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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanisms both physical and behavioral which are at the base of PRM physicians' work. After a discussion on the development and evolution of PRM that leads to its unique and specific approach, the mechanisms considered include: - repairing processes (and potential of recovery evaluation): repairing processes are mainly related to the quantity and natural history of diseases and impairments, while potential of recovery is also linked to the individual and environmental factors; PRM physicians work on impairments to favor healing or recovery, and propose rehabilitation if there is a potential of recovery: this is related to the prognostic role of PRM physicians; - learning processes: PRM is the specialty of teaching new physical ways and behavioral approaches to make patients participate at best through improvement of impairments and modification of activities; in this perspective, during repair and rehabilitation processes, PRM physicians and the rehabilitation team are teachers of new motor and behavioral strategies; - compensatory processes (adaptation/habilitation/rehabilitation): PRM physicians teach patients how to adapt to the new (acquired) health condition using compensatory mechanisms based on other body structures/functions, behavioral changes and/or assistive devices (or technical aids) (prosthesis and orthosis); during growth PRM physicians aim at allowing a complete (and compensatory) development of the intact function, not to be impaired by the original disease; compensatory processes are related to activities; - management skills: PRM physicians are managers of people and resources; they manage patients and their caregivers, to teach and allow them to reach the best possible participation, also focusing on maintenance; they lead the team, with the aim to make it function at best for the sake of the patient; finally, they manage resource allocation for the functioning of patients and team; - communication skills: PRM physicians need to develop very good communication skills, so to teach, inform and educate patients and their caregivers: this will allow the proper behavioural changes and also the correct physical compensations...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jed D Gonzalo, Deanna Graaf, Amarpreet Ahluwalia, Dan R Wolpaw, Britta M Thompson
After emphasizing biomedical and clinical sciences for over a century, US medical schools are expanding experiential roles that allow students to learn about health care delivery while also adding value to patient care. After developing a program where all 1st-year medical students are integrated into interprofessional care teams to contribute to patient care, authors use a diffusion of innovations framework to explore and identify barriers, facilitators, and best practices for implementing value-added clinical systems learning roles...
March 21, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Jacob Huth, Timothée Masquelier, Angelo Arleo
We developed Convis , a Python simulation toolbox for large scale neural populations which offers arbitrary receptive fields by 3D convolutions executed on a graphics card. The resulting software proves to be flexible and easily extensible in Python, while building on the PyTorch library (The Pytorch Project, 2017), which was previously used successfully in deep learning applications, for just-in-time optimization and compilation of the model onto CPU or GPU architectures. An alternative implementation based on Theano (Theano Development Team, 2016) is also available, although not fully supported...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Reneeka Persaud, Patricia M Coutts, Alisa Brandon, Luvneet Verma, James A Elliott, R Gary Sibbald
GENERAL PURPOSE: The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information about the Healthy Foot Screen, a new tool for assessment of common foot abnormalities. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:1...
