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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448878/rapid-extraction-of-uranium-from-sea-water-using-fe3o4-and-humic-acid-coated-fe3o4-nanoparticles
#1
Pallavi Singhal, Sanjay K Jha, Shailaja P Pandey, Suman Neogy
Uranium is one of the most toxic elements present in the environment and a number of methods have been developed for its extraction. Herein we have demonstrated a new method using magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used for uranium extraction from water and sea water matrix. Fe3O4 and humic acid (HA) coated Fe3O4 NPs with different amount of HA coating were synthesized and uranium sorption from water and sea water matrix was demonstrated. It was observed that sorption increases with increase in amount of HA coating...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447316/mining-and-environmental-health-disparities-in-native-american-communities
#2
REVIEW
Johnnye Lewis, Joseph Hoover, Debra MacKenzie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste...
April 26, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446338/co-cleavage-and-co2-functionalization-under-mild-conditions-by-a-multimetallic-csu2-nitride-complex
#3
Marta Falcone, Lucile Chatelain, Rosario Scopelliti, Marinella Mazzanti
Novel efficient chemical processes involving cheap and widely accessible carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide under mild conditions for the production of valuable chemical products are highly desirable in the current energetic context. Uranium nitride materials act as high activity catalysts in the Haber-Bosch process but the reactivity of molecular nitride compounds remains unexplored. Here we review recent results obtained in our group showing that a multimetallic nitride complex [Cs{[U(OSi(OtBu)3)3]2(μ-N)}] (1) with a CsUIV-N-UIV core, is able to promote N-C bond formation due to its strong nucleophile behaviour...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446019/a-novel-fusion-bead-procedure-for-nuclear-forensics-employing-synthetic-enstatite-to-dissolve-uraniferous-and-other-challenging-materials-prior-to-la-icp-ms
#4
David G Reading, Ian W Croudace, Phillip Edward Warwick
There is an increasing demand for rapid and effective analytical tools to support nuclear forensic investigations of seized or suspect materials. Some methods are simply adapted from other scientific disciplines and can effectively be used to rapidly prepare complex materials for subsequent analysis. A novel sample fusion method is developed, tested and validated to produce homogeneous, flux-free glass beads of geochemical reference materials (GRMs), uranium ores, and uranium ore concentrates (UOC) prior to the analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) via LA-ICP-MS...
April 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443719/influence-of-quartz-exposure-on-lung-cancer-types-in-cases-of-lymph-node-only-silicosis-and-lung-silicosis-in-german-uranium-miners
#5
Stefan Mielke, Dirk Taeger, Kerstin Weitmann, Thomas Brüning, Wolfgang Hoffmann
Objective Inhaled crystalline quartz is carcinogen. Analyses shown differences in the distribution of lung cancer types depending on the status of silicosis. Methods 2,524 lung tumor cases from the WISMUT autopsy repository database were used. Silicosis was differentiated in cases without silicosis in lung parenchyma and its lymph nodes, with lymph node-only silicosis or with lung silicosis including lymph node silicosis. The proportions of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell and small cell lung cancer mortality for increasing quartz exposures were estimated in a multinomial logistic regression model...
