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Gardnerella biofilm

Werner Mendling
The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cornelia Gottschick, Szymon P Szafranski, Brigitte Kunze, Helena Sztajer, Clarissa Masur, Christoph Abels, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common infection in reproductive age woman and is characterized by dysbiosis of the healthy vaginal flora which is dominated by Lactobacilli, followed by growth of bacteria like Gardnerella vaginalis. The ability of G. vaginalis to form biofilms contributes to the high rates of recurrence that are typical for BV and which unfortunately make repeated antibiotic therapy inevitable. Here we developed a biofilm model for G. vaginalis and screened a large spectrum of compounds for their ability to prevent biofilm formation and to resolve an existing G...
2016: PloS One
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Said Abdellati, Irith De Baetselier, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Janneke van de Wijgert, Mario Vaneechoutte, Tania Crucitti
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by a change in the microbial composition of the vagina. The BV-associated organisms outnumber the health-associated Lactobacillus species and form a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, possibly explaining the difficulties with antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of vaginal biofilm with emphasis on Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis may contribute to a better diagnosis and treatment of BV. METHODS: To this purpose, we evaluated the association between the presence of both bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and BV by Nugent scoring in 463 vaginal slides of 120 participants participating in a clinical trial in Rwanda...
March 10, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Joana Castro, Daniela Machado, Nuno Cerca
Gardnerella vaginalis is the most frequent microorganism found in bacterial vaginosis (BV), while Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are amongst the most frequent pathogens found in urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to evaluate possible interactions between UTIs pathogens and G. vaginalis using an in vitro dual-species biofilm model. Our results showed that dual-species biofilms reached significantly higher bacterial concentration than monospecies biofilms. Moreover, visualization of dual-populations species in the biofilms, using the epifluorescence microscopy, revealed that all of the urogenital pathogens coexisted with G...
April 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Laura M Breshears, Vonetta L Edwards, Jacques Ravel, Marnie L Peterson
BACKGROUND: The vaginal microbiota can impact the susceptibility of women to bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). BV is characterized by depletion of Lactobacillus spp., an overgrowth of anaerobes (often dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis) and a pH > 4.5. BV is associated with an increased risk of acquiring STIs such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. While these associations have been identified, the molecular mechanism(s) driving the risk of infections are unknown...
December 9, 2015: BMC Microbiology
Joana Castro, Nuno Cerca
Dual-species biofilm formation between Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other 24 BV-associated microorganisms support that the key difference in virulence potential between BV-negative and BV-positive G. vaginalis strains seems not to be related with biofilm maturation.
December 2015: Anaerobe
Daniela Machado, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis is the leading vaginal disorder in women in reproductive age. Although bacterial vaginosis is related with presence of a biofilm composed predominantly by Gardnerella vaginalis, there has not been a detailed information addressing the environmental conditions that influence the biofilm formation of this bacterial species. Here, we evaluated the influence of some common culture conditions on G. vaginalis biofilm formation, namely inoculum concentration, incubation period, feeding conditions and culture medium composition...
November 2015: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Nassira Dahchour, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Mario Vaneechoutte, Tania Crucitti
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by increased vaginal discharge without significant inflammation, is characterized by a change in the bacterial composition of the vagina. Lactobacillus spp., associated with a healthy vaginal microbiome, are outnumbered by BV-associated organisms. These bacteria could form a polymicrobial biofilm which allows them to persist in spite of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal biofilms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes targeting these bacteria...
2015: PloS One
Joana Castro, Patrícia Alves, Cármen Sousa, Tatiana Cereija, Ângela França, Kimberly K Jefferson, Nuno Cerca
Gardnerella vaginalis is the most common species found in bacterial vaginosis (BV). However, it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women and G. vaginalis vaginal colonization does not always lead to BV. In an effort to better understand the differences between G. vaginalis isolated from women with a positive (BV) versus a negative (non-BV) diagnosis of BV, we compared the virulence potential of 7 BV and 7 non-BV G. vaginalis isolates and assessed the virulence factors related to biofilm formation, namely: initial adhesion and cytotoxic effect, biofilm accumulation, susceptibility to antibiotics, and transcript levels of the known vaginolysin, and sialidase genes...
2015: Scientific Reports
António Machado, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the worldwide leading vaginal disorder among women of reproductive age. BV is characterized by the replacement of beneficial lactobacilli and the augmentation of anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant bacterial species, but BV is also associated with other numerous anaerobes, such as Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus mulieris, Prevotella bivia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptoniphilus species. Currently, the role of G. vaginalis in the etiology of BV remains a matter of controversy...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ammar Algburi, Anna Volski, Michael L Chikindas
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of clindamycin and metronidazole to synergize with natural antimicrobials against biofilms of bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated Gardnerella vaginalis. Minimum bactericidal concentrations for biofilm cells (MBCs-B) were determined for each antimicrobial. The MBCs-B of lauramide arginine ethyl ester (LAE), subtilosin, clindamycin and metronidazole were 50, 69.5, 20 and 500 μg mL(-1), respectively. A checkerboard assay and isobologram were used to analyze the type of interactions between these antimicrobials...