April 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Mary Lavelle, Jennifer Abthorpe, Thomas Simpson, Gabriel Reedy, Fiona Little, Anita Banerjee
The majority of maternal deaths in the UK are due to pre-existing or new-onset medical conditions, known as 'indirect deaths'. The MBRRACE report identified serious gaps in clinicians' human factors skills, including communication, leadership and teamwork, which contributed to maternal death. In response, we developed the first multi-disciplinary simulation-based training programme designed to address Medical Emergencies in Obstetrics (MEmO). Employing a mixed methods design, this study evaluated the educational impact of this training programme on the healthcare staff (n = 140), including the medical doctors (n = 91) and the midwives (n = 49)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Cian Walsh, Patrick Ryan, Daniel Flynn
Background: This article presents a detailed idiographic analysis of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) clinicians' experiences of team consultation meetings. DBT is an evidence-based psychological intervention with a demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Team consultation meetings encompass one of the primary components involved in this treatment model; where DBT clinicians regularly meet to discuss client work and enhance further learning...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Charlene E Gamaldo, Alyssa A Gamaldo, Laurence T Hou, Aadi Kalloo, Daniel Hexter, Brian Salter, Molly Price, Maya Carter, Rachel Marie E Salas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and utility of a private community neurology practice-initiated home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) program. METHODS: A private community neurology practice conducted HSAT on patients clinically identified as high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). An academic board-certified sleep specialist performed all study interpretations. The presence and severity of OSA and its association with patient demographics (eg, sex, age) and comorbid health conditions relevant to OSA were evaluated...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Min-Hsuan Tu, Joyce E Bono, Cass Shum, Liva LaMontagne
Building on identity theories and social learning theory, we test the notion that new leaders will model the abusive behaviors of their superiors only under certain conditions. Specifically, we hypothesize that new leaders will model abusive supervisory behaviors when (a) abusive superiors are perceived to be competent, based on the performance of their teams and (b) new leaders' ideal leadership self-concepts are high on tyranny or low on sensitivity. Results of an experiment in which we manipulated abusive supervisory behaviors using a professional actor, and created a role change where 93 individuals moved from team member to team leader role, generally support our hypotheses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Trudy Mooren, Yoke Rabaia, Suzan Mitwalli, Relinde Reiffers, Rosemarijn Koenen, Marguerithe de Man
BACKGROUND: Families with a child who has a disability have extra difficulties, particularly when services are hard to reach or less available. In a collaborative project, the Institute of Community and Public Health, the Palestinian community-based rehabilitation programme, and international non-governmental organisations cooperated to share and develop expertise and knowledge on increasing families' resilience through establishing family groups. This contribution focuses on the use of the Multi-Family Approach (MFA) in a Palestinian context...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Kordo Saeed, Christina Petridou, Hazel Gray, Matthew Dryden, Karen Davis-Blues, Sheryl Lucero, Natalie Parker, Taryn Keyser, Tanya Matthews, Nick Cortes, Stephen Kidd, Claire Thomas, Heather Peacock, Joanna Hornzee, Bruce Wake
Background: In Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, in addition to an on-the-spot investigation into hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by the infection prevention team, a multidisciplinary team root cause analysis (MDT-RCA) forum has been developed. The MDT-RCA aims to deliver a more thorough investigation into individual cases and the recommendation of cases to the clinical commissioning groups (CCG) appeals panel against potential financial penalties (£10,000 per breached case)...
March 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
Cheryl I Anderson, Marc D Basson, Muhammad Ali, Alan T Davis, Robert L Osmer, Michael K McLeod, Pam S Haan, Robert G Molnar, Andi N Peshkepija, John C Hardaway, Karen A Chojnacki, Christopher C Pfeifer, Jeffrey M Gauvin, Mark W Jones, M Ashraf Mansour
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly important for faculty to teach deliberately and provide timely, detailed and formative feedback on surgical trainee performance. We initiated a multicenter study to improve resident evaluative processes and enhance teaching and learning behaviors while engaging residents in their education. METHODS: Faculty from seven U.S. postgraduate training programs rated resident operative performances using the perioperative briefing, intraoperative teaching, debriefing model (BID) and rated patient visits/academic performances using the entrustable professional activities (EPAs) model via a web-based platform...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Kathleen A Calzone, Jean Jenkins, Stacey Culp, Laurie Badzek
BACKGROUND: The Precision Medicine Initiative will accelerate genomic discoveries that improve health care, necessitating a genomic competent workforce. PURPOSE: This study assessed leadership team (administrator/educator) year-long interventions to improve registered nurses' (RNs) capacity to integrate genomics into practice. METHODS: We examined genomic competency outcomes in 8,150 RNs. DISCUSSION: Awareness and intention to learn more increased compared with controls...
