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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822766/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-increases-muc1-expression-in-macrophages-through-the-tlr4-p38-pathway
#1
Kosuke Kato, Alec D Hanss, Marina A Zemskova, Nicole E Morgan, Marianne Kim, Kenneth S Knox, Yong Lin, Erik P Lillehoj, Kwang Chul Kim
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a critical role in the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) from the airways. However, hyper-activation of macrophages can impair bacterial clearance and contribute to morbidity and mortality. MUC1 mucin is a membrane-tethered, high molecular mass glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of mucosal epithelial cells and some hematopoietic cells, including macrophages, where it counter-regulates inflammation. We recently reported that Pa up-regulates the expression of MUC1 in primary human AMs and THP-1 macrophages, and that increased MUC1 expression in these cells prevents hyper-activation of macrophages that appears to be important for host defense against severe pathology of Pa lung infection...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821824/identification-and-analysis-of-brown-planthopper-responsive-micrornas-in-resistant-and-susceptible-rice-plants
#2
Yan Wu, Wentang Lv, Liang Hu, Weiwei Rao, Ya Zeng, Lili Zhu, Yuqing He, Guangcun He
The brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest of rice. The rice gene BPH15 confers resistance to BPH. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a spectrum of development and defense response processes in plants. In this study, we analyzed six miRNA profiles of a BPH15 introgression line (P15) and a susceptible recipient line (PC) at three time points (0 h, 6 h and 48 h) after BPH attack, and identified 464 known miRNAs and 183 potential novel miRNAs. Before the BPH feeding, we identified 23 miRNAs differentially expressed in P15 and PC...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821818/an-essential-role-for-tagln2-in-phagocytosis-of-lipopolysaccharide-activated-macrophages
#3
Hye-Ran Kim, Hyun-Su Lee, Kyung-Sik Lee, In Duk Jung, Min-Sung Kwon, Chang-Hyun Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Myung-Han Yoon, Yeong-Min Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Chang-Duk Jun
Activated macrophages have a greater ability of phagocytosis against pathogens that is mediated by large-scale actin rearrangement. However, molecular machineries that conduct this task have not been fully identified. Here, we demonstrate an unanticipated role of TAGLN2, a 22-kDa actin-binding protein, in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated phagocytosis. TAGLN2 was greatly induced in macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand for TLR4, partly via the NF-κB pathway. TAGLN2-deficient macrophages (TAGLN2 (-/-)) showed defective phagocytic functions of IgM- and IgG-coated sheep red blood cells as well as bacteria...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821394/activation-of-ampk-to-the-neuroprotection-in-the-oxidative-stress-by-advanced-glycosylation-end-products-in-human-neural-stem-cells
#4
Chien-Hung Lin, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Christopher J Nicol, Kuan-Hung Lin, Chia-Hui Yen, Ming-Chang Chiang
Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) formation is correlated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal damage, but its links with oxidative stress are still not well understood. Metformin, one of the most widely used anti-diabetic drugs, exerts its effects in part by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Once activated, AMPK regulates many pathways central to metabolism and energy balance including, glucose uptake, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. AMPK is also present in neurons, but its role remains unclear...
August 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821374/il-17-production-of-neutrophils-enhances-antibacteria-ability-but-promotes-arthritis-development-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#5
Shengfeng Hu, Wenting He, Xialin Du, Jiahui Yang, Qian Wen, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Li Ma
To our knowledge, no studies have examined the role of IL-17 production by neutrophils in immune defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) caused by MTB infection. Here, we determined that neutrophils express IL-17 in an autocrine IL-6- and IL-23-dependent manner during MTB infection. MTB H37Rv-induced IL-6 production was dependent on the NF-κB, p38, and JNK signaling pathways; however, IL-23 production was dependent on NF-κB and EKR in neutrophils...
August 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819739/oligosaccharide-elicitor-prepared-from-salecan-triggers-the-defense-responses-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-col0-against-botrytis-cinerea-infection
#6
Haiyang Xu, Jing Li, Shiming Wang, Linxiang Xu, Rui Cheng, Jianfa Zhang
Oligosaccharides from the water-soluble β-glucan, Salecan, were investigated to evaluate the activation effect on the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col0. Salecan oligosaccharides (ScOs, DP 5-10) were prepared at first by acid hydrolysis and gel filtration chromatography and then employed for foliar spray on Arabidopsis seedlings and plants. After ScOs treatment, increase of hydrogen peroxide was histologically and analytically detected in leaves. Transcription levels of several indicator genes which correspond to the signaling pathways and pathogenesis-related proteins were up-regulated at different time by means of quantitative RT-PCR analysis...
