates that the neural alpha response to speech is a surprisingly clear proxy of top-down control, entirely driven by the listening goals of attending versus ignoring degraded speech...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332484/multivariate-regression-methods-for-estimating-velocity-of-ictal-discharges-from-human-microelectrode-recordings
#2
Jyun-You Liou, Elliot Smith, Lisa Bateman, Guy McKhann, Robert Goodman, Bradley Greger, Tyler Davis, Spencer Kellis, Paul House, Catherine Schevon
OBJECTIVE: Epileptiform discharges, an electrophysiological hallmark of seizures, can propagate across cortical tissue in a manner similar to traveling waves. Recent work has focused attention on the origination and propagation patterns of these discharges, yielding important clues to their source location and mechanism of travel. However, systematic studies of methods for measuring propagation are lacking. APPROACH: We analyzed epileptiform discharges in microelectrode array recordings of human seizures...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330777/altered-visual-repetition-suppression-in-fragile-x-syndrome-new-evidence-from-erps-and-oscillatory-activity
#3
Simon Rigoulot, Inga S Knoth, Marc-Philippe Lafontaine, Phetsamone Vannasing, Philippe Major, Sébastien Jacquemont, Jacques L Michaud, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippe
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328131/recessive-mutations-in-slc35a3-cause-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-skeletal-defects
#4
Carla Marini, Katia Hardies, Tiziana Pisano, Patrick May, Sarah Weckhuysen, Elena Cellini, Arvid Suls, Davide Mei, Rudi Balling, Peter D Jonghe, Ingo Helbig, Domenico Garozzo, Renzo Guerrini
We describe the clinical and whole genome sequencing (WGS) study of a non-consanguineous Italian family in which two siblings, a boy and a girl, manifesting a severe epileptic encephalopathy (EE) with skeletal abnormalities, carried novel SLC35A3 compound heterozygous mutations. Both siblings exhibited infantile spasms, associated with focal, and tonic vibratory seizures from early infancy. EEG recordings showed a suppression-burst (SB) pattern and multifocal paroxysmal activity in both. In addition both had quadriplegia, acquired microcephaly, and severe intellectual disability...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327354/the-neural-correlates-of-vertical-disparity-gradient-and-cue-conflict-in-panum-s-limiting-case
#5
Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Laipeng Jin, Dongchuan Yu
Although Panum's limiting case has been extensively researched, only recently has it been discovered that in addition to horizontal disparity, the final perception of depth is influenced by (i) the vertical disparity gradient and (ii) the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. The present study examines the neural correlates of the two factors, using EEG while observers viewed several versions of stereoscopic stimuli, which depicted Panum's limiting case. In these patterns the vertical disparity gradient was varied from 0...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326122/preliminary-study-on-quantitative-sleep-eeg-characteristics-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Seong Min Oh, Yu Jin Lee, Jong Won Kim, Jae Won Choi, Do-Un Jeong
We used quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) spectral analysis to compare activity in the bilateral frontal, central, and occipital areas in nine patients with schizophrenia and ten healthy control subjects during standard nocturnal polysomnography. Patients with schizophrenia had longer sleep latency than controls. In N2 sleep, the patients had significantly lower 0.5-1 Hz power and higher theta power in the left frontal region, and higher beta power in the left occipital region than did control subjects...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325926/night-and-day-variations-of-sleep-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#7
Malgorzata Wislowska, Renata Del Giudice, Julia Lechinger, Tomasz Wielek, Dominik P J Heib, Alain Pitiot, Gerald Pichler, Gabriele Michitsch, Johann Donis, Manuel Schabus
Brain injuries substantially change the entire landscape of oscillatory dynamics and render detection of typical sleep patterns difficult. Yet, sleep is characterized not only by specific EEG waveforms, but also by its circadian organization. In the present study we investigated whether brain dynamics of patients with disorders of consciousness systematically change between day and night. We recorded ~24 h EEG at the bedside of 18 patients diagnosed to be vigilant but unaware (Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome) and 17 patients revealing signs of fluctuating consciousness (Minimally Conscious State)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325617/human-genetics-and-sleep-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Guangsen Shi, David Wu, Louis J Ptáček, Ying-Hui Fu
Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of sleep, duration of sleep and EEG patterns...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325448/diagnosis-of-autism-through-eeg-processed-by-advanced-computational-algorithms-a-pilot-study
#9
Enzo Grossi, Chiara Olivieri, Massimo Buscema
BACKGROUND: Multi-Scale Ranked Organizing Map coupled with Implicit Function as Squashing Time algorithm(MS-ROM/I-FAST) is a new, complex system based on Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) able to extract features of interest in computerized EEG through the analysis of few minutes of their EEG without any preliminary pre-processing. A proof of concept study previously published showed accuracy values ranging from 94%-98% in discerning subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment and/or Alzheimer's Disease from healthy elderly people...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325029/noninvasive-eeg-correlates-of-overground-and-stair-walking
#10
Justin A Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Recep Ozdemir, Fangshi Zhu, Anna T Winslow, Helen Huang, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
Automated walking intention detection remains a challenge in lower-limb neuroprosthetic systems. Here, we assess the feasibility of extracting motor intent from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). First, we evaluated the corticomuscular coherence between central EEG electrodes (C1, Cz, C2) and muscles of the shank and thigh during walking on level ground and stairs. Second, we trained decoders to predict the linear envelope of the surface electromyogram (EMG). We observed significant EEG-led corticomuscular coupling between electrodes and sEMG (tibialis anterior) in the high delta (3-4 Hz) and low theta (4-5 Hz) frequency bands during level walking, indicating efferent signaling from the cortex to peripheral motor neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325012/eeg-patterns-of-subacute-stroke-patients-performing-motor-tasks-correlate-with-motor-functional-outcome-preliminary-results
#11
Wanjoo Park, Yun-Hee Kim, Sung-Phil Kim, Laehyun Kim
