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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081443/the-bacterial-t6ss-effector-evpp-prevents-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-inhibiting-the-ca-2-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#1
Hao Chen, Dahai Yang, Fajun Han, Jinchao Tan, Lingzhi Zhang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu
Inflammasome activation is an important innate immune defense mechanism against bacterial infection, and in return, bacteria express virulence determinants that counteract inflammasome activation. Many such effectors are secreted into host cells via specialized bacterial secretion systems. Here, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda was demonstrated to activate NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasomes via a type III secretion system (T3SS), and to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome via a type VI secretion system (T6SS), indicating the antagonistic roles of these systems in inflammasome signaling...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081282/cloning-of-three-genes-involved-in-the-flavonoid-metabolic-pathway-and-their-expression-during-insect-resistance-in-pinus-massoniana-lamb
#2
Z Q Yang, H Chen, J H Tan, H L Xu, J Jia, Y H Feng
Pinus massoniana Lamb. is an important timber and turpentine-producing tree species in China. Dendrolimus punctatus and Dasychira axutha are leaf-eating pests that have harmful effects on P. massoniana production. Few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying pest resistance in P. massoniana. Based on sequencing analysis of the transcriptomes of insect-resistant P. massoniana, three key genes involved in the flavonoid metabolic pathway were identified in the present study (PmF3H, PmF3'5'H, and PmC4H)...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079933/co-expression-of-peppermint-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-small-subunit-enhances-monoterpene-production-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#3
Jun-Lin Yin, Woon-Seng Wong, In-Cheol Jang, Nam-Hai Chua
Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078755/modulation-of-host-cell-sumoylation-facilitates-efficient-development-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Mulaka Maruthi, Dipti Singh, Segireddy Rameswara Reddy, Babu S Mastan, Satish Mishra, Kota Arun Kumar
SUMOylation is a reversible post translational modification of proteins that regulates protein stabilization, nucleocytoplasmic transport and protein-protein interactions. Several viruses and bacteria modulate host SUMOylation machinery for efficient infection. Plasmodium sporozoites are infective forms of malaria parasite that infect hepatocytes and transforms into exoerythrocytic forms (EEFs). Here we show that, during EEF development, the distribution of SUMOylated proteins in host cell nuclei was significantly reduced and expression of the SUMOylation enzymes was downregulated...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077651/bromodomain-containing-4-brd4-couples-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rela-with-airway-inflammation-and-the-irf-rig-i-amplification-loop-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#5
Bing Tian, Jun Yang, Yingxin Zhao, Teodora Ivanciuc, Hong Sun, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
: The airway mucosa expresses protective interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines in response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we examine the role of bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) in mediating this innate immune response in human small airway epithelial cells. We observe that RSV induces BRD4 to complex with NFκB/RelA. BRD4 is functionally required for expression of the NFκB-dependent inflammatory gene regulatory network (GRN), including the IFN Response Factor (IRFs)-1 and -7 that mediate a cross-talk pathway for RIG-I upregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077646/adenovirus-modulates-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-by-reprogramming-orp1l-vap-protein-contacts-for-cholesterol-transport-from-endosomes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#6
Nicholas L Cianciola, Stacey Chung, Danny Manor, Cathleen R Carlin
: Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077645/herpes-simplex-virus-1-abrogates-cgas-sting-mediated-cytosolic-dna-sensing-pathway-via-its-virion-host-shutoff-protein-ul41
#7
Chenhe Su, Chunfu Zheng
: Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses. Cells exhibited reduced type I IFN production in response to cytosolic DNA in the absence of cGAS. Although cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing signal is crucial for host defense against many viruses, especial for DNA viruses, few viral components have been identified to specifically target this signaling pathway...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076309/activation-of-the-tryptophan-serotonin-pathway-is-associated-with-severity-and-predicts-outcomes-in-pneumonia-results-of-a-long-term-cohort-study
#8
Marc A Meier, Manuel Ottiger, Alaadin Vögeli, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Robert Thomann, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Werner Zimmerli, Andreas Huber, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: As part of the immune defense during infection, an increase in enzyme activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) leads to a breakdown of tryptophan to kynurenine. In previous animal studies, therapeutic antagonism of IDO resulted in reduced sepsis mortality. We investigated the prognostic ability of tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenine and IDO (represented by the ratio of kynurenine/tryptophan) to predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075361/role-of-ire1%C3%AE-xbp-1-in-cystic-fibrosis-airway-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Carla M P Ribeiro, Bob A Lubamba
Cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease is characterized by chronic airway infection and inflammation. The infectious and inflamed CF airway environment impacts on the innate defense of airway epithelia and airway macrophages. The CF airway milieu induces an adaptation in these cells characterized by increased basal inflammation and a robust inflammatory response to inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have indicated that these responses depend on activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This review discusses the contribution of airway epithelia and airway macrophages to CF airway inflammatory responses and specifically highlights the functional importance of the UPR pathway mediated by IRE1/XBP-1 in these processes...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075056/m1-aminopeptidases-as-drug-targets-broad-applications-or-therapeutic-niche
