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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241030/expression-profiles-of-genes-involved-in-tlrs-and-nlrs-signaling-pathways-of-water-buffaloes-infected-with-fasciola-gigantica
#1
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240711/nad1-controls-defense-like-responses-in-medicago-truncatula-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing-nodules-following-rhizobial-colonization-in-a-baca-independent-manner
#2
Ágota Domonkos, Szilárd Kovács, Anikó Gombár, Ernő Kiss, Beatrix Horváth, Gyöngyi Z Kováts, Attila Farkas, Mónika T Tóth, Ferhan Ayaydin, Károly Bóka, Lili Fodor, Pascal Ratet, Attila Kereszt, Gabriella Endre, Péter Kaló
Legumes form endosymbiotic interaction with host compatible rhizobia, resulting in the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Within symbiotic nodules, rhizobia are intracellularly accommodated in plant-derived membrane compartments, termed symbiosomes. In mature nodule, the massively colonized cells tolerate the existence of rhizobia without manifestation of visible defense responses, indicating the suppression of plant immunity in the nodule in the favur of the symbiotic partner. Medicago truncatulaDNF2 (defective in nitrogen fixation 2) and NAD1 (nodules with activated defense 1) genes are essential for the control of plant defense during the colonization of the nitrogen-fixing nodule and are required for bacteroid persistence...
December 14, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238354/unravelling-protein-protein-interaction-networks-linked-to-aliphatic-and-indole-glucosinolate-biosynthetic-pathways-in-arabidopsis
#3
Sebastian J Nintemann, Daniel Vik, Julia Svozil, Michael Bak, Katja Baerenfaller, Meike Burow, Barbara A Halkier
Within the cell, biosynthetic pathways are embedded in protein-protein interaction networks. In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. However, little is known about the spatial orchestration of these enzymes and their interplay with the cellular environment. To address these aspects, we applied two complementary, untargeted approaches-split-ubiquitin yeast 2-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation screens-to identify proteins interacting with CYP83A1 and CYP83B1, two homologous enzymes specific for aliphatic and indole glucosinolate biosynthesis, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238329/relative-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-brucella-abortus-reveals-metabolic-adaptation-to-multiple-environmental-stresses
#4
Xiaodong Zai, Qiaoling Yang, Ying Yin, Ruihua Li, Mengying Qian, Taoran Zhao, Yaohui Li, Jun Zhang, Ling Fu, Junjie Xu, Wei Chen
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237840/human-cytomegalovirus-ul111a-and-us27-gene-products-enhance-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-axis-via-distinct-mechanisms
#5
Carolyn C Tu, Kathleen L Arnolds, Christine M O'Connor, Juliet V Spencer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent pathogen that establishes lifelong infection in the host. Virus persistence is aided by extensive manipulation of the host immune system, particularly cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways. The HCMV UL111A gene encodes cmvIL-10, an ortholog of human interleukin-10 that has many immunomodulatory effects. We found that cmvIL-10 increased signaling outcomes from human CXCR4, a chemokine receptor with essential roles in hematopoiesis and immune cell trafficking, in response to its natural ligand CXCL12...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237838/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-within-the-paramyxovirus-sendai-virus-nucleoprotein-is-a-critical-determinant-for-production-of-ifn-beta-inducing-copyback-type-defective-interfering-genomes
#6
Asuka Yoshida, Ryoko Kawabata, Tomoyuki Honda, Kouji Sakai, Yasushi Ami, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Takashi Irie
One of the first defenses against infecting pathogens is the innate immune system activated by cellular recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although virus-derived RNA species, especially copyback (cb)-type defective-interfering (DI) genomes, have been shown to serve as real PAMPs, which strongly induce interferon (IFN)-beta during mononegavirus infection, the mechanisms underlying DI generation remain unclear. Here, for the first time, we identified a single amino acid substitution causing production of cbDI genomes by successful isolation of two distinct types of viral clones with cbDI-producing and cbDI-non-producing phenotypes, from the stock Sendai virus (SeV) strain Cantell, which is widely used in a number of studies on anti-viral innate immunity as a representative IFN-beta-inducing virus...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237240/plant-behaviour-under-combined-stress-tomato-responses-to-combined-salinity-and-pathogen-stress
#7
Yuling Bai, Christos Kissoudis, Zhe Yan, Richard G F Visser, Gerard van der Linden
Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaption responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plants' ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237129/zap-70-in-signaling-biology-and-disease
#8
Byron B Au-Yeung, Neel H Shah, Lin Shen, Arthur Weiss
T cells possess an array of functional capabilities important for host defense against pathogens and tumors. T cell effector functions require the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). The TCR has no intrinsic enzymatic activity, and thus signal transduction from the receptor relies on additional signaling molecules. One such molecule is the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, which associates with the TCR complex and is required for initiating the canonical biochemical signal pathways downstream of the TCR. In this article, we describe recent structure-based insights into the regulation and substrate specificity of ZAP-70, and then we review novel methods for determining the role of ZAP-70 catalytic activity-dependent and -independent signals in developing and mature T cells...
