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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922067/immune-activation-influences-samhd1-expression-and-vpx-mediated-samhd1-degradation-during-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#1
Weihui Fu, Chao Qiu, Mingzhe Zhou, Lingyan Zhu, Yu Yang, Chenli Qiu, Linxia Zhang, Xuan Xu, Ying Wang, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang
SAMHD1 restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in myeloid cells and CD4(+) T cells, while Vpx can mediate SAMHD1 degradation to promote HIV-1 replication. Although the restriction mechanisms of SAMHD1 have been well-described, SAMHD1 expression and Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation during chronic HIV-1 infection were poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis was used to directly visualize ex vivo, and after in vitro SIV-Vpx treatment, SAMHD1 expression in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920789/transcriptomic-effects-of-the-cell-cycle-regulator-lgo-in-arabidopsis-sepals
#2
Erich M Schwarz, Adrienne H K Roeder
Endoreduplication is a specialized cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs, but mitosis is skipped creating enlarged polyploid cells. Endoreduplication is associated with the differentiation of many specialized cell types. In the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal epidermis endoreduplicated giant cells form interspersed between smaller cells. Both the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER1 (ATML1) and the plant-specific cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor LOSS OF GIANT CELLS FROM ORGANS (LGO)/SIAMESE RELATED1 (SMR1) are required for the formation of giant cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920157/two-serk-receptor-like-kinases-interact-with-the-receptor-like-kinase-ems1-in-anther-cell-fate-determination
#3
Zhiyong Li, Yao Wang, Jian Huang, Nagib Ahsan, Gabriel Biener, Joel Paprocki, Jay J Thelen, Valerica Raicu, Dazhong Zhao
Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK) are essential for plant growth, development and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as co-regulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as co-regulatory and physical partners of EMS1...
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918246/rice-leaf-transcriptional-profiling-suggests-a-functional-interplay-between-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae-lipopolysaccharide-and-extracellular-polysaccharide-in-modulation-of-defense-responses-during-infection
#4
Anil Madhusoodana Girija, Bipin Kumar Kumar, Madhavi B Mylavarapu, Palaparthi Ramesh, Sridivya Vungarala, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Ramesh Sonti
Treatment of rice leaves with isolated Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the production of callose deposits, reactive oxygen species and enhanced resistance against subsequent bacterial infection. Expression profiling of X. oryzae pv. oryzae LPS treated rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) leaves showed that genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways for lignins, phenylpropanoids, chorismate, phenylalanine, salicylic acid and ethylene as well as a number of pathogenesis related proteins are up regulated...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918234/formation-and-exudation-of-non-volatile-products-of-the-arabidiol-triterpenoid-degradation-pathway-in-arabidopsis-roots
#5
Reza Sohrabi, Tehane Ali, Liva Harinantenaina Rakotondraibe, Dorothea Tholl
Triterpenoids produced by plants play important roles in the protection against biotic stress. Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana produce different triterpenoids, which include the tricyclic triterpene diol, arabidiol. In a degradation reaction induced by infection with the oomycete pathogen, Pythium irregulare, arabidiol is cleaved to the 11-carbon volatile homoterpene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and the 19-carbon ketone, apo-arabidiol. The arabidiol pathway and its volatile breakdown product DMNT have been implicated in the defense against P...