#10
REVIEW
Nyssa Drinkwater, Jisook Lee, Wei Yang, Tess R Malcolm, Sheena McGowan
M1 aminopeptidase enzymes are a diverse family of metalloenzymes characterized by conserved structure and reaction specificity. Excluding viruses, M1 aminopeptidases are distributed throughout all phyla, and have been implicated in a wide range of functions including cell maintenance, growth and development, and defense. The structure and catalytic mechanism of M1 aminopeptidases are well understood, and make them ideal candidates for the design of small molecule inhibitors. As a result, many research groups have assessed their utility as therapeutic targets for both infectious and chronic diseases of humans, and many inhibitors with a range of target specificities and potential therapeutic applications have been developed...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074222/regulation-of-membrane-fixation-and-energy-production-conversion-for-adaptation-and-recovery-of-zno-nanoparticle-impacted-nitrosomonas-europaea
#11
Junkang Wu, Huijie Lu, Guangcan Zhu, Lianghui Chen, Yan Chang, Ran Yu
The ZnO nanoparticle (NP) effects on typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat bioreactor, and the cells' toxicity adaptation and recovery potentials were explored. Hardly any inhibition was observed when the NP concentration was high up to 10 mg/L. The cells exposed to 50 mg/L ZnO NPs displayed time-dependent impairment and recovery potentials in terms of cell density, membrane integrity, nitrite production rate, and ammonia monooxygenase activity. The 6-h NP stress impaired cells were nearly completely restored during a 12-h recovery incubation, while the longer exposure time would cause irretrievable cell damage...
January 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073699/activation-of-nrf2-attenuates-carbonyl-stress-induced-by-methylglyoxal-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-increase-in-gsh-levels-is-a-critical-event-for-the-detoxification-mechanism
#12
Shoichi Nishimoto, Shin Koike, Naho Inoue, Toshihiro Suzuki, Yuki Ogasawara
The present study focused on the methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification mechanism in neuroblastoma cells. The involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway as a defense response against the formation of MG-modified proteins, which is well-known evidence of carbonyl stress, was also examined. We found that MG treatment resulted in accumulation of modified proteins bearing the structure of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from MG in SH-SY5Y cells...
January 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073296/the-microbiome-and-complement-activation
#13
Alexis B Dunn, Anne L Dunlop, Carol J Hogue, Andrew Miller, Elizabeth J Corwin
Preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks' gestation) is one of the leading obstetrical problems in the United States, affecting approximately one of every nine births. Even more concerning are the persistent racial disparities in PTB, with particularly high rates among African Americans. There are several recognized pathophysiologic pathways to PTB, including infection and/or exaggerated systemic or local inflammation. Intrauterine infection is a causal factor linked to PTB thought to result most commonly from inflammatory processes triggered by microbial invasion of bacteria ascending from the vaginal microbiome...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071216/disinhibition-of-the-rat-prelimbic-cortex-promotes-serotonergic-activation-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-and-panicolytic-like-behavioral-effects
#14
Paula Sm Yamashita, Ailton Spiacci, James E Hassel, Christopher A Lowry, Helio Zangrossi
Several studies have shown that serotonin plays a dual role in the modulation of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic. A major source of serotonergic projections to limbic structures responsible for this modulation is the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anatomical studies indicate that the prelimbic (PL) cortex sends dense glutamatergic projections to the DR, leading to stimulation or inhibition of serotonin release in structures innervated by the DR. The objective of the present study was to investigate if GABAergic disinhibition of the PL by means of local administration of picrotoxin (PIC), a chloride channel blocker, can affect serotonergic tone and the expression of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070834/resveratrol-modulates-gsh-system-in-c6-astroglial-cells-through-heme-oxygenase-1-pathway
#15
Bernardo Assein Arús, Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Diogo Onofre Souza, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, André Quincozes-Santos, Larissa Daniele Bobermin
Resveratrol is a dietary polyphenol that displays neuroprotective properties in several in vivo and in vitro experimental models, by modulating oxidative and inflammatory responses. Glutathione (GSH) is a key antioxidant in the central nervous system (CNS) that modulates several cellular processes, and its depletion is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the protective effects of resveratrol against GSH depletion pharmacologically induced by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in C6 astroglial cells, as well as its underlying cellular mechanisms...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069607/lysophosphatidic-acid-converts-monocytes-into-macrophages-in-both-mice-and-humans
#16
Rashmi Ray, Vivek Rai
Monocytes and macrophages represent critical arms of the innate immune system and are considered regulators and effectors of inflammation and innate immune response. Monocytes can mobilize from bone marrow, traffic to their required destination and differentiate into effector cells depending on the local tissue environment to perform multiple roles during infection or inflammation, making them an important component of body's immune defense. Macrophages have diverse roles in tissue homeostasis, development as well as tissue repair following injury...
