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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431164/low-activity-microstates-during-sleep
#1
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N Billeh, Kamran Diba
Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429729/weak-connections-form-an-infinite-number-of-patterns-in-the-brain
#2
Hai-Peng Ren, Chao Bai, Murilo S Baptista, Celso Grebogi
Recently, much attention has been paid to interpreting the mechanisms for memory formation in terms of brain connectivity and dynamics. Within the plethora of collective states a complex network can exhibit, we show that the phenomenon of Collective Almost Synchronisation (CAS), which describes a state with an infinite number of patterns emerging in complex networks for weak coupling strengths, deserves special attention. We show that a simulated neuron network with neurons weakly connected does produce CAS patterns, and additionally produces an output that optimally model experimental electroencephalograph (EEG) signals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#3
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427027/multisensory-temporal-function-and-eeg-complexity-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-psychogenic-nonepileptic-events
#4
Jean-Paul Noel, LeAnne Kurela, Sarah H Baum, Hong Yu, Joseph S Neimat, Martin J Gallagher, Mark Wallace
Cognitive and perceptual comorbidities frequently accompany epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic events (PNEE). However, and despite the fact that perceptual function is built upon a multisensory foundation, little knowledge exists concerning multisensory function in these populations. Here, we characterized facets of multisensory processing abilities in patients with epilepsy and PNEE, and probed the relationship between individual resting-state EEG complexity and these psychophysical measures in each patient...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426802/decoding-the-infant-mind-multivariate-pattern-analysis-mvpa-using-fnirs
#5
Lauren L Emberson, Benjamin D Zinszer, Rajeev D S Raizada, Richard N Aslin
The MRI environment restricts the types of populations and tasks that can be studied by cognitive neuroscientists (e.g., young infants, face-to-face communication). FNIRS is a neuroimaging modality that records the same physiological signal as fMRI but without the constraints of MRI, and with better spatial localization than EEG. However, research in the fNIRS community largely lacks the analytic sophistication of analogous fMRI work, restricting the application of this imaging technology. The current paper presents a method of multivariate pattern analysis for fNIRS that allows the authors to decode the infant mind (a key fNIRS population)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420954/multiple-kernel-based-region-importance-learning-for-neural-classification-of-gait-states-from-eeg-signals
#6
Yuhang Zhang, Saurabh Prasad, Atilla Kilicarslan, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
With the development of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) systems, people with motor disabilities are able to control external devices to help them restore movement abilities. Longitudinal validation of these systems is critical not only to assess long-term performance reliability but also to investigate adaptations in electrocortical patterns due to learning to use the BMI system. In this paper, we decode the patterns of user's intended gait states (e.g., stop, walk, turn left, and turn right) from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals and simultaneously learn the relative importance of different brain areas by using the multiple kernel learning (MKL) algorithm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412532/spectral-analysis-highlight-developmental-eeg-changes-in-preterm-infants-without-overt-brain-damage
#7
Agnese Suppiej, Elisa Cainelli, Ambra Cappellari, Daniele Trevisanuto, Laura Balao, Maria Grazia Di Bono, Patrizia S Bisiacchi
Early markers of neurological outcome in the absence of overt brain damage are scarce in extreme prematurity. The aim of this study was to compare spectral EEG values of infants born near term with those of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA) but having attained near term age. We aimed also to evaluate whether spectral EEG features were related with neurological outcome. The ELGA group consisted of 12 neonates born between 23+2 and 27+6 weeks; the control group consisted of nine infants born 34-35+2 weeks, tested within the first week of life...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411410/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-audiovisual-synchrony-judgments-in-older-adults
#8
Yu Man Chan, Michael Julian Pianta, Stefan Bode, Allison Maree McKendrick
Older adults have altered perception of the relative timing between auditory and visual stimuli, even when stimuli are scaled to equate detectability. To help understand why, this study investigated the neural correlates of audiovisual synchrony judgments in older adults using electroencephalography (EEG). Fourteen younger (18-32 year old) and 16 older (61-74 year old) adults performed an audiovisual synchrony judgment task on flash-pip stimuli while EEG was recorded. All participants were assessed to have healthy vision and hearing for their age...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410404/novel-behavioral-indicator-of-explicit-awareness-reveals-temporal-course-of-frontoparietal-neural-network-facilitation-during-motor-learning
