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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351695/reasons-for-failure-of-systemic-to-pulmonary-artery-shunts-in-neonates
#1
Keti Vitanova, Cornelius Leopold, Jelena Pabst von Ohain, Cordula Wolf, Elisabeth Beran, Rüdiger Lange, Julie Cleuziou
BACKGROUND:  Systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt placement is an established palliative procedure for congenital heart disease. Although it is thought to be a simple operation, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS:  Data for all neonates who underwent surgery for a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt between 2000 and 2016 were reviewed. The study endpoints were shunt failure and shunt-related mortality. Shunt failure was defined as a shunt dysfunction because of thrombosis or stenosis requiring intervention or reoperation; shunt mortality was defined as death because of a shunt dysfunction...
January 19, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351493/test-retest-reliability-of-the-unsupported-upper-limb-exercise-test-uulex-and-6-min-peg-board-ring-test-6pbrt-in-healthy-adult-individuals
#2
Vanessa Pereira Lima, Marcelo Velloso, Fabiana Damasceno Almeida, Bianca Carmona, Giane Amorim Ribeiro-Samora, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The unsupported upper-limb exercise (UULEX) and 6-min peg board ring tests (6PBRTs) have been developed to measure peak unsupported arm exercise capacity and arm endurance, respectively, in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These tests are valid and reproducible in this population; however, the reproducibility of healthy adults is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the within-day test-retest reliability of the UULEX and 6PBRT in healthy adults...
January 19, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351446/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-oxidative-stress-in-lung-disease-therapeutic-implications-for-an-aging-populace
#3
Louise Hecker
The rapid expansion of the elderly population has led to the recent epidemic of age-related diseases, including increased incidence and mortality of chronic and acute lung diseases. Numerous studies have implicated aging and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases; however, despite recent advances in these fields, the specific contributions of aging and oxidative stress remain elusive. This review will discuss the consequences of aging on lung morphology and physiology, and how redox imbalance with aging contributes to lung disease susceptibility...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351444/activated-human-t-lymphocytes-inhibit-tgf%C3%AE-induced-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-differentiation-via-prostaglandins-d2-and-e2
#4
Shannon H Lacy, Amali P Epa, Stephen J Pollock, Collynn F Woeller, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
In pulmonary fibrosis (PF), fibroblasts and myofibroblasts proliferate and deposit excessive extracellular matrix in the interstitium, impairing normal lung function. As most forms of PF have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options, PF represents an urgent unmet need for novel, effective therapeutics. While the role of immune cells in lung fibrosis is unclear, recent studies suggest that T lymphocyte (T cell) activation may be impaired in PF patients. Further, we have previously shown that activated T cells can produce prostaglandins with anti-scarring potential...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351442/measurements-of-pulmonary-gas-exchange-efficiency-using-expired-gas-and-oximetry-results-in-normal-subjects
#5
John B West, Daniel L Wang, Gordon Kim Prisk
We are developing a novel, noninvasive method for measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in patients with lung disease. The patient wears an oximeter, and we measure the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inspired and expired gas using miniature analyzers. The arterial PO2 is then calculated from the oximeter reading and the oxygen dissociation curve, using the end-tidal PCO2 to allow for the Bohr effect. This calculation is only accurate when the oxygen saturation is below 94% and therefore these normal subjects breathed 12...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351440/jq1-is-a-potential-therapeutic-option-for-copd-patients-with-agrin-overexpression
#6
Zhen Xiao, Jing Shu, Feng Zhou, Yong Han
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. It is characterized by chronic pulmonary inflammation and obstructed airflow from the lungs. To date, there is no effective treatments for COPD. The activation of Agrin (AGRN) - YAP pathway can promote heart regeneration. Since Agrin can only induce mild cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation compare to ERBB2 pathway activation, it might exert pleiotropic effects, such as mitigation of innate inflammation, immune response and fibrosis...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351437/metabolic-reprogramming-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-lung-diseases-including-bpd-copd-and-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
Haifeng Zhao, Phyllis A Dennery, Hongwei Yao
The metabolism of nutrient substrates including glucose, glutamine and fatty acids provides acetyl-CoA for the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate energy, and metabolites for the biosynthesis of biomolecules including nucleotides, proteins, and lipids. It has been shown that metabolism of glucose, fatty acid, and glutamine plays important roles in modulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy, senescence, and inflammatory responses. All these cellular processes contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351436/therapeutic-attenuation-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-with-a-splunc1-derived-peptide-in-airway-diseases