December 5, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917262/toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-liver-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Safak Kiziltas
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that participate in host defense by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns alongside inflammatory processes by recognizing damage associated molecular patterns. Given constant exposure to pathogens from gut, strict control of TLR-associated signaling pathways is essential in the liver, which otherwise may lead to inappropriate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons and may generate a predisposition to several autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916792/elevated-o%C3%A2-and-tylcv-infection-reduce-the-suitability-of-tomato-as-a-host-for-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#7
Hongying Cui, Yucheng Sun, Fajun Chen, Youjun Zhang, Feng Ge
The effects of elevated atmospheric ozone (O₃) levels on herbivorous insects have been well studied, but little is known about the combined effects of elevated O₃ and virus infection on herbivorous insect performance. Using open-top chambers in the field, we determined the effects of elevated O₃ and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection on wild-type (Wt) tomato and 35S tomato (jasmonic acid (JA) defense-enhanced genotype) in association with whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B. Elevated O₃ and TYLCV infection, alone and in combination, significantly reduced the contents of soluble sugars and free amino acids, increased the contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins, and increased salicylic acid (SA) content and the expression of SA-related genes in leaves...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915248/comparative-proteomic-analysis-unravels-a-role-for-esrb-in-the-regulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-stress-responses-in-edwardsiella-piscicida
#8
Kaiyu Yin, Qiyao Wang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang
As a leading pathogen, Edwardsiella piscicida can cause hemorrhagic septicemia in fish and gastro-intestinal infections in humans. The two-component regulatory system EsrA-EsrB plays essential roles in pathogenesis through the type III and type VI secretion systems, and hemolysin production in E. piscicida It is unclear whether other virulence- or stress response-associated genes are regulated by EsrA-EsrB. In this study, the proteomes of wild type E. piscicida EIB202 and esrB mutant strains were compared to reveal EsrB regulon components after growth in LB...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915142/atrazine-triggers-hepatic-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-quails-coturnix-c-coturnix-via-blocking-nrf2-mediated-defense-response
#9
Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Li-Run Xiang, Lei Qin, Jia Lin, Jin-Long Li
The bioaccumulation and environmental persistence of atrazine (ATZ) poses a severe hazard to animal ecosystem. Quail has strong sensitivity to environmental pollutant, thus it is one of the most important ecological pollution indicator. However, true proof for the effects of ATZ exposure on the liver of quails is lacking. To evaluate the liver injury and the role of Nrf2-mediated defense responses during ATZ exposure, male quails were treated with ATZ (0, 50, 250 and 500mg/kg) by oral gavage for 45 days. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress indices, apoptosis-related factors and Nrf2 pathway were detected...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914981/complement-a-primer-for-the-coming-therapeutic-revolution
#10
REVIEW
Scott R Barnum
The complement system is an important part of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Originally characterized as a single serum component contributing to the killing of bacteria, we now know that there are close to sixty complement proteins, multiple activation pathways and a wide range of effector functions mediated by complement. The system plays a critical role in host defense against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens. However, inappropriate complement activation contributes to the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases and many inflammatory syndromes...
November 30, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913210/trpv4-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-resists-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-blocking-cyp2e1-mediated-redox-toxicity
#11
Ratanesh K Seth, Suvarthi Das, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Firas Alhasson, Gregory Michelotti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Anna Mae Diehl, Darwin P Bell, Wolfgang Liedtke, Saurabh Chatterjee
NAFLD is a clinically progressive disease with steatosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis being the stages where clinical intervention becomes necessary. Lack of early biomarkers and absence of a FDA approved drug obstructs efforts for effective treatment. NAFLD progression is strongly linked to a balance between liver injury, tissue regeneration and the functioning of endogenous defense mechanisms. The failure of the defense pathways to resist the tissue damage arising from redox stress, one of the "multiple hits" in disease progression, give rise to heightened inflammation and occasional fibrosis...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912877/riceberry-bran-extract-prevents-renal-dysfunction-and-impaired-renal-organic-anion-transporter-3-oat3-function-by-modulating-the-pkc-nrf2-pathway-in-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#12
Phatchawan Arjinajarn, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, Krit Jaikumkao, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont, Orranuch Norkaew, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
PURPOSE: This study investigated the protective effects of Riceberry bran extract (RBBE) on renal function, and the function and expression of renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and explored the mechanisms for its protective effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (n= 42) were divided into six groups to receive normal saline, gentamicin (100mg/kg), co-treatment of gentamicin and RBBE (at dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), and RBBE (at dose of 1000mg/kg) only, for consecutive fifteen days...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911998/tropical-forest-loss-and-its-multitrophic-effects-on-insect-herbivory
#13
José Carlos Morante-Filho, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Madelon Lohbeck, Teja Tscharntke, Deborah Faria
Forest loss threatens biodiversity, but its potential effects on multitrophic ecological interactions are poorly understood. Insect herbivory depends on complex bottom-up (e.g., resource availability and plant antiherbivore defenses) and top-down forces (e.g., abundance of predators and herbivorous), but its determinants in human-altered tropical landscapes are largely unknown. Using structural equation models, we assessed the direct and indirect effects of forest loss on insect herbivory in 40 landscapes (115 ha each) from two regions with contrasting land-use change trajectories in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909848/tissue-resident-natural-killer-cells-in-the-livers
#14
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Nature killer (NK) cells are important lymphocytes of the innate immune system, well known for their pivotal roles in immune surveillance and defense against tumor and virus-infected cells. Current studies have revealed that NK cells are not a homogeneous population, but instead consist of distinct subsets with diverse characteristics. As an organ with predominant innate immunity, the liver is enriched with NK cells, among which two distinct NK cell subsets have recently been identified: conventional NK (cNK) cells and tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells...