#9
Regan R Lawson, Jordan O Gayle, Lewis A Wheaton
Deficits in sequential motor learning have been observed in many patient populations. Having an understanding of the individual neural progression associated with sequential learning in healthy individuals may provide valuable insights for effective interventions with these patients. Due to individual variability in motor skill acquisition, the temporal course of such learning will be vary, suggesting a need for a more individualized approach. Knowing when a subject becomes aware of movement patterns may provide a marker with which to identify each individual's learning time course...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410084/clinical-and-electroencephalographic-characteristics-of-infantile-onset-epilepsies-caused-by-genetic-mutations
#10
Yun Jung Hur, Sookyong Koh, John Millichap, Srishti Nangia, Lawrence J Jennings, Douglas R Nordli
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether certain characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features are indicative of a genetic cause in early-life epilepsy. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled a total of 100 patients with infantile-onset (<3 years) epilepsy due to known genetic cause (n?=?50) and nongenetic cause (acquired, structural, or unknown, n?=?50). The genetic group was classified into synaptopathies, channelopathies, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-opathies, and chromosomal abnormalities...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402972/eeg-a-valuable-biomarker-of-brain-injury-in-preterm-infants
#11
Elena Pavlidis, Rhodri O Lloyd, Geraldine B Boylan
This review focuses on the role of electroencephalography (EEG) in monitoring abnormalities of preterm brain function. EEG features of the most common developmental brain injuries in preterm infants, including intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and perinatal asphyxia, are described. We outline the most common EEG biomarkers associated with these injuries, namely seizures, positive rolandic sharp waves, EEG suppression/increased interburst intervals, mechanical delta brush activity, and other deformed EEG waveforms, asymmetries, and asynchronies...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399441/sleep-architecture-in-insomniacs-with-severe-benzodiazepine-abuse
#12
Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Silvia Miano, Michelangelo Maestri, Valentina Bottasini, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed compounds in insomnia. A long-term of BZDs use may cause dependence and abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep architecture and microstructure (in terms of cyclic alternating pattern - CAP - analysis and of sleep EEG power spectral analysis) in a group of long-term users of high doses of BZDs for their primary chronic insomnia. METHODS: Twenty patients consecutively admitted at the Sleep Centre for drug discontinuation and 13 matched healthy controls underwent a full nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, after one adaptation night...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396215/event-related-potentials-index-neural-response-to-eye-contact
#13
Adam J Naples, Jia Wu, Linda C Mayes, James C McPartland
Sensitivity to eye-contact is a foundation upon which social cognition is built. However, there are no known neural markers characterizing response to reciprocal gaze. Using co-registered EEG and eye-tracking, we measured brain activity while participants viewed faces that responded to their looking patterns. Contingent upon participant gaze, onscreen faces opened their eyes or mouths; in this way we measured brain response to reciprocal eye-contact. We identified two ERP components that were largest in response to reciprocal eye-contact: the N170 and the P300...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393850/dynamic-representation-of-time-in-brain-states
#14
Fernanda Dantas Bueno, Vanessa C Morita, Raphael Y de Camargo, Marcelo B Reyes, Marcelo S Caetano, André M Cravo
The ability to process time on the scale of milliseconds and seconds is essential for behaviour. A growing number of studies have started to focus on brain dynamics as a mechanism for temporal encoding. Although there is growing evidence in favour of this view from computational and in vitro studies, there is still a lack of results from experiments in humans. We show that high-dimensional brain states revealed by multivariate pattern analysis of human EEG are correlated to temporal judgements. First, we show that, as participants estimate temporal intervals, the spatiotemporal dynamics of their brain activity are consistent across trials...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389021/ictal-speech-and-language-dysfunction-in-adult-epilepsy-clinical-study-of-95%C3%A2-seizures
#15
C Dussaule, C Cauquil, C Flamand-Roze, J-P Gagnepain, V Bouilleret, C Denier, P Masnou
PURPOSE: To analyze the semiological characteristics of the language and speech disorders arising during epileptic seizures, and to describe the patterns of language and speech disorders that can predict laterality of the epileptic focus. METHOD: This study retrospectively analyzed 95 consecutive videos of seizures with language and/or speech disorders in 44 patients admitted for diagnostic video-EEG monitoring. Laterality of the epileptic focus was defined according to electro-clinical correlation studies and structural and functional neuroimaging findings...