August 17, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819197/mortierella-alpina-cs10e4-an-oleaginous-fungal-endophyte-of-crocus-sativus-l-enhances-apocarotenoid-biosynthesis-and-stress-tolerance-in-the-host-plant
#7
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Amit Kumar, Phalisteen Sultan, Kushal Bindu, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Nasheeman Ashraf
Crocus sativus is the only plant species which produces apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrocin and safranal in significant amounts. These compounds impart organoleptic properties to saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus flower) making it world's costliest spice. Crocus apocarotenoids have tremendous medicinal properties as well. Effect of endophytes on Crocus apocarotenoid production and the molecular mechanism involved has not been reported so far. Here we studied the effect of an oleaginous fungal endophyte, Mortierella alpina CS10E4 on Crocus growth, apocarotenoid metabolism and tolerance to corm rot disease...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818616/molecular-insights-of-two-stat1-variants-from-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus-and-their-transcriptional-regulation-in-response-to-pathogenic-stress-interleukin-10-and-tissue-injury
#8
S D N K Bathige, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, G I Godahewa, William Shanthakumar Thulasitha, J D H E Jayasinghe, Qiang Wan, Jehee Lee
Signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) is critically involved in mediating cytokine-driven signaling, and triggers the transcription of target genes to activate cellular functions. Although the structural and functional aspects of STAT members have been well described in mammals, only limited information is available for the STAT genes in teleost fishes. In the present study, two variants of STAT1 genes (RbSTAT1 and RbSTAT1L) were identified from rock bream and characterized at the cDNA and genomic sequence levels...
August 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818614/the-transcription-of-atypical-protein-kinase-c-in-hemocytes-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-during-the-molt-stage-and-injection-of-pathogen-associated-compounds
#9
Yi-Chun Yeh, Chin-Chyuan Chang, Pai-Po Lee, Winton Cheng
Protein kinase C (PKC), which is involved in cell signaling pathways, comprises a family of serine/threonine kinases ubiquitously present in animals and its members are grouped on the basis of structural and activation characteristics into novel, classical, and atypical PKC forms. In this study, an atypical PKC of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MraPKC, was successfully cloned, and its protein comprised structural domains similar to those of atypical PKC homologues, including the Phox and Bem1 (PB1) domain, a zinc finger phorbol-ester/DAG-type signature, protein kinase signatures, and a cAMP-dependent, cGMP-dependent, and PKC (AGC) kinase C-terminal domain...
August 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816601/stomate-based-defense-and-environmental-cues
#10
Shweta Panchal, Maeli Melotto
Environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants. For instance, many bacterial disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata. Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. Recently, we found that high humidity compromises stomatal defense, which is accompanied by regulation of the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways in guard cells...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816598/short-versus-long-double-stranded-rna-activation-of-a-post-transcriptional-gene-knockdown-pathway
#11
Nir Shpak, Rivka Manor, Lihie Katzir Abilevich, Ortal Mantal, Keshet Shavit, Eliahu D Aflalo, Debra Toiber, Amir Sagi
RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes a conserved cellular autoimmune defense mechanism involving the internalization of dsRNA into cells and the activation of a set of RNAi related genes. Using RNAi, complete sex reversal is achievable in males of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by knocking down the transcript level of an insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG) through injections of dsRNA of the entire Mr-IAG ORF sequence (dsMr-IAG - 518 bp). Interestingly, in-vivo knockdown success and dsMr-IAG lengths seemed to correlate, with long dsRNA being the most effective and short dsRNA fragments showing no effect...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815858/loss-of-chloroplast-localized-protein-phosphatase-2cs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leads-to-enhancement-of-the-plant-immunity-and-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-infection
#12
Chiharu Akimoto-Tomiyama, Shigeru Tanabe, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Eiichi Minami, Hirokazu Ochiai
Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. PP2Cs, one of the four major classes of serine/threonine specific PPs family is greatly expanded in plants. Thus PP2C is thought to have a specific role in a signal transduction pathway. Some rice PP2Cs classified to subgroup K were responsive to the infection by the compatible Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight. In A. thaliana, orthologous PP2C genes (AtPP2C62 and AtPP2C26) classified to subgroup K were also responsive to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815531/mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-mediate-innate-immune-responses
#13
Takuma Misawa, Michihiro Takahama, Tatsuya Saitoh
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are fundamental organelles that coordinate high-order cell functions. Mitochondria are centers of energy production, whereas the ER is responsible for folding, transport, and degradation of proteins. In addition to their specific functions, mitochondria and ER actively communicate with each other to promote a variety of cellular events, such as material transfer and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown the critical involvement of these organelles in regulation of the innate immune system, which functions in host defense...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815300/holaphyllamine-a-steroid-is-able-to-induce-defense-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-increases-resistance-against-bacterial-infection
#14
Abderrakib Zahid, Rim Jaber, Ferdousse Laggoun, Arnaud Lehner, Isabelle Remy-Jouet, Olivier Pamlard, Sandra Beaupierre, Jérome Leprince, Marie-Laure Follet-Gueye, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin, Xavier Latour, Vincent Richard, Catherine Guillou, Patrice Lerouge, Azeddine Driouich, Jean-Claude Mollet
A chemical screen of plant-derived compounds identified holaphyllamine, a steroid, able to trigger defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and improve resistance against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. A chemical screen of 1600 plant-derived compounds was conducted and allowed the identification of a steroid able to activate defense responses in A. thaliana at a concentration of 1 µM without altering growth. The identified compound is holaphyllamine (HPA) whose chemical structure is similar to steroid pregnanes of mammals...