November 13, 2017: Nursing Outlook
Kenzie A Cameron, Elaine R Cohen, Joelle R Hertz, Diane B Wayne, Debi Mitra, Jeffrey H Barsuk
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion among healthcare providers and to understand the extent to which an existing Simulation-Based Mastery Learning (SBML) program may address barriers and leverage facilitators. METHODS: Providers participating in a CVC insertion SBML train-the-trainer program, in addition to intensive care unit nurse managers, were purposively sampled from Veterans Administration Medical Centers located in geographically diverse areas...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Eva Purkey, Rupa Patel, Tracey Beckett, Françoise Mathieu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the primary care experiences of women who have a history of childhood trauma and chronic disease. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with directed content analysis. SETTING: Family health team in Kingston, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six women. METHODS: Letters of invitation were sent to eligible participants followed by a telephone survey. Women with an adverse childhood experience (ACE) score of 4 or higher and with 2 or more chronic conditions were invited to participate in a one-on-one interview...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Lindsay Iverson, Martha Todd, Ann Ryan Haddad, Katie Packard, Kimberley Begley, Joy Doll, Kim Hawkins, Ann Laughlin, Julie Manz, Chris Wichman
Healthcare institutions, accreditation agencies for higher learning, and organizations such as the National Academy of Medicine in the United States, support interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. However, incorporating IPE opportunities into academic settings remains difficult. One challenge is assessing IPE learning and practice outcomes, especially at the level of student performance to ensure graduates are "collaboration-ready". The Creighton-Interprofessional Collaborative Evaluation (C-ICE) instrument was developed to address the need for a measurement tool for interprofessional student team performance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Lindsay L Juriga, David J Murray, John R Boulet, James J Fehr
BACKGROUND: Simulation is frequently used to recreate many of the crises encountered in patient care settings. Teams learn to manage these crises in an environment that maximizes their learning experiences and eliminates the potential for patient harm. By designing simulation scenarios that include conditions associated with diagnostic errors, teams can experience how their decisions can lead to errors. The purpose of this study was to assess how trauma teams (TrT) and pediatric rapid response teams (RRT) managed scenarios that included a diagnostic error...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Kate H Thomas, Justin T McDaniel, David L Albright, Kari L Fletcher, Harold G Koenig
Suicide rates among military veterans exceed those found in the general population. While the exact reasons for these high rates are unknown, contributing factors may include the military's perceived rejection of patient identities, creating barriers to mental health care within the clinical sector and a mandate for prevention programs. Spiritual fitness has emerged over the last decade as an important concept in human performance optimization and is included among holistic approaches to developing and maintaining mentally fit fighting forces...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Cláudio Farias, Carla Valério, Isabel Mesquita
The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students' game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Patrick T Reeves, Matthew A Borgman, Nicole W Caldwell, Leela Patel, James Aden, John P Duggan, Maria L Serio-Melvin, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas
OBJECTIVE: The Advanced Burn Life Support (ABLS) program is a burn-education curriculum nearly 30 years in the making, focusing on the unique challenges of the first 24h of care after burn injury. Our team applied high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) to the established ABLS curriculum. Our hypothesis was that HFHPS would be a feasible, easily replicable, and valuable adjunct to the current curriculum that would enhance learner experience. METHODS: This prospective, evidenced-based practice project was conducted in a single simulation center employing the American Burn Association's ABLS curriculum using HFHPS...
March 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
James F Burgess, Nir Menachemi, Matthew L Maciejewski
OBJECTIVE: To present revised core competencies for doctoral programs in health services research (HSR), modalities to deliver these competencies, and suggested methods for assessing mastery of these competencies. DATA SOURCES AND DATA COLLECTION: Core competencies were originally developed in 2005, updated (but unpublished) in 2008, modestly updated for a 2016 HSR workforce conference, and revised based on feedback from attendees. Additional feedback was obtained from doctoral program directors, employer/workforce experts and attendees of presentation on these competencies at the AcademyHealth's June 2017 Annual Research Meeting...
March 13, 2018: Health Services Research
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