April 4, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387588/modulation-of-oscillatory-power-and-connectivity-in-the-human-posterior-cingulate-cortex-supports-the-encoding-and-retrieval-of-episodic-memories
#16
Bradley Lega, James Germi, Michael Rugg
Existing data from noninvasive studies have led researchers to posit that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) supports mnemonic processes: It exhibits degeneration in memory disorders, and fMRI investigations have demonstrated memory-related activation principally during the retrieval of memory items. Despite these data, the role of the PCC in episodic memory has received only limited treatment using the spatial and temporal precision of intracranial EEG, with previous analyses focused on item retrieval. Using data gathered from 21 human participants who underwent stereo-EEG for seizure localization, we characterized oscillatory patterns in the PCC during the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387139/intracortical-electrophysiological-correlates-of-blood-flow-after-severe-sah-a-multimodality-monitoring-study
#17
Brandon Foreman, David Albers, J Michael Schmidt, Cristina Maria Falo, Angela Velasquez, E Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Approximately one in four patients develop progressive neurological deterioration and silent infarction referred to as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). DCI is a complex, multifactorial secondary brain injury pattern and its pathogenesis is not fully understood. We aimed to study the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuronal activity at both the cortex and in scalp using electroencephalography (EEG) in poor-grade SAH patients undergoing multimodality intracranial neuromonitoring...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385624/weighted-spatial-based-geometric-scheme-as-an-efficient-algorithm-for-analyzing-single-trial-eegs-to-improve-cue-based-bci-classification
#18
Fatemeh Alimardani, Reza Boostani, Benjamin Blankertz
There is a growing interest in analyzing the geometrical behavior of electroencephalogram (EEG) covariance matrix in the context of brain computer interface (BCI). The bottleneck of the current Riemannian framework is the bias of the mean vector of EEG signals to the noisy trials, which deteriorates the covariance matrix in the manifold space. This study presents a spatial weighting scheme to reduce the effect of noisy trials on the mean vector. To assess the proposed method, dataset IIa from BCI competition IV, containing the EEG trials of 9 subjects performing four mental tasks, was utilized...
March 22, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385587/late-deviance-detection-in-rats-is-reduced-while-early-deviance-detection-is-augmented-by-the-nmda-receptor-antagonist-mk-801
#19
L Harms, W R Fulham, J Todd, C Meehan, U Schall, D M Hodgson, P T Michie
One of the most robust electrophysiological features of schizophrenia is reduced mismatch negativity, a component of the event related potential (ERP) induced by rare and unexpected stimuli in an otherwise regular pattern. Emerging evidence suggests that mismatch negativity (MMN) is not the only ERP index of deviance detection in the mammalian brain and that sensitivity to deviant sounds in a regular background can be observed at earlier latencies in both the human and rodent brain. Pharmacological studies in humans and rodents have previously found that MMN reductions similar to those seen in schizophrenia can be elicited by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism, an observation in agreement with the hypothesised role of NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia pathogenesis...
April 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384518/semiology-of-subtle-motor-phenomena-in-critically-ill-patients
#20
Bogdan Florea, Simona Alexandra Beniczky, Helga Demény, Sándor Beniczky
PURPOSE: to investigate the semiology of subtle motor phenomena in critically ill patients, with- versus without nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). METHODS: 60 consecutive comatose patients, in whom subtle motor phenomena were observed in the intensive care unit (ICU), were analysed prospectively. The semiology of the subtle phenomena was described from video-recordings, blinded to all other data. For each patient, the type, location and occurrence-pattern/duration were described...
March 30, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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