December 13, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236543/rorschach-assessment-of-two-distinctive-personality-states-of-a-person-with-dissociative-identity-disorder
#9
Ellen Hartmann, Kirsten Benum
This case study used test data from a patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) to illustrate how two main personality states of the patient ("Ann" and "Ben") seemed to function. The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-64; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000 ), administered to Ann and Ben in separate settings, exposed two diverse R-PAS and IIP-64 profiles...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234318/leprosy-as-a-complex-infection-breakdown-of-the-th1-and-th2-immune-paradigm-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-the-disease
#10
REVIEW
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Mirian Nacagami Sotto, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose evolution involves complex immune mechanisms of the host that influence the clinical presentation of the disease. For many years, the main interpretation of the host defense response was based on characterization of the established immune paradigm between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 lymphocytes. However, with advances in the knowledge of immunology, new approaches have emerged along with the development of new immunological pathways that have changed the interpretation of the long-established paradigm of the polar forms of the disease, especially with the identification of new subtypes of T lymphocytes such as Th9, Th17, Th22, and Tregs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234285/a-microarray-study-of-carpet-shell-clam-ruditapes-decussatus-shows-common-and-organ-specific-growth-related-gene-expression-differences-in-gills-and-digestive-gland
#11
Carlos Saavedra, Massimo Milan, Ricardo B Leite, David Cordero, Tomaso Patarnello, M Leonor Cancela, Luca Bargelloni
Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234123/dusp1-regulates-apoptosis-and-cell-migration-but-not-the-jip1-protected-cytokine-response-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-sendai-virus-infection
#12
Alexa C Robitaille, Elise Caron, Nicolas Zucchini, Espérance Mukawera, Damien Adam, Mélissa K Mariani, Anaïs Gélinas, Audray Fortin, Emmanuelle Brochiero, Nathalie Grandvaux
The host antiviral response involves the induction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines, but also the activation of cell death pathways, including apoptosis, to limit viral replication and spreading. This host defense is strictly regulated to eliminate the infection while limiting tissue damage that is associated with virus pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, most notably phosphorylation, are key regulators of the antiviral defense implying an important role of protein phosphatases. Here, we investigated the role of the dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the host defense against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a pathogenic virus of the Pneumoviridae family, and Sendai virus (SeV), a model virus being developed as a vector for anti-RSV vaccine...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234083/nod2-is-required-for-the-early-innate-immune-clearance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-the-lungs
#13
Sandeep D Kale, Neha Dikshit, Pankaj Kumar, Vanniarajan Balamuralidhar, Hanif Javanmard Khameneh, Najib Bin Abdul Malik, Tse Hsien Koh, Gladys Gek Yen Tan, Thuan Tong Tan, Alessandra Mortellaro, Bindu Sukumaran
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a significant cause of severe nosocomial pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals world-wide. With limited treatment options available, a better understanding of host immnity to A. baumannii infection is critical to devise alternative control strategies. Our previous study has identified that intracellular Nod1/Nod2 signaling pathway is required for the immune control of A. baumannii in airway epithelial cells in vitro. In the current study, using Nod2-/- mice and an in vivo sublethal model of pulmonary infection, we show that Nod2 contributes to the early lung defense against A...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233294/the-keap1-nrf2-protein-protein-interaction-a-suitable-target-for-small-molecules
#14
REVIEW
Dieter Schmoll, Christian K Engel, Heiner Glombik
The transcription factor Nrf2 controls pathways involved in oxidative-stress defense and is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of chronic diseases. Activators of Nrf2 that have undergone clinical development are reactive molecules that are either associated with safety issues or for which it is unclear if their pharmacological efficacy depends on the activation of Nrf2. Therefore, the clinical validity of Nrf2 activation is not yet proven. The activity of Nrf2 is inhibited by Keap1 via a protein-protein interaction...
