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D J Lapworth, G Krishan, A M MacDonald, M S Rao
Groundwater depletion has been widely studied in northwest India, but water quality concerns are still poorly constrained. In this study, we explore the hydrochemistry of the top 160m of the aquifer system, through detailed field studies in the Bist-Doab region, considering both anthropogenic and geogenic controls. A detailed comparison is made between sites dominated by urban and agricultural landuse. Salinity, nitrate, chloride and lead concentrations are significantly higher in the shallow (0-50m) groundwater system due to surface anthropogenic contaminant loading from agricultural and urban sources...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Olivier Armant, Kewin Gombeau, Sophia Murat El Houdigui, Magali Floriani, Virginie Camilleri, Isabelle Cavalie, Christelle Adam-Guillermin
Uranium is an actinide naturally found in the environment. Anthropogenic activities lead to the release of increasing amounts of uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in the environment, posing potential risks to aquatic organisms due to radiological and chemical toxicity of this radionucleide. Although environmental contaminations with high levels of uranium have already been observed, chronic exposures of non-human species to levels close to the environmental quality standards remain scarcely characterized. The present study focused on the identification of the molecular pathways impacted by a chronic exposure of zebrafish to 20 μg/L of DU during 10 days...
2017: PloS One
Zhen-Ni Xie, Lei Mei, Qun-Yan Wu, Kong-Qiu Hu, Liang-Shu Xia, Zhi-Fang Chai, Wei-Qun Shi
The first reversible solid-state single-crystal-to-single-crystal isomerisation mediated by the change of uranyl-ligand coordination modes, that is from seven-coordinated uranium(vi) of α-UP to six-coordinated uranium(vi) of the supramolecular isomer, β-UP, has been achieved in the uranyl polyrotaxane system by a temperature-induced strategy.
May 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Peter Medley, Che Doering, Fiona Evans, Andreas Bollhöfer
Natural radionuclides and stable elements were measured in weaver ants, leaves and soils collected from three sites in tropical northern Australia. Radionuclide concentration ratios for ants relative to soil were derived from the measurements and used to refine the current environmental radiological assessment for remediation of Ranger uranium mine. Use of site-specific concentration ratios for weaver ants gave a more conservative estimate of environmental exposure to the arthropod wildlife group than use of default concentration ratios in the ERICA Tool...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Komal Saini, B S Bajwa
Thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector and multi channel analyzer has been utilized to measure gamma rays emitted by radio nuclides found in soil samples of south-west (SW) region of Punjab state, India where elevated level of uranium of around value of 700µg/l in groundwater has been reported. For comparative study, soil samples were also collected and analyzed from west (W) and north east (NE) regions of the state. Uranium and potassium has been found to be comparatively higher in SW region whereas thorium level is higher in W and NE part of Punjab state...
May 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jian Xie, Yaxing Wang, Wei Liu, Xuemiao Yin, Lanhua Chen, Youming Zou, Juan Diwu, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Guokui Liu, Shuao Wang
Precise detection of low-dose X- and γ-radiations remains a challenge and is particularly important for studying biological effects under low-dose ionizing radiation, safety control in medical radiation treatment, survey of environmental radiation background, and monitoring cosmic radiations. We report here a photoluminescent uranium organic framework, whose photoluminescence intensity can be accurately correlated with the exposure dose of X- or γ-radiations. This allows for precise and instant detection of ionizing radiations down to the level of 10(-4)  Gy, representing a significant improvement on the detection limit of approximately two orders of magnitude, compared to other chemical dosimeters reported up to now...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
James Grellier, Will Atkinson, Philippe Bérard, Derek Bingham, Alan Birchall, Eric Blanchardon, Richard Bull, Irina Canu Guseva, Cécile Challeton-de Vathaire, Rupert Cockerill, Minh T Do, Hilde Engels, Jordi Figuerola, Adrian Foster, Luc Holmstock, Christian Hurtgen, Dominique Laurier, Matthew Puncher, Anthony E Riddell, Eric Samson, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Margot Tirmarche, Martine Vrijheid, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenic risks of internal exposures to alpha-emitters (except radon) are poorly understood. Since exposure to alpha particles-particularly through inhalation-occurs in a range of settings, understanding consequent risks is a public health priority. We aimed to quantify dose-response relationships between lung dose from alpha-emitters and lung cancer in nuclear workers. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, nested within Belgian, French, and UK cohorts of uranium and plutonium workers...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
Cuimei Liu, Zhendong Hua, Xin Meng
For the first time in China, the inorganic element profiling of cocaine specimens was performed at the National Narcotics Laboratory. An inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 26 inorganic elements, including sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminuim (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in illicit cocaine samples...