November 30, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909443/mighty-dwarfs-arabidopsis-autoimmune-mutants-and-their-usages-in-genetic-dissection-of-plant-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Rowan van Wersch, Xin Li, Yuelin Zhang
Plants lack the adaptive immune system possessed by mammals. Instead they rely on innate immunity to defend against pathogen attacks. Genomes of higher plants encode a large number of plant immune receptors belonging to different protein families, which are involved in the detection of pathogens and activation of downstream defense pathways. Plant immunity is tightly controlled to avoid activation of defense responses in the absence of pathogens, as failure to do so can lead to autoimmunity that compromises plant growth and development...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909314/controlled-detonation-evolution-of-necroptosis-in-pathogen-defense
#16
REVIEW
Michelle Brault, Andrew Oberst
Necroptosis is a lytic form of programmed cell death that involves the swelling and rupture of dying cells. While several necroptosis-inducing stimuli have been defined, in most cells this pathway is kept in check by the action of the pro-apoptotic protease caspase-8 and the IAP ubiquitin ligases. How and when necroptosis is triggered under physiological conditions therefore remains a persistent question. Because necroptosis likely arose as a defensive mechanism against viral infection, exploration of this question requires a consideration of host-pathogen interactions, and how the sensing of infection could sensitize cells to necroptosis...
December 2, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908826/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-midgut-in-silkworm-infected-with-bombyx-mori-cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis-virus
#17
Kun Gao, Xiang-Yuan Deng, Meng-Ke Shang, Guang-Xing Qin, Cheng-Xiang Hou, Xi-Jie Guo
: Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) specifically infects the epithelial cells in the midgut of silkworm and causes them to death, which negatively affects the sericulture industry. In order to determine the midgut response at the protein levels to the virus infection, differential proteomes of the silkworm midgut responsive to BmCPV infection were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907856/cdna-aflp-analysis-of-transcripts-induced-in-chickpea-plants-by-tio2-nanoparticles-during-cold-stress
#19
Saeed Amini, Reza Maali-Amiri, Rahmat Mohammadi, Seyyedeh-Sanam Kazemi-Shahandashti
We evaluated the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on cold tolerance (CT) development in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes (Sel96Th11439, cold tolerant, and ILC533, cold susceptible) by using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique during the first and sixth days of cold stress (CS) at 4 °C. Selective amplification by primer combinations generated 4200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) while 100 of them (2.62%) were differentially expressed. During CS, 60 differentially expressed TDFs of TiO2 NPs-treated plants were cloned and 10 of them produced successfully readable sequences...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907832/modeling-of-the-catalytic-core-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-dicer-like-4-protein-and-its-complex-with-double-stranded-rna
#20
Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Joanna Sarzyńska, Maciej Miłostan, Anna Kurzyńska-Kokorniak, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Piotr Łukasiak, Tadeusz Kuliński, Marek Figlerowicz, Jacek Błażewicz
Plant Dicer-like proteins (DCLs) belong to the Ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzyme family. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression and antiviral defense through RNA interference pathways. A model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana encodes four DCL proteins (AtDCL1-4) that produce different classes of small regulatory RNAs. Our studies focus on AtDCL4 that processes double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) into 21 nucleotide trans-acting small interfering RNAs. So far, little is known about the structures of plant DCLs and the complexes they form with dsRNA...
November 17, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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