June 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232653/salicylic-acid-and-broad-spectrum-of-nbs-lrr-family-genes-are-involved-in-smv-soybean-interactions
#15
Qiqi Zhao, Haina Li, Hongyu Sun, Aoga Li, Shuxin Liu, Ruonan Yu, Xiuqi Cui, Dejian Zhang, Hada Wuriyanghan
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a severe pathogen reducing crop yield and seed quality of soybean. Although several resistance gene loci including Rsv1, Rsv3 and Rsv4 are identified in some soybean varieties, most of the soybean genes related to SMV infection are still not characterized. In order to reveal genome-wide gene expression profiles in response to SMV infection, we used transcriptome analysis to determine SMV-responsive genes in susceptible variety Hefeng25. Time course RNA-seq analysis at 1, 5 and 10 dpi identified many deregulated pathways and gene families...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232012/the-genetics-underlying-natural-variation-of-plant-plant-interactions-a-beloved-but-forgotten-member-of-the-family-of-biotic-interactions
#16
Harihar Jaishree Subrahmaniam, Cyril Libourel, Etienne-Pascal Journet, Jean-Benoît Morel, Stéphane Muños, Andreas Niebel, Sylvain Raffaele, Fabrice Roux
Despite the importance of plant-plant interactions on crop yield and plant community dynamics, our understanding of the genetic and molecular bases underlying natural variation of plant-plant interactions is largely limited in comparison to other types of biotic interactions. By listing 63 QTL mapping and global gene expression studies based on plants directly challenged by other plants, we explored whether the genetic architecture and the function of the candidate genes underlying natural plant-plant interactions depend on the type of interactions between two plants (competition vs commensalism vs reciprocal helping vs asymmetry)...
December 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231845/maillard-proteomics-opening-new-pages
#17
REVIEW
Alena Soboleva, Rico Schmidt, Maria Vikhnina, Tatiana Grishina, Andrej Frolov
Protein glycation is a ubiquitous non-enzymatic post-translational modification, formed by reaction of protein amino and guanidino groups with carbonyl compounds, presumably reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls. Resulting advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a highly heterogeneous group of compounds, deleterious in mammals due to their pro-inflammatory effect, and impact in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and ageing. The body of information on the mechanisms and pathways of AGE formation, acquired during the last decades, clearly indicates a certain site-specificity of glycation...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231806/a-picorna-like-virus-suppresses-the-n-end-rule-pathway-to-inhibit-apoptosis
#18
Zhaowei Wang, Xiaoling Xia, Xueli Yang, Xueyi Zhang, Yongxiang Liu, Di Wu, Yuan Fang, Yujie Liu, Jiuyue Xu, Yang Qiu, Xi Zhou
The N-end rule pathway is an evolutionarily conserved proteolytic system that degrades proteins containing N-terminal degradation signals called N-degrons, and has emerged as a key regulator of various processes. Viruses manipulate diverse host pathways to facilitate viral replication and evade antiviral defenses. However, it remains unclear if viral infection has any impact on the N-end rule pathway. Here, using a picorna-like virus as a model, we found that viral infection promoted the accumulation of caspase-cleaved Drosophila Inhibitor of Apoptosis 1 (DIAP1) by inducing the degradation of N-terminal amidohydrolase 1 (NTAN1), a key N-end rule component that identifies N-degron to initiate the process...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231169/an-evolutionary-young-defense-metabolite-influences-the-root-growth-of-plants-via-the-ancient-tor-signaling-pathway
#19
Frederikke Gro Malinovsky, Marie-Louise F Thomsen, Sebastian J Nintemann, Lea Møller Jagd, Baptiste Bourgine, Meike Burow, Daniel J Kliebenstein
To optimize fitness a plant should monitor its metabolism to appropriately control growth and defense. Primary metabolism can be measured by the universally conserved TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway to balance growth and development with the available energy and nutrients. Recent work suggests that plants may measure defense metabolites to potentially provide a strategy ensuring fast reallocation of resources to coordinate plant growth and defense. There is little understanding of mechanisms enabling defense metabolite signaling...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230217/type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-of-tuberculosis-molecular-drivers-and-immunological-consequences
#20
REVIEW
Meg L Donovan, Thomas E Schultz, Taylor J Duke, Antje Blumenthal
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health threat. Urgent needs in the fight against TB include improved and innovative treatment options for drug-sensitive and -resistant TB as well as reliable biological indicators that discriminate active from latent disease and enable monitoring of treatment success or failure. Prominent interferon (IFN) inducible gene signatures in TB patients and animal models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have drawn significant attention to the roles of type I IFNs in the host response to mycobacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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