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Rui Huang, Yang Wang, Pingrong Wang, Chunmei Li, Fuliang Xiao, Nenggang Chen, Na Li, Caixia Li, Changhui Sun, Lihua Li, Rongjun Chen, Zhengjun Xu, Jianqing Zhu, Xiaojian Deng
We identified IspF gene through yellow-green leaf mutant 505ys in rice. OsIspF was expressed in all tissues detected, and its encoded protein was targeted to the chloroplast. On expression levels of genes in this mutant, OsIspF itself and the genes encoding other enzymes of the MEP pathway and chlorophyll synthase were all up-regulated, however, among eight genes associated with photosynthesis, only psaA, psaN and psbA genes for three reaction center subunits of photosystem obviously changed. Isoprenoids are the most abundant natural compounds in all organisms, which originate from the basic five-carbon units isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP)...
November 15, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Yukako Kato, Makio Yokono, Seiji Akimoto, Atsushi Takabayashi, Ayumi Tanaka, Ryouichi Tanaka
Light-harvesting-like (LIL) proteins are a group of proteins that share a consensus amino acid sequence with light-harvesting Chl-binding (LHC) proteins. We hypothesized that they might be involved in photosynthesis-related processes. In order to gain a better understanding of a potential role in photosynthesis-related processes, we examined the most recently identified LIL protein, LIL8/PSB33. Recently, it was suggested that this protein is an auxiliary PSII core protein which is involved in organization of the PSII supercomplex...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Zegang Wang, Kai Tang, Dayong Zhang, Yizhen Wan, Yan Wen, Quanyou Lu, Lei Wang
This study is the first to comprehensively characterize m6A patterns in the Arabidopsis chloroplast and mitochondria transcriptomes based on our open accessible data deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus with GEO Series accession number of GSE72706. Over 86% of the transcripts were methylated by m6A in the two organelles. Over 550 and 350 m6A sites were mapped, with ~5.6 to ~5.8 and ~4.6 to ~4.9 m6A sites per transcript, to the chloroplast and mitochondria genome, respectively. The overall m6A methylation extent in the two organelles was greatly higher than that in the nucleus...
2017: PloS One
Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez, Paulo Eduardo de Menezes Silva, Wiler Ribas Moreira, Fábio Murilo DaMatta, Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues
Considering the effect of silicon (Si) in reducing the blast symptoms on wheat in a scenario where the losses in the photosynthetic capacity of the infected plants is lowered, this study investigated the ability of using the incident light, the chloroplastidic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) alterations and the possible role of carotenoids on the process of light dissipation on wheat plants non-supplied (-Si) or supplied (+Si) with Si and inoculated or not with Pyricularia oryzae. For + Si plants, blast severity was reduced compared to -Si plants...
October 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xin-Yu Lan, Bin Yang, Yun-Yun Yan, Xin-Yuan Li, Fu-Liu Xu
Microsorum pteropus (M. pteropus), an aquatic Polypodiaceae fern, was identified as a novel potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator in our previous study. This study reveals the Cd-resistance mechanisms and their difference between the root and leaf of M. pteropus based on analyses of photosynthesis, antioxidant systems and gene expression. A high level of Cd at 500μM was used to treat the samples to test the effects of this compound. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and flavonoids were used as indicators for antioxidant system changes...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shikha Singh, Anita Singh, Prabhat Kumar Srivastava, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The supplementation of plant hormones may enhance the tolerance capacity of plants against certain environmental stresses by increasing their physiological functioning and detoxification capacity. To answer the question that whether a phytohormone 'kinetin' (KN, 6-furfuylaminopurine), one of the artificial cytokinins could ameliorate the cadmium induced toxicity in tomato seedlings, the effect of KN was assessed in differentially cadmium (Cd1: 3mgkg(-1) sand and Cd2: 9mgkg(-1) sand) intoxicated tomato seedlings by estimating the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS, viz...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
M C Díaz-Barradas, M Zunzunegui, L Alvarez-Cansino, M P Esquivias, J Valera, H Rodríguez
Under natural conditions, light exposition for Mediterranean shrubs can be highly variable, especially during cloudy days or under a canopy, and can interfere with other environmental factors such as temperature and water availability. With the aim of decoupling the effect of radiation and temperature from water availability, we conducted an experiment where 2 perennial and 3 summer semi-deciduous shrub species were subjected to different levels of irradiation. In order to follow plant responses to light exposure, we measured gas exchange, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf mass area in spring and summer...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
Deborah J Steele, Susan A Kimmance, Daniel J Franklin, Ruth L Airs
During viral infection and growth limitation of the picoeukaryote Ostreococcus tauri, we examined the relationship between membrane permeability, oxidative stress and chlorophyll allomers (oxidation products). Chlorophyll allomers were measured in batch-cultures of O. tauri in parallel with maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv /Fm ), carotenoids, and reactive oxygen species and membrane permeability using fluorescent probes (CM-H2 DCFDA and SYTOX-Green). Viral infection led to mass cell lysis of the O...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Nuran Çiçek, Abdallah Oukarroum, Reto J Strasser, Gert Schansker
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the photosynthetic electron transport chain using two chickpea lines (Cicer arietinum L.) differing in their salt stress tolerance at the germination stage (AKN 87 and AKN 290). Two weeks after sowing, seedlings were exposed to salt stress for 2 weeks and irrigated with 200 ml of 200 mM NaCl every 2 days. The polyphasic OJIP fluorescence transient and the 820-nm transmission kinetics (photosystem I) were used to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the functionality of the photosynthetic electron transport chain...
