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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921384/a-robust-molecular-catalyst-generated-in-situ-for-photo-and-electrochemical-water-oxidation
#1
Hussein A Younus, Nazir Ahmad, Adeel H Chughtai, Matthias Vandichel, Michael Busch, Kristof Van Hecke, Mekhman Yusubov, Shaoxian Song, Francis Verpoort
Water splitting is the key step towards artificial photosystems for solar energy conversion and storage in the form of chemical bonding. The oxidation of water is the bottle-neck of this process that hampers its practical utility and hence efficient, robust, and also easy to make catalytic systems based on cheap and earth abundant materials are of exceptional importance. Here, we present an in-situ generated cobalt catalyst [Co(II)(TCA)2(H2O)2] (TCA = 1-Mesityl-1,2,3-1H-triazole-4-carboxylate) efficiently conducting photochemical water oxidation at near-neutral conditions...
December 5, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920339/identification-of-chlorophyll-dephytylase-involved-in-chlorophyll-turnover-in-arabidopsis
#2
Yao-Pin Lin, Meng-Chen Wu, Yee-Yung Charng
Chlorophyll turns over in green organs during photosystem repair and is salvaged via de- and re-phytylation, but the enzyme involved in de-phytylation is unknown. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid protein with a putative hydrolase domain that can dephytylate chlorophyll in vitro and in vivo. The corresponding locus, CHLOROPHYLL DEPHYTYLASE1 (CLD1), was identified by mapping a semi-dominant, heat-sensitive, missense allele (cld1-1). CLD1 is conserved in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, sharing structural similarity with pheophytinase, which functions in chlorophyll breakdown during leaf senescence...
December 5, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916634/lateral-heterogeneity-of-the-proton-potential-along-the-thylakoid-membranes-of-chloroplasts
#3
Alexey V Vershubskii, Boris V Trubitsin, Vladimir I Priklonskii, Alexander N Tikhonov
This work is devoted to critical analysis and reexamination of the problem of lateral heterogeneity of the trans-thylakoid pH difference (ΔpH=pHout-pHin) in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Correct measurements of ΔpH may be complicated by nonuniform partitioning of the protons pumped into the lumen of granal (stacked) and stroma-exposed thylakoids. We have compared results of ΔpH estimations in isolated bean chloroplasts by two different methods. One of the methods is based on the use of pH-sensitive spin-probes...
December 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915172/dark-chilling-induces-substantial-structural-changes-and-modifies-galactolipid-and-carotenoid-composition-during-chloroplast-biogenesis-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-cotyledons
#4
Joanna Skupień, Joanna Wójtowicz, Łucja Kowalewska, Radosław Mazur, Maciej Garstka, Katarzyna Gieczewska, Agnieszka Mostowska
Plants in a temperate climate are often subject to different environmental factors, chilling stress among them, which influence the growth especially during early stages of plant development. Chloroplasts are one of the first organelles affected by the chilling stress. Therefore the proper biogenesis of chloroplasts in early stages of plant growth is crucial for undertaking the photosynthetic activity. In this paper, the analysis of the cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis at different levels of plastid organization was performed in cucumber, one of the most popular chilling sensitive crops...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914540/evaluation-of-antidesmone-alkaloid-as-a-photosynthesis-inhibitor
#5
Olívia Moreira Sampaio, Murilo Marinho de Castro Lima, Thiago André Moura Veiga, Beatriz King-Díaz, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva, Blas Lotina-Hennsen
Antidesmone, isolated from Waltheria brachypetala Turcz., owns special structural features as two α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups and a side alkyl chain that can compete with the quinones involved in the pool of plastoquinones at photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we showed that the alkaloid is an inhibitor of Hill reaction and its target was located at the acceptor side of PSII. Studies of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence showed a J-band that indicates direct action of antidesmone in accumulation of QA(-) (reduced plastoquinone A) due to the electron transport blocked at the QB (plastoquinone B) level similar to DCMU...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908242/participation-of-two-carbonic-anhydrases-of-the-alpha-family-in-photosynthetic-reactions-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
E M Zhurikova, L K Ignatova, N N Rudenko, V A Mudrik, D V Vetoshkina, B N Ivanov
The expression of genes of two carbonic anhydrases (CA) belonging to the α-family, α-CA2 and α-CA4 (according to the nomenclature in N. Fabre et al. (2007) Plant Cell Environ., 30, 617-629), was studied in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, var. Columbia) leaves. The expression of the At2g28210 gene coding α-CA2 decreased under increase in plant illumination, while the expression of the At4g20990 gene coding α-CA4 increased. Under conditions close to optimal for photosynthesis, in plants with gene At2g28210 knockout, the effective quantum yield of photosystem 2 and the light-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in leaves were lower than in wild type plants, while the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching of leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence and the rate of CO2 assimilation in leaves were higher...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896527/an-enzyme-kinetics-study-of-the-ph-dependence-of-chloride-activation-of-oxygen-evolution-in-photosystem-ii
#7
Sergei Baranov, Alice Haddy
Oxygen evolution by photosystem II (PSII) involves activation by Cl(-) ion, which is regulated by extrinsic subunits PsbQ and PsbP. In this study, the kinetics of chloride activation of oxygen evolution was studied in preparations of PSII depleted of the PsbQ and PsbP subunits (NaCl-washed and Na2SO4/pH 7.5-treated) over a pH range from 5.3 to 8.0. At low pH, activation by chloride was followed by inhibition at chloride concentrations >100 mM, whereas at high pH activation continued as the chloride concentration increased above 100 mM...