#8
James F Collawn, Rafal Bartoszewski, Ahmad Lazrak, Sadis Matalon
The airway surface liquid (ASL) coats the lining of the airways and allows for efficient cilial movement and therefore effective mucociliary transport. Cell surface channels regulate the hydration status of the ASL and the two critical channels in the process are the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). In cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) there is loss of CFTR function or compromised CFTR function in chronic bronchitis, respectively...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351435/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-on-pulmonary-endothelial-cells
#9
Qing Lu, Eric Gottlieb, Sharon Rounds
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the US. Cardiovascular co-morbidities associated with both active and secondhand cigarette smoking indicate the vascular toxicity of smoke exposure. Growing evidence supports the injurious effect of cigarette smoke on pulmonary endothelial cells and the roles of endothelial cell injury in development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes results from studies of humans, preclinical animal models, and cultured endothelial cells that document toxicities of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary endothelial cell functions, including barrier dysfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation, apoptosis, and vasoactive mediator production...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351431/feasibility-of-phase-contrast-cine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-measuring-blood-flow-in-the-sheep-fetus
#10
An Qi Duan, Jack R T Darby, Jia Yin Soo, Mitchell C Lock, Meng Yuan Zhu, Lucy V Flynn, Sunthara Rajan Perumal, Christopher K Macgowan, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Janna L Morrison, Mike Seed
Phase-contrast cine MRI (PC-MRI) is the gold-standard non-invasive technique for measuring vessel blood flow and has previously been applied in the human fetal circulation. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using PC-MRI to define the distribution of the fetal circulation in sheep. Fetuses were catheterized at 119-120 days gestation (term, 150 days) and underwent MRI at 123 days gestation under isoflurane anesthesia, ventilated at a FiO2 of 1.0. PC-MRI was performed using a fetal arterial blood pressure catheter signal for cardiac triggering...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351331/the-association-between-previous-and-future-severe-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-updating-the-literature-using-robust-statistical-methodology
#11
Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Hui Xie, Mahyar Etminan, Kate Johnson, J Mark FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: There is minimal evidence on the extent to which the occurrence of a severe acute exacerbation of COPD that results in hospitalization affects the subsequent disease course. Previous studies on this topic did not generate causally-interpretable estimates. Our aim was to use corrected methodology to update previously reported estimates of the associations between previous and future exacerbations in these patients. METHODS: Using administrative health data in British Columbia, Canada (1997-2012), we constructed a cohort of patients with at least one severe exacerbation, defined as an episode of inpatient care with the main diagnosis of COPD based on international classification of diseases (ICD) codes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351312/prognostic-relevance-of-elevated-pulmonary-arterial-pressure-assessed-non-invasively-analysis-in-a-large-patient-cohort-with-invasive-measurements-in-near-temporal-proximity
#12
Sebastian Greiner, Andreas Jud, Matthias Aurich, Christoph Geisenberger, Lorenz Uhlmann, Thomas Hilbel, Meinhard Kieser, Hugo A Katus, Derliz Mereles
BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of non-invasively derived pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) by Doppler echocardiography (DE) has been questioned in the past. However, transthoracic echocardiography is used as a cornerstone examination for patients with dyspnea and suspected pulmonary hypertension (PH). This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of non-invasive assessed PAP in a large population of patients with known or suspected cardiopulmonary disease. METHODS: The analyses are based on data of patients of a tertiary cardiology center that received right heart catheterization (RHC) as well as non-invasively assessed PAP by DE within five days, and includes serological and clinical parameters in a retrospective follow-up for up to eight years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351227/differential-association-of-cx37-and-cx40-genetic-variants-in-atrial-fibrillation-with-and-without-underlying-structural-heart-disease
#13
Sebastian Carballo, Anna Pfenniger, David Carballo, Nicolas Garin, Richard W James, François Mach, Dipen Shah, Brenda R Kwak
Atrial fibrillation (AF) appears in the presence or absence of structural heart disease. The majority of foci causing AF are located near the ostia of pulmonary veins (PVs), where cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells interdigitate. Connexins (Cx) form gap junction channels and participate in action potential propagation. Genetic variants in genes encoding Cx40 and Cx37 affect their expression or function and may contribute to PV arrhythmogenicity. DNA was obtained from 196 patients with drug-resistant, symptomatic AF with and without structural heart disease, who were referred for percutaneous catheter ablation...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351102/fatal-sickling-triggered-by-massive-foreign-particle-embolism-a-case-report-of-unrecognized-indwelling-venous-catheter-drug-abuse-in-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Christopher A Febres-Aldana, Lydia Hernandez Howard