April 26, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436383/influence-of-point-defects-and-impurities-on-the-dynamical-stability-of-delta-plutonium
#6
Boris Dorado, Jordan Bieder, Marc Torrent
We use first-principles calculations to provide direct evidence of the effect of aluminum, gallium, iron, and uranium on the dynamical stability of delta-plutonium. We first show that the delta phase is dynamically unstable at low temperature, as seen in experiments, and that this stability directly depends on the plutonium 5f orbital occupancies. Then, we demonstrate that both aluminum and gallium stabilize the delta phase, contrary to iron. As for uranium, which is created during self-irradiation and whose effect on plutonium has yet to be understood, we show that it leaves a few unstable vibrational modes and that higher concentrations lead to an almost complete stabilization...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432972/assessment-of-the-bioavailability-and-depuration-of-uranium-cesium-and-thorium-in-snails-cantareus-aspersus-using-kinetics-models
#7
B Pauget, A Villeneuve, P O Redon, A Cuvier, A de Vaufleury
Uranium ore waste has led to soil contamination that may affect both environmental and soil health. To analyze the risk of metal transfer, metal bioavailability must be estimated by measuring biological parameters. Kinetic studies allow taking into account the dynamic mechanisms of bioavailability, as well as the steady state concentration in organisms necessary to take into account for relevant risk assessment. In this way, this work aims to model the snail accumulation and excretion kinetics of uranium (U), cesium (Cs) and thorium (Th)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432368/indoor-radon-in-micro-geological-setting-of-an-indigenous-community-in-canada-a-pilot-study-for-hazard-identification
#8
Atanu Sarkar, Derek Hc Wilton, Erica Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431380/recent-aspects-of-uranium-toxicology-in-medical-geology
#9
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Olav Albert Christophersen, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Olle Selinus, Jan Aaseth
Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431375/radioactivity-in-wastes-generated-from-shale-gas-exploration-and-production-north-eastern-poland
#10
Paweł Jodłowski, Jan Macuda, Jakub Nowak, Chau Nguyen Dinh
In the present study, the K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Ra-228 and Th-228 activity concentrations were measured in 64 samples of wastes generated from shale gas exploration in North-Eastern Poland. The measured samples consist of drill cuttings, solid phase of waste drilling muds, fracking fluids, return fracking fluids and waste proppants. The measured activity concentrations in solid samples vary in a wide range from 116 to around 1100 Bq/kg for K-40, from 14 to 393 Bq/kg for U-238, from 15 to 415 Bq/kg for Ra-226, from 12 to 391 Bq/kg for Pb-210, from a few Bq/kg to 516 Bq/kg for Ra-228 and from a few Bq/kg to 515 Bq/kg for Th-228...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429019/facile-syntheses-of-pure-uranium-halides-ucl4-ubr4-and-ui4
#11
Stefan S Rudel, Florian Kraus
Herein we describe convenient lab scale syntheses of several uranium(iv) halides of high purity by reaction of AlX3 (X = Cl, Br and I) with UO2, which is readily available by reduction of uranyl salts like UO2(NO3)2·6H2O. UCl4, UBr4, and UI4 are obtained in the form of aggregates of large single crystals. Their identities and purity were checked by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The syntheses introduced here avoid the need for pure metallic uranium and are based on more readily available starting materials, UO2, which does not even have to be pure, and the respective aluminium halide...
April 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428318/bottom-up-construction-of-a-superstructure-in-a-porous-uranium-organic-crystal
#12
Peng Li, Nicolaas A Vermeulen, Christos D Malliakas, Diego A Gómez-Gualdrón, Ashlee J Howarth, B Layla Mehdi, Alice Dohnalkova, Nigel D Browning, Michael O'Keeffe, Omar K Farha
Bottom-up construction of highly intricate structures from simple building blocks remains one of the most difficult challenges in chemistry. Here, we report a structurally complex, mesoporous uranium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) made from simple starting components. The structure is comprised of 10 uranium nodes and 7 tricarboxylate ligands (both crystallographically non-equivalent); resulting in a 173.3 angstrom cubic unit cell enclosing 816 uranium nodes and 816 organic linkers-the largest unit cell found for any nonbiological material...
April 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427006/regeneration-of-pilot-scale-ion-exchange-columns-for-hexavalent-chromium-removal
#13
Julie A Korak, Richard Huggins, Miguel Arias-Paic
Due to stricter regulations, some drinking water utilities must implement additional treatment processes to meet potable water standards for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), such as the California limit of 10 μg/L. Strong base anion exchange is effective for Cr(VI) removal, but efficient resin regeneration and waste minimization are important for operational, economic and environmental considerations. This study compared multiple regeneration methods on pilot-scale columns on the basis of regeneration efficiency, waste production and salt usage...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427004/enzymatic-activity-of-the-cam-pde1-system-upon-addition-of-actinyl-ions
#14
Florian Brulfert, Samir Safi, Aurélie Jeanson, Harald Foerstendorf, Stephan Weiss, Catherine Berthomieu, Sandrine Sauge-Merle, Éric Simoni
