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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934668/diabetes-mellitus-increased-all-cause-mortality-rate-among-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis-patients-in-an-asian-population-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#1
Po-Yen Ko, Shi-Dou Lin, Ming-Chia Hsieh, Yu-Cheng Chen
AIMS: To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients. METHODS: The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals and 1627 TB mortality cases in the period of 2000-2010. The mortality data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934596/features-and-outcomes-of-methamphetamine-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Roham T Zamanian, Haley Hedlin, Paul Greuenwald, David M Wilson, Joshua I Segal, Michelle Jorden, Kristina Kudelko, Juliana Liu, Andrew Hsi, Allyson Rupp, Andrew J Sweatt, Rubin Tuder, Gerald J Berry, Marlene Rabinovitch, Ramona L Doyle, Vinicio De Jesus Perez, Steven M Kawut
RATIONALE: While amphetamines are recognized as "likely" agents to cause drugs and toxins associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), (meth)amphetamine associated PAH (Meth-APAH) has not been well described. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively characterize the clinical presentation, histopathology, and outcomes of Meth-APAH compared to those of idiopathic PAH (iPAH). METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study of Meth-APAH and iPAH patients presenting to the Stanford University Pulmonary Hypertension Program between 2003-2015...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934595/copd-alters-immune-cell-composition-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-efficacy-in-nsclc
#3
Nicholas M Mark, Julia Kargl, Stephanie E Busch, Grace H Y Yang, Heather E Metz, Huajia Zhang, Jesse J Hubbard, Sudhakar N J Pipavath, David K Madtes, A McGarry Houghton
RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are interrelated diseases with substantial mortality; the pathogenesis of both involves aberrant immune functioning. OBJECTIVE: To profile the immune cell composition and function in patients with NSCLC and describe the effect of COPD on lung and tumor microenvironments. METHODS: We profiled resected lung and tumor tissue using flow cytometry and T-cell receptor sequencing in patients with and without COPD from a prospective cohort of patients undergoing resection of NSCLC...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934249/variability-in-objective-and-subjective-measures-affects-baseline-values-in-studies-of-patients-with-copd
#4
Wayne H Anderson, Jae Wook Ha, David J Couper, Wanda K O'Neal, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Elizabeth E Carretta, Christopher B Cooper, Claire M Doerschuk, M Bradley Drummond, MeiLan K Han, Nadia N Hansel, Victor Kim, Eric C Kleerup, Fernando J Martinez, Stephen I Rennard, Donald Tashkin, Prescott G Woodruff, Robert Paine, Jeffrey L Curtis, Richard E Kanner
RATIONALE: Understanding the reliability and repeatability of clinical measurements used in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of disease progression is of critical importance across all disciplines of clinical practice and in clinical trials to assess therapeutic efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVES: Our goal is to understand normal variability for assessing true changes in health status and to more accurately utilize this data to differentiate disease characteristics and outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933948/the-value-and-application-of-the-six-minute-walk-test-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
A Whitney Brown, Steven D Nathan
The 6 minute walk test (6MWT) is a commonly employed assessment of performance ability in a variety of cardiopulmonary diseases. It provides important functional information that is not captured in standardized pulmonary function testing. The test may be influenced by factors other than the severity of lung disease, including frailty, deconditioning, and musculoskeletal issues. The primary output measure from the six minute walk test is the distance walked, which appears to confer prognostic information in many diverse disease states...