Sickle cell disease (SCD) manifests itself with vaso-occlusive episodes leading to infarction. Placement of intravascular catheters provides a useful route for management of pain crises as well as other complications. However, catheter misuse is a commonly unrecognized problem, which can have lethal consequences. We present a case of fatal splenic sequestration/hyperhemolysis secondary to foreign body pulmonary and systemic embolization due to intravenous administration of hydromorphone pills in a young woman with SCD...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350914/cys34-adductomes-differ-between-patients-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-healthy-controls-in-central-london
#15
Sa Liu, Hasmik Grigoryan, William Matthew Bell Edmands, Sonia Dagnino, Rudy Sinharay, Paul Cullinan, Peter Collins, Kian Fan Chung, Benjamin M Barratt, Frank J Kelly, Paolo Vineis, Stephen M Rappaport
Oxidative stress generates reactive species that modify proteins, deplete antioxidant defenses and contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). To determine whether protein modifications differ between COPD or IHD patients and healthy subjects, we performed untargeted analysis of adducts at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA). Biospecimens were obtained from nonsmoking participants from London, U.K., including healthy subjects (n=20) and patients with COPD (n=20) or IHD (n=10)...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350567/pretreatment-of-ferulic-acid-attenuates-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
Sheng Zhang, Pengyu Wang, Pengxin Zhao, Dong Wang, Yanwei Zhang, Junhui Wang, Lixia Chen, Wenping Guo, Hui Gao, Yalou Jiao
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal clinical condition that can be caused by pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the development of ARDS. In this study, we investigated whether ferulic acid (FA), an anti-oxidant, was beneficial for prophylaxis of ARDS. We established an ARDS rat model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Lung injury was assessed by lung wet/dry ratio and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the histological changes of the lungs...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350512/electronic-health-record-problem-lists-accurate-enough-for-risk-adjustment
#17
Timothy J Daskivich, Garen Abedi, Sherrie H Kaplan, Douglas Skarecky, Thomas Ahlering, Brennan Spiegel, Mark S Litwin, Sheldon Greenfield
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether comorbidity information derived from electronic health record (EHR) problem lists is accurate. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 1596 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1998 and 2004 at 2 Southern California Veterans Affairs Medical Centers with long-term follow-up. METHODS: We compared EHR problem list-based comorbidity assessment with manual review of EHR free-text notes in terms of sensitivity and specificity for identification of major comorbidities and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350394/genetic-variants-in-the-polish-population-of-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-sequencing-of-bmpr2-alk1-and-eng-genes
#18
Barbara Uznańska-Loch, Kamil Wikło, Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala, Bożena Szymańska, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Karina Wierzbowska-Drabik, Ewa Trzos, Jarosław Damian Kasprzak, Małgorzata Kurpesa
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease with a very serious prognosis. It seems that mutations in genes related to the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway are often related to the development of the disease. There was no study in Polish population that would cover this problem. AIM: To screen for genetic mutations in Polish cohort of patients with pulmonary hypertension, especially with idiopathic PAH, treated in a single hospital in Poland...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350384/the-importance-of-psychosocial-factors-in-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-patients
#19
Maria A Sobczak-Kaleta, Adam Torbicki, Jarosław D Kasprzak
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is significantly reshaping personal and professional lives of patients due to its chronic nature, varying clinical profile and uncertain perspectives of treatment. PAH is at this time an incurable disease, which requires to consider not only strictly medical dimension, but also the psychosocial aspects of care. This paper discusses therefore the psychological problems most commonly reported by PAH patients. It reviews the instruments used to assess them. We describe the relationships between the quality of life and depressive symptoms and the physical activity of the PAH patients, which have deep treatment-related consequences...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349730/ccn5-in-alveolar-epithelial-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-neonatal-lung-oxygen-injury
#20
Najla Fiaturi, Joshua W Russo, Heber C Nielsen, John J Castellot
Lung immaturity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, especially those born <28 weeks of gestation. These infants are at high risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a lung disease caused by insufficient surfactant production and immaturity of saccular/alveolar type II epithelial cells in the lung. RDS treatment includes oxygen and respiratory support that improve survival but also increase the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease characterized by arrested alveolarization, airway hyperreactivity, and pulmonary hypertension...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
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