The threat of a dirty bomb which could cause internal contamination has been of major concern for the past decades. Because of their high chemical toxicity and their presence in the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium and neptunium are two actinides of high interest. Calmodulin (CaM) which is a ubiquitous protein present in all eukaryotic cells and is involved in calcium-dependent signaling pathways has a known affinity for uranyl and neptunyl ions. The impact of the complexation of these actinides on the physiological response of the protein remains, however, largely unknown...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419919/synthesis-of-layered-titanate-nanowires-at-low-temperature-and-their-application-in-efficient-removal-of-u-vi
#15
Ling Yin, Pengyi Wang, Tao Wen, Shujun Yu, Xiangxue Wang, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Xiangke Wang
Uranium(VI) has become one of the most potential contaminants due to its productive and irreversibility impact on the surrounding environment. Titanate nanowires (TNWs) have attracted significant attention because of its high ion exchange ability and facile synthesis. Herein the TNWs were synthesized, and the morphology and structure of TNWs were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in detail...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414943/ship-in-a-bottle-cmpo-in-mil-101-cr-for-selective-uranium-recovery-from-aqueous-streams-through-adsorption
#16
Jeroen De Decker, Karel Folens, Jeriffa De Clercq, Maria Meledina, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Gijs Du Laing, Pascal Van Der Voort
Mesoporous MIL-101(Cr) is used as host for a ship-in-a-bottle type adsorbent for selective U(VI) recovery from aqueous environments. The acid-resistant cage-type MOF is built in-situ around N,N-Diisobutyl-2-(octylphenylphosphoryl)acetamide (CMPO), a sterically demanding ligand with high U(VI) affinity. This one-step procedure yields an adsorbent which is an ideal compromise between homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, where the ligand can act freely within the pores of MIL-101, without leaching, while the adsorbent is easy separable and reusable...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412579/equilibrium-thermodynamic-and-kinetic-investigations-for-biosorption-of-uranium-with-green-algae-cladophora-hutchinsiae
#17
Esra Bağda, Mustafa Tuzen, Ahmet Sarı
Removal of toxic chemicals from environmental samples with low-cost methods and materials are very useful approach for especially large-scale applications. Green algae are highly abundant biomaterials which are employed as useful biosorbents in many studies. In the present study, an interesting type of green algae, Cladophora hutchinsiae (C. hutchinsiae) was used for removal of highly toxic chemical such as uranium. The pH, biosorbent concentration, contact time and temperature were optimized as 5.0, 12 g/L, 60 min and 20 °C, respectively...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412307/the-9th-conference-on-metal-toxicity-and-carcinogenesis-the-conference-overview
#18
James T F Wise, Lei Wang, Zhuo Zhang, Xianglin Shi
Heavy metals, such as arsenic, chromium, cadmium, nickel, mercury, and uranium are known to cause many human diseases and health complications after occupational or environmental exposure. Consequently, metals are environmental health concerns. This manuscript is an overview of the 9th Conference on Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenesis held in October 2016 in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 2000, this biennial meeting brings together experts in the field to discuss current and prospective research in an effort to advance research pertaining to metal toxicity and carcinogenesis...
April 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409920/enhanced-photocatalytic-removal-of-uranium-vi-from-aqueous-solution-by-magnetic-tio2-fe3o4-and-its-graphene-composite
#19
Zijie Li, Zhiwei Huang, Wenlu Guo, Lin Wang, Lirong Zheng, Zhifang Chai, Weiqun Shi
The separation and recovery of uranium from radioactive wastewater is important from the standpoints of environmental protection and uranium reuse. In the present work, magnetically collectable TiO2/Fe3O4 and its graphene composites were fabricated and utilized for the photocatalytical removal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions. It was found that, under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, the photoreactivity of TiO2/Fe3O4 for the reduction of U(VI) was 19.3 times higher than that of pure TiO2, which is strongly correlated with the Fe0 and additional Fe(II) generated from the reduction of Fe3O4 by TiO2 photoelectrons...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407570/the-application-of-illite-supported-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron-for-the-treatment-of-uranium-contaminated-groundwater
#20
C Jing, S Landsberger, Y L Li
In this study, nanoscale zero valent iron I-NZVI was investigated as a remediation strategy for uranium contaminated groundwater from the former Cimarron Fuel Fabrication Site in Oklahoma, USA. The 1 L batch-treatment system was applied in the study. The result shows that 99.9% of uranium in groundwater was removed by I-NZVI within 2 h. Uranium concentration in the groundwater stayed around 27 μg/L, and there was no sign of uranium release into groundwater after seven days of reaction time. Meanwhile the release of iron was significantly decreased compared to NZVI which can reduce the treatment impact on the water environment...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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