November 28, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895223/retraction-lpa2-is-required-for-efficient-assembly-of-photosystem-ii-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Lixin Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883062/genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-revealed-organelle-specific-responses-to-temperature-variations-in-algae
#9
HyeonSeok Shin, Seong-Joo Hong, Chan Yoo, Mi-Ae Han, Hookeun Lee, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Suhyung Cho, Choul-Gyun Lee, Byung-Kwan Cho
Temperature is a critical environmental factor that affects microalgal growth. However, microalgal coping mechanisms for temperature variations are unclear. Here, we determined changes in transcriptome, total carbohydrate, total fatty acid methyl ester, and fatty acid composition of Tetraselmis sp. KCTC12432BP, a strain with a broad temperature tolerance range, to elucidate the tolerance mechanisms in response to large temperature variations. Owing to unavailability of genome sequence information, de novo transcriptome assembly coupled with BLAST analysis was performed using strand specific RNA-seq data...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881976/the-roles-of-alpha-momorcharin-and-jasmonic-acid-in-modulating-the-response-of-momordica-charantia-to-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#10
Ting Yang, Yao Meng, Li-Juan Chen, Hong-Hui Lin, De-Hui Xi
Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877184/compromised-photosynthetic-electron-flow-and-h2o2-generation-correlate-with-genotype-specific-stomatal-dysfunctions-during-resistance-against-powdery-mildew-in-oats
#11
Javier Sánchez-Martín, Gracia Montilla-Bascón, Luis A J Mur, Diego Rubiales, Elena Prats
Stomatal dysfunction known as "locking" has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR) following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa) and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e., penetration resistance, early and late HR) to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871088/structure-of-photosystem-ii-and-substrate-binding-at-room-temperature
#12
Iris D Young, Mohamed Ibrahim, Ruchira Chatterjee, Sheraz Gul, Franklin D Fuller, Sergey Koroidov, Aaron S Brewster, Rosalie Tran, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Thomas Kroll, Tara Michels-Clark, Hartawan Laksmono, Raymond G Sierra, Claudiu A Stan, Rana Hussein, Miao Zhang, Lacey Douthit, Markus Kubin, Casper de Lichtenberg, Long Vo Pham, Håkan Nilsson, Mun Hon Cheah, Dmitriy Shevela, Claudio Saracini, Mackenzie A Bean, Ina Seuffert, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Tsu-Chien Weng, Ernest Pastor, Clemens Weninger, Thomas Fransson, Louise Lassalle, Philipp Bräuer, Pierre Aller, Peter T Docker, Babak Andi, Allen M Orville, James M Glownia, Silke Nelson, Marcin Sikorski, Diling Zhu, Mark S Hunter, Thomas J Lane, Andy Aquila, Jason E Koglin, Joseph Robinson, Mengning Liang, Sébastien Boutet, Artem Y Lyubimov, Monarin Uervirojnangkoorn, Nigel W Moriarty, Dorothee Liebschner, Pavel V Afonine, David G Waterman, Gwyndaf Evans, Philippe Wernet, Holger Dobbek, William I Weis, Axel T Brunger, Petrus H Zwart, Paul D Adams, Athina Zouni, Johannes Messinger, Uwe Bergmann, Nicholas K Sauter, Jan Kern, Vittal K Yachandra, Junko Yano
Light-induced oxidation of water by photosystem II (PS II) in plants, algae and cyanobacteria has generated most of the dioxygen in the atmosphere. PS II, a membrane-bound multi-subunit pigment protein complex, couples the one-electron photochemistry at the reaction centre with the four-electron redox chemistry of water oxidation at the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Under illumination, the OEC cycles through five intermediate S-states (S0 to S4), in which S1 is the dark-stable state and S3 is the last semi-stable state before O-O bond formation and O2 evolution...