September 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933915/airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-copd-role-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#6
Mahyar Aghapour, Pourya Raee, Seyed Javad Moghaddam, Pieter S Hiemstra, Irene H Heijink
The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933616/are-newly-launched-pharmacotherapies-efficacious-in-treating-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-or-is-there-still-more-work-to-be-done
#7
Riccardo Inchingolo, Carola Condoluci, Andrea Smargiassi, Annelisa Mastrobattista, Cristina Boccabella, Alessia Comes, Nicoletta Golfi, Luca Richeldi
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a challenging and multifactorial disease that has been thought for some time to lack effective treatments. The approval of two drugs, nintedanib and pirfenidone, has heralded a new era in its management. Areas covered: Currently, there is a growing interest on therapeutic strategies. Many studies have been designed and performed, although few of them turned out to be successful. Nowadays, nintedanib and pirfenidone are considered disease modifying drugs, recommended treatments by current evidence-based guidelines...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933581/peak-inspiratory-flow-rate-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-implications-for-dry-powder-inhalers
#8
Sohini Ghosh, Jill A Ohar, M Bradley Drummond
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States with a significant economic burden related to hospital admissions for exacerbations. One of the primary treatment modalities for COPD is medications delivered through breath-actuated dry powdered inhalers (DPIs). For users to successfully receive inhaled medication, they must inhale with enough flow to overcome the internal resistance of the device, leading to deaggregation of the medication powder. Peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) is the maximal flow rate obtained during an inspiratory maneuver...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933231/temporary-tracheal-stenting-after-pulmonary-artery-sling-repair-in-a-newborn
#9
Sabrina Lueck, Michael Mohr, Claudius Werner, Christoph Schmidt, Edward Malec, Katarzyna Januszewska
Pulmonary artery sling (PAS) is a rare disease frequently associated with severe malacia and stenosis of the trachea. We present a two-day-old newborn that underwent urgent surgery for PAS and needed prolonged respiratory support afterward. Temporary airway stenting above the level of the tracheal bifurcation was performed five days after surgery to overcome severe airway obstruction caused by tracheomalacia and laceration of the tracheal mucosa after diagnostic bronchoscopy. Two days after the procedure, the child could be extubated and after two weeks the stent was removed without complications...
January 1, 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932993/oxygen-therapy-with-high-flow-nasal-cannula-as-an-effective-treatment-for-perioperative-pneumocephalus-case-illustrations-and-pathophysiological-review
#10
Jason L Siegel, Karen Hampton, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Diane McLaughlin, Jose L Diaz-Gomez
Pneumocephalus (PNC) is a condition in which when air is trapped inside the intracranial vault. The causes are varied, but include trauma and intracranial surgery. Treatment of PNC typically consists of augmenting patient oxygenation with the attempt of washing out pulmonary nitrogen, creating a gradient in which nitrogen in the intracranial air bubble diffuses out of the lungs via the blood. Though several high flow methods have been tested, the ideal mode of oxygenation has not fully been investigated. Here we present 3 cases of post-operative PNC who we felt were symptomatic from PNC...
September 20, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932626/complete-biochemical-response-after-pulmonary-metastasectomy-in-prostate-adenocarcinoma
#11
Jonathan Rush, Reet Pai, Rahul A Parikh
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to bones or lymph nodes, and metastatic prostate cancer is suggestive of disseminated disease. Metastatic disease is usually not amenable to surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: The current report presents a unique case of in which the excision of a solitary pulmonary metastasis resulted in undetectable prostate-specific antigen. CONCLUSION: This case and others suggest metastasectomy could be considered in cases with solitary metastasis, and physicians should have a careful discussion regarding risks and possible benefits from surgical excision...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932591/a-case-of-tuberculosis-reactivation-suspected-of-cancer-progression-during-oral-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-in-a-patient-diagnosed-as-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Hwa Young Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Chang Dong Yeo
We report a first case of a patient experiencing reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) during treatment of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 44-year-old male patient visited the hospital with cough. He had been treated with erlotinib (oral TKI) for 8 months after being diagnosed as NSCLC with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in our clinic. At initial chest imaging, the patient had fibroatelectatic calcified granuloma in the right upper lobe (RUL) apex as well as 1...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932584/two-cases-of-pulmonary-cysticercosis-manifesting-as-pleural-effusion-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Youfei Chen, Pingli Wang, Liren Ding
Cysticercosis is an important public health problem in developing countries. The major involvement sites are the central nervous system and the eyes, although striated muscles and subcutaneous tissues are frequently involved in the disseminated form of disease. Pulmonary involvement in cysticercosis is very rare and ill-defined nodular shadows distributed throughout the lung is the usual radiological presentation. Only one case of cysticercosis presenting as lung cavity with pleural effusion has been reported so far in literature...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932575/pediatric-lung-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Christian Benden