August 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815217/deletion-of-cytoplasmic-double-stranded-rna-sensors-does-not-uncover-viral-small-interfering-rna-production-in-human-cells
#15
Susan Schuster, Lotte E Tholen, Gijs J Overheul, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Ronald P van Rij
Antiviral immunity in insects and plants is mediated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in which viral long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by Dicer enzymes. Although this pathway is evolutionarily conserved, its involvement in antiviral defense in mammals is the subject of debate. In vertebrates, recognition of viral RNA induces a sophisticated type I interferon (IFN)-based immune response, and it has been proposed that this response masks or inhibits antiviral RNAi...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815056/hemojuvelin-regulates-the-innate-immune-response-to-peritoneal-bacterial-infection-in-mice
#16
Qian Wu, Yuanyuan Shen, Yunlong Tao, Jiayu Wei, Hao Wang, Peng An, Zhuzhen Zhang, Hong Gao, Tianhua Zhou, Fudi Wang, Junxia Min
Hereditary hemochromatosis and iron imbalance are associated with susceptibility to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we performed in vivo bacterial infection screening using several mouse models of hemochromatosis, including Hfe (Hfe(-/-) ), hemojuvelin (Hjv(-/-) ), and macrophage-specific ferroportin-1 (Fpn1(fl/fl) ;LysM-Cre(+) ) knockout mice. We found that Hjv(-/-) mice, but not Hfe(-/-) or Fpn1(fl/fl) ;LysM-Cre(+) mice, are highly susceptible to peritoneal infection by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813678/therapeutic-antibodies-to-ganglioside-gd2-evolved-from-highly-selective-germline-antibodies
#17
Eric Sterner, Megan L Peach, Marc C Nicklaus, Jeffrey C Gildersleeve
Antibodies play a crucial role in host defense and are indispensable research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Antibody generation involves binding of genomically encoded germline antibodies followed by somatic hypermutation and in vivo selection to obtain antibodies with high affinity and selectivity. Understanding this process is critical for developing monoclonal antibodies, designing effective vaccines, and understanding autoantibody formation. Prior studies have found that antibodies to haptens, peptides, and proteins evolve from polyspecific germline antibodies...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813015/transcriptional-responses-of-creeping-bentgrass-to-2-3-butanediol-a-bacterial-volatile-compound-bvc-analogue
#18
Yi Shi, Kuiju Niu, Bingru Huang, Wenhui Liu, Huiling Ma
Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) have been reported to enhance plant growth and elicit plant defenses against fungal infection and insect damage. The objective of this study was to determine transcriptomic changes in response to synthetic BVC that could be associated with plant resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in creeping bentgrass. The 2,3-butanediol (BD) (250 µM) was sprayed on creeping bentgrass leaves grown in jam jars. The result showed that synthetic BD induced plant defense against R. solani for creeping bentgrass...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811866/preliminary-data-on-the-interaction-between-some-biometals-and-oxidative-stress-status-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#19
Ioana-Miruna Balmuș, Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Alin Ciobica, Mircea-Nicusor Nicoara, Romeo Dobrin, Gabriel Plavan, Cristinel Ștefănescu
Increased interest regarding the biometal mechanisms of action and the pathways in which they have regulatory roles was lately observed. Particularly, it was shown that biometal homeostasis dysregulation may lead to neurodegeneration including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, or prion protein disease, since important molecular signaling mechanisms in brain functions implicate both oxidative stress and redox active biometals. Oxidative stress could be a result of a breakdown in metal-ion homeostasis which leads to abnormal metal protein chelation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811757/cyclic-dipeptides-from-bacillus-vallismortis-bs07-require-key-components-of-plant-immunity-to-induce-disease-resistance-in-arabidopsis-against-pseudomonas-infection
#20
Seong Woo Noh, Rira Seo, Jung-Kwon Park, Md Maniruzzaman Manir, Kyungseok Park, Mee Kyung Sang, Surk-Sik Moon, Ho Won Jung
Cyclic dipeptides (CDPs) are one of the simplest compounds produced by living organisms. Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) also produce CDPs that can induce disease resistance. Bacillus vallismortis strain BS07 producing various CDPs has been evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent against multiple plant pathogens in chili pepper. However, plant signal pathway triggered by CDPs has not been fully elucidated yet. Here we introduce four CDPs, cyclo(Gly-L-Pro) previously identified from Aspergillus sp...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
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