If an early predictor of motor functional outcome after stroke were available, stroke patients would receive more appropriate treatments for motor recovery. We performed a correlation analysis of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal patterns of nine subacute stroke patients (recorded 22.9 ± 7.1 days after onset) and their motor recovery rates (measured 100.2 ± 8.9 days after onset). The beta band spectral power in the bilateral motor cortex after physical upper limb movement correlated significantly with the motor recovery rates [Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores; Pearson's linear correlation, p <; 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324939/visual-transparent-visual-occlusion-an-eeg-and-cop-study
#12
Kwang Leng Goh, Susan Morris, Wee Lih Lee, Alexander Ring, Tele Tan
Electroencephalography (EEG) and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded in young adults for 60 seconds during standing in visual transparent (VT) and visual occlusion (VO) conditions. In both of these conditions, participants wore VO liquid crystal spectacles which allowed the experimenter to accurately control visual information being presented or occluded to the participant. Alpha band (8-13 Hz) revealed significant differences in channel-averaged power spectrum in these two conditions, but not theta band (4-8 Hz) and beta band (13-30 Hz)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324696/online-neural-monitoring-of-statistical-learning
#13
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324261/prophylactic-anticonvulsants-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
Jason Mackey, Ashley D Blatsioris, Elizabeth A S Moser, Ravan J L Carter, Chandan Saha, Alec Stevenson, Abigail L Hulin, Darren P O'Neill, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Thomas J Leipzig, Linda S Williams
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prophylactic anticonvulsants are routinely prescribed in the acute setting for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients, but some studies have reported an association with worse outcomes. We sought to characterize the prevalence and predictors of prophylactic anticonvulsant administration after ICH as well as guideline adherence. We also sought to determine whether prophylactic anticonvulsants were independently associated with poor outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of primary ICH in our two academic centers...
March 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323852/extraction-of-features-from-sleep-eeg-for-bayesian-assessment-of-brain-development
#15
Vitaly Schetinin, Livija Jakaite
Brain development can be evaluated by experts analysing age-related patterns in sleep electroencephalograms (EEG). Natural variations in the patterns, noise, and artefacts affect the evaluation accuracy as well as experts' agreement. The knowledge of predictive posterior distribution allows experts to estimate confidence intervals within which decisions are distributed. Bayesian approach to probabilistic inference has provided accurate estimates of intervals of interest. In this paper we propose a new feature extraction technique for Bayesian assessment and estimation of predictive distribution in a case of newborn brain development assessment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323091/age-related-differences-in-functional-synchronization-of-eeg-activity-as-evaluated-by-means-of-tms-eeg-coregistrations
#16
Florinda Ferreri, Fabrizio Vecchio, Andrea Guerra, Francesca Miraglia, David Ponzo, Luca Vollero, Giulio Iannello, Sara Maatta, Esa Mervaala, Paolo Maria Rossini, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
It was recently demonstrated that the characteristics of EEG rhythms preceding a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex (M1) influence the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude with a peculiar pattern, thus reflecting the M1 functional state. As physiological aging is related to a decrease in motor performance and changes in excitability and connectivity strength within cerebral sensorimotor circuits, we aimed to explore whether aging affects EEG-MEP interactions. Using MRI-navigated TMS and multichannel EEG, we compared the EEG-MEP interactions observed in healthy aged subjects with those observed in young volunteers...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320152/electrographic-patterns-in-patients-with-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-seizures
#17
Carlos Kamiya-Matsuoka, Sudhakar Tummala
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic encephalopathic state associated with reversible cerebral vasogenic edema. Seizures are a common clinical presentation in PRES, however its electroencephalographic and radiologic pattern correlation is limited in this subset of patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the origin of electrographic dysfunction according to the radiologic pattern in patients with PRES and seizures. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 46 cancer patients who developed PRES and seizures at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 2006 and June 2012...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319876/redefining-periodic-patterns-on-electroencephalograms-of-patients-with-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#18
Jung-Won Shin, Byeongsoo Yim, Seung Hun Oh, Nam Keun Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Ok-Joon Kim
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to redefine various periodic patterns (PPs) observed on electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) using the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's (ACNS) Criteria. METHODS: We analyzed EEG data of 23 patients with sCJD were admitted to two university hospitals between August 2005 and September 2015. RESULTS: We classified PPs on EEG data into three types: irregular periodic discharges (PDs) with superimposed rhythmic activities, appearing at a median of 8weeks after onset (w...
February 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318068/helicid-alleviates-pain-and-sleep-disturbances-in-a-neuropathic-pain-like-model-in-mice
#19
Meng-Qi Zhang, Tian-Xiao Wang, Rui Li, Zhi-Li Huang, Wu-Jian Han, Xiao-Chang Dai, Yi-Qun Wang
Natural helicid (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia. In the current study, mechanical allodynia tests, electroencephalograms, electromyogram recordings and c-Fos expression in neuropathic pain-like model mice of partial sciatic nerve ligation were used to investigate the effect of helicid on neuropathic pain and co-morbid insomnia...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315140/electrophysiological-evidence-of-perceived-sexual-attractiveness-for-human-female-bodies-varying-in-waist-to-hip-ratio
#20
Marzia Del Zotto, Alan J Pegna
The dynamics of brain activation reflecting attractiveness in humans are unclear. Among the different features affecting attractiveness of the female body, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is considered to be crucial. To date, however, no event-related potential (ERP) study has addressed the question of its associated pattern of brain activation. We carried out two different experiments: (a) a behavioural study, to judge the level of attractiveness of female realistic models depicting 4 different WHRs (0.6, 0.7, 0...
March 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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