Pediatric lung transplantation has been undertaken since the 1980s, and it is today considered an accepted therapy option in carefully selected children with end-stage pulmonary diseases, providing carefully selected children a net survival benefit and improved health-related quality of life. Nowadays, >100 pediatric lung transplants are done worldwide every year. Here, specific pediatric aspects of lung transplantation are reviewed such as the surgical challenge, effects of immunosuppression on the developing pediatric immune system, and typical infections of childhood, as it is vital to comprehend that children undergoing lung transplants present a real challenge as children are not 'just small adults'...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932571/management-of-pulmonary-hypertension-from-left-heart-disease-in-candidates-for-orthotopic-heart-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Anna Koulova, Alan L Gass, Saikrishna Patibandla, Chhaya Aggarwal Gupta, Wilbert S Aronow, Gregg M Lanier
Pulmonary hypertension in left heart disease (PH-LHD) commonly complicates prolonged heart failure (HF). When advanced, the PH becomes fixed or out of proportion and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). To date, the only recommended treatment of out of proportion PH is the treatment of the underlying HF by reducing the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) with medications and often along with use of mechanical circulatory support...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932568/needle-based-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-peripheral-pulmonary-nodule-a-preliminary-report
#16
Zhuquan Su, Changhao Zhong, Shiyue Li, Xiaobo Chen, Yu Chen, Chunli Tang
Lung cancer is one of the most fatal cancers in the world. To early distinguish benign and malignant pulmonary nodule is critical for disease prognosis. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) can be used to explore bronchus mucous membrane, alveolar elastic fiber structures and microvessels, and could be helpful for the diagnostic imaging and for the localization guidance. In this report, we presented two cases of peripheral pulmonary nodule. Under the guidance of X-ray and endobronchial ultrasound, needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE) could directly approach the peripheral pulmonary nodule via an exploratory puncture needle...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932560/cost-and-effectiveness-of-lung-lobectomy-by-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-for-lung-cancer
#17
Juan J Mafé, Beatriz Planelles, Santos Asensio, Jorge Cerezal, María-Del-Mar Inda, Javier Lacueva, Maria-Dolores Esteban, Luis Hernández, Concepción Martín, Benno Baschwitz, Ana M Peiró
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) emerged as a minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of thoracic surgery. We herein reviewed our experience on thoracoscopic lobectomy for early lung cancer and evaluated Health System use. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness study was performed comparing VATS vs. open thoracic surgery (OPEN) for lung cancer patients. Demographic data, tumor localization, dynamic pulmonary function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), diffusion capacity (DLCO) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)], surgical approach, postoperative details, and complications were recorded and analyzed...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932559/pupillary-abnormalities-in-non-selected-critically-ill-patients-an-observational-study
#18
Philippe Portran, Martin Cour, Romain Hernu, Sylvie de la Salle, Laurent Argaud
BACKGROUND: Repeated pupillary examination is a key element of neurologic surveillance in intensive care units (ICU). However, in non-selected critically ill patients, the clinical interest of monitoring pupillary diameter and light reflex is poorly documented. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the etiologies of pupillary abnormalities (PAs) in this ICU patient population. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study in a medical university affiliated ICU over a 6-month period...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932558/results-of-quantitative-chest-ct-in-chronic-pulmonary-graft-vs-host-disease-cgvhd-3-years-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Christopher Kloth, Wolfgang M Thaiss, Jürgen Hetzel, Georg Bier, Stefan Wirths, Konstantin Nikolaou, Marius Horger
BACKGROUND: To quantify lung parenchymal changes in symptomatic patients with chronic pulmonary graft-versus-host disease 3 years after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) by means of CT-densitometry (CTD) and to compare results with those of established pulmonary function tests (PFT). METHODS: The study group consisted of 26 patients with pulmonary cGvHD (19 males, 7 females; mean age, 49.29±15.89; range, 19-72 years). The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, PFT and chest-CT findings...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932552/chylothorax-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-complicates-short-term-but-not-long-term-outcomes-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#20
Nikoletta R Czobor, György Roth, Zsolt Prodán, Daniel J Lex, Erzsébet Sápi, László Ablonczy, Mihály Gergely, Edgar A Székely, János Gál, Andrea Székely
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of postoperative chylothorax in children with congenital heart disease is a rare and serious complication in cardiac intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of our study was to identify the perioperative characteristics, treatment options, resource utilization and long term complications of patients having chylothorax after a pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients were retrospectively assessed for the presence of chylothorax between January 2002 and December 2012 in a tertiary national cardiac center...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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