July 2015: Pathogens and Disease
Veronica L Cavera, Anna Volski, Michael L Chikindas
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common, recurrent vaginal infection linked to increased chances of preterm delivery, incidence of sexually transmitted infections and fertility problems. BV is caused by a shift of the vaginal ecosystem from predominately Lactobacillus to a multispecies Actinomyces biofilm with the most common representatives identified as Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella spp. Current treatments have been associated with increased resistance as well as negative effects on healthy microbiota...
June 2015: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Chris R Kenyon, Kara Osbak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial vaginosis epidemiology has been transformed by new theoretical insights and methodologies, such as molecular sequencing. We summarize the progress made in these domains. RECENT FINDINGS: The vaginal microbiome can be classified in five to eight clusters. Bacterial vaginosis-type clusters typically constitute one of these clusters, but in higher risk women, it can constitute up to three clusters. The vaginal microbiomes may be fairly stable or be subject to rapid changes in their constitutive makeup...
December 2014: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Franco Vicariotto, Luca Mogna, Mario Del Piano
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common reason for abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-age women and one of its most important causative agents is the gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is not accompanied by significant local inflammation, whereas the "fishy odor" test is always positive. In contrast, aerobic vaginitis (AV) is predominantly associated with Escherichia coli, but Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are also involved. Standard treatment of BV consists of oral or intravaginal antibiotics, although these are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by a high concentration of lactobacilli...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Alexander Swidsinski, Vera Loening-Baucke, Sonja Swidsinski, Hans Verstraelen
PURPOSE: Bacterial vaginosis is a recalcitrant polymicrobial biofilm infection that often resists standard antibiotic treatment. We therefore considered repeated treatment with octenidine, a local antiseptic that has previously been shown to be highly effective in several biofilm-associated infections. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with recurrent BV were treated with a 7-day course of octenidine (octenidine dihydrochloride spray application with the commercial product Octenisept)...
March 2015: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Raluca Datcu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an imbalance of the vaginal bacterial microbiota and its aetiology is still unknown. Our aims were to investigate the diagnostic potential of species/genus specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacteria present in swabs and first-void urine (FVU) samples using Nugent's and Claeys' criteria and 454 sequencing of the vaginal microbiome as reference. METHODS: Self-collected swabs, vaginal smears and FVU were obtained from 177 women from Greenland (Study I and III) and physician-collected vaginal swabs and smears were obtained from 163 Swedish women (Study II)...
April 2014: Danish Medical Journal
Patrícia Alves, Joana Castro, Cármen Sousa, Tatiana B Cereija, Nuno Cerca
Despite the worldwide prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), its etiology is still unknown. Although BV has been associated with the presence of biofilm, the ability of BV-associated bacteria to form biofilms is still largely unknown. Here, we isolated 30 BV-associated species and characterized their virulence, using an in vitro biofilm formation model. Our data suggests that Gardnerella vaginalis had the highest virulence potential, as defined by higher initial adhesion and cytotoxicity of epithelial cells, as well as the greater propensity to form a biofilm...
August 15, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jane R Schwebke, Christina A Muzny, William E Josey
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge and is associated with important public health complications such as preterm birth and acquisition or transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections. Continued controversy concerning the pathogenesis of BV has led to a lack of progress in prevention and management of this infection. METHODS: Development of a conceptual model for the pathogenesis of BV based on review of past and current research...
August 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alexander Swidsinski, Vera Loening-Baucke, Werner Mendling, Yvonne Dörffel, Johannes Schilling, Zaher Halwani, Xue-feng Jiang, Hans Verstraelen, Sonja Swidsinski
BACKGROUND: We analysed data on bacterial vaginosis (BV) contradicting the paradigm of mono-infection. METHODOLOGY: Tissues and epithelial cells of vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes and perianal region were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in women with BV and controls. RESULTS: Healthy vagina was free of biofilms. Prolific structured polymicrobial (StPM) Gardnerella-dominated biofilm characterised BV. The intact StPM-Gardnerella-biofilm enveloped desquamated vaginal/prepuce epithelial cells and was secreted with urine and sperma...
May 2014: Histology and Histopathology
Johannes Schilling, Vera Loening-Baucke, Yvonne Dörffel
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a systemic inflammatory condition that affects the entire organism, not only the bowel. An impaired interaction with microbiota has been shown to be important. We looked for bacterial factors, which may contribute to the well-known higher incidence of poor reproductive outcome in IBD. METHODS: Urine specimen of patients with Crohn's disease (N=42), ulcerative colitis (N=46), and randomly selected patients attending the General Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinic of the Charité for non-IBD related medical conditions (N=49) was analyzed for bacteria adherent to desquamated epithelial cells and diffusely distributed bacteria in the urine using fluorescence in situ hybridization...
June 2014: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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