April 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
Céline Dinocourt, Cécile Culeux, Marie Legrand, Christelle Elie, Philippe Lestaevel
Uranium exposure leads to cerebral dysfunction involving for instance biochemical, neurochemical and neurobehavioral effects. Most studies have focused on mechanisms in uranium-exposed adult animals. However, recent data on developing animals have shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to uranium. Models of uranium exposure during brain development highlight the need to improve our understanding of the effects of uranium. In a model in which uranium exposure began from the first day of gestation, we studied the neurobehavioral consequences as well as the progression of hippocampal neurogenesis in animals from dams exposed to uranium...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sathesh Kumar Annamalai, Kantha Deivi Arunachalam, Rajaram Selvaraj
Ten sampling locations in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam have been selected to assess the suitability of the reservoir water for human consumption. The sediment, water, and fish samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclide ((238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and physicochemical parameters like pH, TOC, total hardness, alkalinity, DO, cation exchange capacity, and particle size. The spatial variations among the radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) in water and bottom sediments of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam were determined...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elizabeth A Pedrick, Mikiyas K Assefa, Megan E Wakefield, Guang Wu, Trevor W Hayton
Reaction of [UO2(N(SiMe3)2)2(THF)2] with 1 equiv of dibenzotetramethyltetraaza[14]annulene (tmtaaH2) affords the uranyl complex [UO2(tmtaaH)(N(SiMe3)2) (THF)] (1) (THF = tetrahydrofuran) as red blocks in 83% yield. Similarly, thermolysis of a mixture of [UO2(N(SiMe3)2)2(THF)2] and 2 equiv of tmtaaH2 affords [UO2(tmtaaH)2] (2), which can be isolated as red-orange crystals in 67% yield after workup. Both 1 and 2 were fully characterized, including analysis by X-ray crystallography. The tmtaaH ligands in 1 and 2 are only coordinated to the uranium center via one β-diketiminate fragment, while the protonated β-diketimine portion of the ligand remains uncoordinated...
May 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Anne-Laure Faure, Thomas Dalger
A direct and simultaneously analysis of the age and isotopic composition of nuclear material at the particle scale is described in this study. By comparison with other conventional techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry or Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry enables to determine individual ages of a mixture of nuclear materials. Having access to the purification date can give precious information on the history of a nuclear facility or nuclear material for Safeguards purposes...
May 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Lukáš Kotík, Vera Becková, Irena Malátová, Ladislav Tomasek
The aim of the study is to make a comparison of daily 238U excretion in urine among 115 active uranium miners and its modeled values obtained from inhalation intake of long-lived alpha emitters as measured by personal dosemeters and assessed by biokinetic models for different absorption parameters settings for inhaled uranium. A total of 144 spot samples of urine were collected. The 238U content was measured using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. To obtain estimates of the daily excreted values, the daily values were calculated according to the expected daily excretion of creatinine assessed individually for each miner...
May 12, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Phil Szuromi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Science
E E Hardy, K M Wyss, M A Eddy, A E V Gorden
The pentadentate coordination environment of a 2,6-bis[1-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)imino]ethyl] pyridine ligand scaffold was designed to accommodate the larger atomic radius of uranium as the uranyl dioxo cation, while fully occupying its equatorial plane. Here, two new uranyl (UO2(2+)) complexes utilizing this scaffold have been synthesized from successive condensation reactions and subsequent metal complexation. Surprising Zn fluorescence is also discussed.
May 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Michael R Savina, Brett H Isselhardt, Andrew Kucher, Reto Trappitsch, Bruce V King, David Ruddle, Raja Gopal, Ian D Hutcheon
Useful yields from Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry can be extremely high compared to other mass spectrometry techniques, but uranium analysis shows strong matrix effects arising from the tendency of uranium to form strongly bound oxide molecules that do not dissociate appreciably on energetic ion bombardment. We demonstrate a useful yield of 24% for metallic uranium. Modeling the laser ionization and ion transmission processes shows that the high useful yield is attributable to a high ion fraction achieved by resonance ionization...
May 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Jeroen De Decker, Julie Rochette, Jeriffa De Clercq, Justyna Florek, Pascal Van Der Voort
The carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) functionalized MIL-101(Cr) was investigated as a potential uranium scavenger. This metal-organic framework-based adsorbent shows very high selectivity toward uranium, as well as thorium, in competition with various rare earth metals. Furthermore, it showed rapid adsorption kinetics, in both batch conditions and a dynamic (column) setup. The adsorbent is fully regenerable, using oxalate solution. Fast elution kinetics in the column setup were observed during the regeneration...
May 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Shuo Zhang, Fan Wang
Obtaining reliable excitation energies of the isoelectronic series, UO2(2+), NUO(+), and UN2, is a challenge in quantum chemistry calculations due to importance of electron correlation and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Vertical spin-free and spin-orbit coupled excitation energies of these molecules are calculated in this work using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster approach at the CC singles and doubles level (EOM-CCSD). SOC is included in post-SCF calculations and this treatment has been shown to provide SOC effects with high accuracy for heavy elements...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Chaoxian Chi, Jia-Qi Wang, Hui Qu, Wan-Lu Li, Luyan Meng, Mingbiao Luo, Jun Li, Mingfei Zhou
We report the preparation of UFe(CO)3(-) and OUFe(CO)3(-) complexes using a laser-vaporization supersonic ion source in the gas phase. These compounds were mass-selected and characterized by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum chemical studies. There are unprecedented triple bonds between U 6d/5f and Fe 3d orbitals, featuring one covalent σ bond and two Fe-to-U dative π bonds in both complexes. The uranium and iron elements are found to exist in unique formal U(I or III) and Fe(-II) oxidation states, respectively...
May 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Adna Asic, Amina Kurtovic-Kozaric, Larisa Besic, Lejla Mehinovic, Azra Hasic, Mirza Kozaric, Mirsada Hukic, Damir Marjanovic
The main aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the current state of knowledge on chemical toxicity and radioactivity of depleted uranium (DU) and their effect on living systems and cell lines. This was done by presenting a summary of previous investigations conducted on different mammalian body systems and cell cultures in terms of potential changes caused by either chemical toxicity or radioactivity of DU. In addition, the authors aimed to point out the limitations of those studies and possible future directions...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Research
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