November 9, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Yutaka Shibata, Ahmed Mohamed, Koichiro Taniyama, Kentaro Kanatani, Makiko Kosugi, Hiroshi Fukumura
Some mosses are extremely tolerant of drought stress. Their high drought tolerance relies on their ability to effectively dissipate absorbed light energy to heat under dry conditions. The energy dissipation mechanism in a drought-tolerant moss, Bryum argenteum, has been investigated using low-temperature picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are compared between moss thalli samples harvested in Antarctica and in Japan. Both samples show almost the same quenching properties, suggesting an identical drought tolerance mechanism for the same species with two completely different habitats...
November 9, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Manoj Mandal, Mikhail Askerka, Gourab Banerjee, Muhammed Amin, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista, M R Gunner
The second-shell ammonia binding sites near the OEC (oxygen-evolving complex) of PSII are characterized by combined Continuum Electrostatic/Monte Carlo (MCCE), QM/MM and DFT calculations and compared with new and earlier experimental measurements. MCCE shows ammonia has significant affinity at 6 positions but only two significantly influence the OEC. Although the pKa of ammonium ion is 9.25, it is calculated to only bind as NH3, in agreement with its low affinity at low pH. The calculations also help explain the experimentally observed competitive binding of ammonia with chloride...
November 9, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Joseph E Kumka, Heidi Schindel, Mingxu Fang, Sebastien Zappa, Carl E Bauer
Anoxygenicphotosynthetic prokaryotes have simplified photosystems that represent ancient lineages that predate the more complex oxygen evolving photosystems present in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. These organisms thrive under illuminated anaerobic photosynthetic conditions, but also have the ability to grow under dark aerobic respiratory conditions. This study provides a detailed snapshot of transcription ground states of both dark aerobic and anaerobic photosynthetic growth modes in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobactercapsulatus...
September 2017: Microbial Genomics
Dongmei Huang, Wenfang Lin, Ban Deng, Yujun Ren, Ying Miao
Plastid-nucleus-located WHIRLY1 protein plays a role in regulating leaf senescence and is believed to associate with the increase of reactive oxygen species delivered from redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. In order to make sure whether WHIRLY1 plays a role in photosynthesis, in this study, the performances of photosynthesis were detected in Arabidopsis whirly1 knockout (kowhy1) and plastid localized WHIRLY1 overexpression (oepWHY1) plants. Loss of WHIRLY1 leads to a higher photochemical quantum yield of photosystem I Y(I) and electron transport rate (ETR) and a lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) involved in the thermal dissipation of excitation energy of chlorophyll fluorescence than the wild type...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuhong Shang, Congjun Yang, Zhihang Liu, Jiqing Song, Pingliang Li, Lingxu Li, Fei Zhou, Hua Xin, Fanghao Wan, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Xiaoyong Luo
Acanthospermum hispidum DC, an Asteraceae weed species, was very susceptible to fluazifop-P-butyl, but tolerant to other aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides, such as haloxyfop-P-methyl. However, other Asteraceae weeds including Bidens pilosa were all tolerant to fluazifop-P-butyl. Membrane lipid peroxidation by increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was proposed as an action mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl in A. hispidum. To further clarify the primordial action site of fluazifop-P-butyl in this species, the effects on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and cytohistology of apical meristems were studied...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Honghong Wu, Nicholas Tito, Juan Pablo Giraldo
Plant abiotic stress leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a consequent decrease in photosynthetic performance. We demonstrate that a plant nanobionics approach of localizing negatively charged, sub-11 nm, spherical cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) inside chloroplasts in vivo augments ROS scavenging and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under excess light (2000 µmol m-2 s-1, 1.5 h), heat (35 °C, 2.5 h), and dark chilling (4 °C, 5 days). Poly (acrylic acid) nanoceria (PNC) with a hydrodynamic diameter (10...