January 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069434/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-tep-gene-from-a-crustacean-reveals-its-transcriptional-regulation-mediated-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-pathways-and-its-broad-protective-roles-against-multiple-pathogens
#17
Chaozheng Li, Haoyang Li, Bang Xiao, Yonggui Chen, Sheng Wang, Kai Lǚ, Bin Yin, Sedong Li, Jianguo He
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are present in a wide range of species from deuterostomes to protostomes and are thought to be involved in innate immunity. In the current study, a TEP gene homologous to insect TEPs (iTEP) from the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, named LvTEP1, is cloned and functionally characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of LvTEP1 is 4383 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 1460 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 161.1 kDa LvTEP1, which is most similar to other TEPs from insects, contains some conserved sequence features, including a N-terminal signal peptide, a canonical thioester (TE) motif, and a C-terminal distinctive cysteine signature...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069431/small-rna-seq-analysis-reveals-microrna-regulation-of-the-imd-pathway-during-escherichia-coli-infection-in-drosophila
#18
Shengjie Li, Li Shen, Lianjie Sun, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila have served as a model for research on innate immunity for decades. However, knowledge of the post-transcriptional regulation of immune gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) remains rudimentary. In the present study, using small RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we identified 67 differentially expressed miRNAs in Drosophila infected with Escherichia coli compared to injured flies at three time-points. Furthermore, we found that 21 of these miRNAs were potentially involved in the regulation of Imd pathway-related genes...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069354/bufadienolides-from-amphibians-a-promising-source-of-anticancer-prototypes-for-radical-innovation-apoptosis-triggering-and-na-k-atpase-inhibition
#19
REVIEW
Lívia Queiroz de Sousa, Kátia da Conceição Machado, Samara Ferreira de Carvalho Oliveira, Lidiane da Silva Araújo, Evaldo Dos Santos Monção-Filho, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Gerardo Magela Vieira-Júnior, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
Amphibians present pharmacologically active aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic molecules in their skin as defense against microorganisms, predators and infections, such as steroids, alkaloids, biogenic amines, guanidine derivatives, proteins and peptides. Based on the discovered bioactive potential of bufadienolides, this work reviewed the contribution of amphibians, especially from members of Bufonidae family, as source of new cytotoxic and antitumor molecules, highlighting the mechanisms responsible for such amazing biological potentialities...
January 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068898/integrated-mrna-and-microrna-analysis-identifies-genes-and-small-mirna-molecules-associated-with-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-level-responses-to-both-drought-stress-and-re-watering-treatment-in-tobacco
#20
Qiansi Chen, Meng Li, Zhongchun Zhang, Weiwei Tie, Xia Chen, Lifeng Jin, Niu Zhai, Qingxia Zheng, Jianfeng Zhang, Ran Wang, Guoyun Xu, Hui Zhang, Pingping Liu, Huina Zhou
BACKGROUND: Drought stress is one of the most severe problem limited agricultural productivity worldwide. It has been reported that plants response to drought-stress by sophisticated mechanisms at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing the responses of tobacco leaves to drought stress and water status are not well understood. To identify genes and miRNAs involved in drought-stress responses in tobacco, we performed both mRNA and small RNA sequencing on tobacco leaf samples from the following three treatments: untreated-control (CL), drought stress (DL), and re-watering (WL)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
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