November 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866363/comparative-of-quercus-spp-and-salix-spp-for-phytoremediation-of-pb-zn-mine-tailings
#13
Xiang Shi, Shufeng Wang, Haijing Sun, Yitai Chen, Dongxue Wang, Hongwei Pan, Yazhu Zou, Jianfeng Liu, Linyu Zheng, Xiulian Zhao, Zeping Jiang
A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866362/proteomic-response-of-oat-leaves-to-long-term-salinity-stress
#14
Jianhui Bai, Yan Qin, Jinghui Liu, Yuqing Wang, Rula Sa, Na Zhang, Ruizong Jia
Salinity adversely affects plant growth and production. Oat is a moderately salt-tolerant crop and can contribute to improving saline soil. The physiological and molecular responses of the oat plant to long-term salinity were studied. After a 16-day salt treatment (150 mmol L(-1)NaCl in Hoagland's solution), photosynthetic rate, maximum photosystem II photochemical efficiency, and actual efficiency of photosystem II decreased. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase significantly increased...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865844/perturbations-of-carotenoid-and-tetrapyrrole-biosynthetic-pathways-result-in-differential-alterations-in-chloroplast-function-and-plastid-signaling
#15
Joon-Heum Park, Sunyo Jung
In this study, we used the biosynthetic inhibitors of carotenoid and tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathways, norflurazon (NF) and oxyfluorfen (OF), as tools to gain insight into mechanisms of photooxidation in rice plants. NF resulted in bleaching symptom on leaves of the treated plants, whereas OF treatment developed a fast symptom of an apparent necrotic phenotype. Both plants exhibited decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, as indicated by Fv/Fm. NF caused severe disruption in thylakoid membranes, whereas OF-treated plants exhibited disruption of chloroplast envelope and plasma membrane...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864658/conjugates-between-photosystem-i-and-a-carbon-nanotube-for-a-photoresponse-device
#16
Daisuke Nii, Mariko Miyachi, Yuichiro Shimada, Yosuke Nozawa, Masahiro Ito, Yoshikazu Homma, Shu Ikehira, Yoshinori Yamanoi, Hiroshi Nishihara, Tatsuya Tomo
Photosystem I (PS I) is a large pigment-protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membranes that performs light-driven electron transfer across the thylakoid membrane. Carbon nanotubes exhibit excellent electrical conductivities and excellent strength and stiffness. In this study, we generated PSI-carbon nanotube conjugates dispersed in a solution aimed at application in artificial photosynthesis. PS I complexes in which a carbon nanotube binding peptide was introduced into the middle of the PsaE subunit were conjugated on a single-walled carbon nanotube, orienting the electron acceptor side to the nanotube...
November 18, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864175/the-acceptor-side-of-photosystem-ii-is-the-initial-target-of-nitrite-stress-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#17
Xin Zhang, Fei Ma, Xi Zhu, Junying Zhu, Junfeng Rong, Jiao Zhan, Hui Chen, Chenliu He, Qiang Wang
: Nitrite, a common form of inorganic nitrogen (N), can be used as a nitrogen source through N assimilation. However, high levels of nitrite depress photosynthesis in various organisms. In this study, we investigated which components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain are targeted by nitrite stress in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells. Measurements of whole-chain and PSII-mediated electron transport activities revealed that high levels of nitrite primarily impair electron flow in PSII...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859364/significance-of-structural-variation-in-thylakoid-membranes-in-maintaining-functional-photosystems-during-reproductive-growth
#18
Hatsumi Nozue, Kaori Oono, Yoshinobu Ichikawa, Shun Tanimura, Kana Shirai, Kintake Sonoike, Masayuki Nozue, Nobuaki Hayashida
Structural variation in the stroma-grana arrangement of the thylakoid membranes, such as changes in the thickness of the grana stacks and in the ratio between grana and inter-grana thylakoid, is often observed. Broadly, such alterations are considered acclimation to changes in growth and the environment. However, the relation of thylakoid morphology to plant growth and photosynthesis remains obscure. Here, we report changes in the thylakoid during leaf development under a fixed light condition. Histological studies on the chloroplasts of fresh green Arabidopsis leaves have shown that characteristically shaped thylakoid membranes lacking the inter-grana region, referred to hereafter as isolated-grana, occurred adjacent to highly ordered, large grana layers...
November 17, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853580/multispeq-beta-a-tool-for-large-scale-plant-phenotyping-connected-to-the-open-photosynq-network
#19
Sebastian Kuhlgert, Greg Austic, Robert Zegarac, Isaac Osei-Bonsu, Donghee Hoh, Martin I Chilvers, Mitchell G Roth, Kevin Bi, Dan TerAvest, Prabode Weebadde, David M Kramer
Large-scale high-throughput plant phenotyping (sometimes called phenomics) is becoming increasingly important in plant biology and agriculture and is essential to cutting-edge plant breeding and management approaches needed to meet the food and fuel needs for the next century. Currently, the application of these approaches is severely limited by the availability of appropriate instrumentation and by the ability to communicate experimental protocols, results and analyses. To address these issues, we have developed a low-cost, yet sophisticated open-source scientific instrument designed to enable communities of researchers, plant breeders, educators, farmers and citizen scientists to collect high-quality field data on a large scale...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853463/timing-effects-of-heat-stress-on-plant-ecophysiological-characteristics-and-growth
#20
Dan Wang, Scott A Heckathorn, Kumar Mainali, Rajan Tripathee
Heat-waves with higher intensity and frequency and longer durations are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic impacts in agriculture, economy and ecology. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS) treatment at different timing in naturally occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5°C) were applied to 12 1 m(2) plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by a warm-season C4 grass, Andropogon gerardii, and a warm-season C3 forb, Solidago canadensis, at different growing stages...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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