November 3, 2017: ACS Nano
Makiko Kosugi, Changwoo Lee, Tomonori Misaki, Yasuhiro Kashino, Morifumi Fujita, Takashi Sugimura
A unique electron-accepting analog of vitamin K1 found in photosystem I in several species of oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms was confirmed to be 5'-hydroxyphylloquinone (1) through stereo-uncontrolled synthesis. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 obtained from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was assigned to be 5'S using proline-catalyzed stereocontrolled reactions.
November 3, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Cheng Xingxing, Liu Jiuyang, Zhang Huan, Li Fudong, Zhang Shuya, Xu Min, Ruan Ke, Wang Yuhua, Fu Aigen
Proper biogenesis and maintenance of photosynthetic thylakoid membrane complexes are essential for the photosynthetic light reactions. A thylakoid lumenal protein, Psb27, plays a vital role in assembly or/and maintenance of photosystem II (PSII). In cyanobacteria, it is a small lipoprotein docked to the lumenal side of PSII, and functions in the assembly of the Mn4Ca cluster and in the PSII repair cycle. However, Psb27 from Arabidopsis thaliana is not a lipoprotein, and it is involved in PSII repair and acclimation to fluctuating light stress, suggesting a functional divergence between Arabidopsis Psb27 and cyanobacterial Psb27s...
November 2, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Qin-Zheng Hou, Kun Sun, Hui Zhang, Xue Su, Bao-Qiang Fan, Han-Qing Feng
Hypertonic salt stress with different concentrations of NaCl increased the levels of extracellular ATP of Arabidopsis leaves. And, hypertonic salt stress decreased the levels of F v /F m (the maximal efficiency of photosystem II), Φ PSII (the photosystem II operating efficiency), qP (photochemical quenching), and intracellular ATP (iATP) production. The treatment with β,γ-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (AMP-PCP), which can exclude extracellular ATP from its binding sites of extracellular ATP receptors, caused a further decrease in the levels of F v /F m , Φ PSII, qP, and iATP production of the salt-stressed Arabidopsis leaves, while the addition of exogenous ATP rescued the inhibitory effects of AMP-PCP on Φ PSII , qP, and iATP production under hypertonic salt stress...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Yu Wang, Kai Fan, Jing Wang, Zhao-Tang Ding, Hui Wang, Cai-Hong Bi, Yun-Wei Zhang, Hai-Wei Sun
Drought is a crucial limiting factor for tea yield and quality. To systematically characterize the molecular response of tea plants to drought stress and its capacity to recover, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic approach to investigate the effects of drought on protein expression profiles in tea seedlings subjected to different drought treatments. A total of 3274 proteins were identified, of which 2169 and 2300 showed differential expressions during drought and recovery, respectively. Functional annotation showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that tea plants probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with drought stress...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Udita Brahmachari, Jérôme F Gonthier, C David Sherrill, Bridgette A Barry
In photosystem II (PSII), water oxidation occurs at a Mn4CaO5 cluster and results in production of molecular oxygen. The Mn4CaO5 cluster cycles among five oxidation states, called Sn states. As a result, protons are released at the metal cluster and transferred through a 35 Å hydrogen-bonding network to the lumen. At 283 K, an infrared band at 2830 cm(-1) is assigned to an internal solvated hydronium ion via H2(18)O solvent exchange. This result is similar to a previous report at 263 K. Computations on an oxygen evolving complex model predict that chloride can stabilize a hydronium ion on a network of nine water molecules...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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