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Gardnerella biofilm

Joana Castro, Angela França, Katie R Bradwell, Myrna G Serrano, Kimberly K Jefferson, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common gynecological disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Bacterial vaginosis is frequently associated with the development of a Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Recent data indicates that G. vaginalis biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics and are able to incorporate other bacterial vaginosis -associated species, yielding a multi-species biofilm. However, despite its apparent role in bacterial vaginosis, little is known regarding the molecular determinants involved in biofilm formation by G...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Irith De Baetselier, Jozefien Buyze, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Janneke van de Wijgert, Tania Crucitti
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH...
2017: PloS One
Daniela Machado, Carlos Gaspar, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Nuno Cerca
AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil and its main compound, carvacrol, against Gardnerella vaginalis grown planktonically and as biofilms, and its effect of vaginal lactobacilli. MATERIALS & METHODS: Minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal lethal concentration determination and flow cytometry analysis were used to assess the antibacterial effect against planktonic cells. Antibiofilm activity was measured through quantification of biomass and visualization of biofilm structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy...
April 2017: Future Microbiology
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Magelien Van den Bulck, Jozefien Buyze, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Mario Vaneechoutte, Tania Crucitti
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a difficult-to-treat recurrent condition in which health-associated lactobacilli are outnumbered by other anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis. Certain genotypes of G. vaginalis can produce sialidase, while others cannot. Sialidase is known to facilitate the destruction of the protective mucus layer on the vaginal epithelium by hydrolysis of sialic acid on the glycans of mucous membranes. This process possibly facilitates adhesion of bacterial cells on the epithelium since it has been linked with the development of biofilm in other pathogenic conditions...
2017: PloS One
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir Chistyakov, Michael L Chikindas
Subtilosin, the cyclic lantibiotic protein produced by Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, targets the surface receptor and electrostatically binds to the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, subtilosin was purified using ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and purified via column chromatography. Subtilosin's antibacterial minimum and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and sub-MIC) and anti-biofilm activity (biofilm prevention) were established. Subtilosin was evaluated as a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor in Gram-positive bacteria using Fe(III) reduction assay...
December 2, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Olivier Thellin, Willy Zorzi, Danièle Zorzi, Philippe Delvenne, Ernst Heinen, Benaïssa ElMoualij, Pascale Quatresooz
Bacterial vaginoses are frequent in women, most of them involving Gardnerella vaginalis. In more than 50% of the cases, usual antibiotic treatments are not capable of eliminating completely the infection, leading to recurrent vaginosis. In addition to the appearance of antibiotic resistance, recurrence can be due to the development of a biofilm by G. vaginalis. In vitro experiments on G. vaginalis biofilms showed that the biofilm protected bacteria from the antibiotic clindamycin. Also, recombinant human lysozyme (rhLys) was able to both degrade biofilms and prevent their formation...
June 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Werner Mendling
The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cornelia Gottschick, Szymon P Szafranski, Brigitte Kunze, Helena Sztajer, Clarissa Masur, Christoph Abels, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common infection in reproductive age woman and is characterized by dysbiosis of the healthy vaginal flora which is dominated by Lactobacilli, followed by growth of bacteria like Gardnerella vaginalis. The ability of G. vaginalis to form biofilms contributes to the high rates of recurrence that are typical for BV and which unfortunately make repeated antibiotic therapy inevitable. Here we developed a biofilm model for G. vaginalis and screened a large spectrum of compounds for their ability to prevent biofilm formation and to resolve an existing G...
2016: PloS One
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Said Abdellati, Irith De Baetselier, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Janneke van de Wijgert, Mario Vaneechoutte, Tania Crucitti
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by a change in the microbial composition of the vagina. The BV-associated organisms outnumber the health-associated Lactobacillus species and form a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, possibly explaining the difficulties with antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of vaginal biofilm with emphasis on Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis may contribute to a better diagnosis and treatment of BV. METHODS: To this purpose, we evaluated the association between the presence of both bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and BV by Nugent scoring in 463 vaginal slides of 120 participants participating in a clinical trial in Rwanda...
March 10, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Joana Castro, Daniela Machado, Nuno Cerca
Gardnerella vaginalis is the most frequent microorganism found in bacterial vaginosis (BV), while Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are amongst the most frequent pathogens found in urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to evaluate possible interactions between UTIs pathogens and G. vaginalis using an in vitro dual-species biofilm model. Our results showed that dual-species biofilms reached significantly higher bacterial concentration than monospecies biofilms. Moreover, visualization of dual-populations species in the biofilms, using the epifluorescence microscopy, revealed that all of the urogenital pathogens coexisted with G...
April 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Laura M Breshears, Vonetta L Edwards, Jacques Ravel, Marnie L Peterson
BACKGROUND: The vaginal microbiota can impact the susceptibility of women to bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). BV is characterized by depletion of Lactobacillus spp., an overgrowth of anaerobes (often dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis) and a pH > 4.5. BV is associated with an increased risk of acquiring STIs such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. While these associations have been identified, the molecular mechanism(s) driving the risk of infections are unknown...
December 9, 2015: BMC Microbiology
Joana Castro, Nuno Cerca
Dual-species biofilm formation between Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with or without bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other 24 BV-associated microorganisms support that the key difference in virulence potential between BV-negative and BV-positive G. vaginalis strains seems not to be related with biofilm maturation.
December 2015: Anaerobe
Daniela Machado, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis is the leading vaginal disorder in women in reproductive age. Although bacterial vaginosis is related with presence of a biofilm composed predominantly by Gardnerella vaginalis, there has not been a detailed information addressing the environmental conditions that influence the biofilm formation of this bacterial species. Here, we evaluated the influence of some common culture conditions on G. vaginalis biofilm formation, namely inoculum concentration, incubation period, feeding conditions and culture medium composition...
November 2015: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Nassira Dahchour, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Mario Vaneechoutte, Tania Crucitti
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by increased vaginal discharge without significant inflammation, is characterized by a change in the bacterial composition of the vagina. Lactobacillus spp., associated with a healthy vaginal microbiome, are outnumbered by BV-associated organisms. These bacteria could form a polymicrobial biofilm which allows them to persist in spite of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal biofilms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes targeting these bacteria...
2015: PloS One
Joana Castro, Patrícia Alves, Cármen Sousa, Tatiana Cereija, Ângela França, Kimberly K Jefferson, Nuno Cerca
Gardnerella vaginalis is the most common species found in bacterial vaginosis (BV). However, it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women and G. vaginalis vaginal colonization does not always lead to BV. In an effort to better understand the differences between G. vaginalis isolated from women with a positive (BV) versus a negative (non-BV) diagnosis of BV, we compared the virulence potential of 7 BV and 7 non-BV G. vaginalis isolates and assessed the virulence factors related to biofilm formation, namely: initial adhesion and cytotoxic effect, biofilm accumulation, susceptibility to antibiotics, and transcript levels of the known vaginolysin, and sialidase genes...
2015: Scientific Reports
António Machado, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the worldwide leading vaginal disorder among women of reproductive age. BV is characterized by the replacement of beneficial lactobacilli and the augmentation of anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant bacterial species, but BV is also associated with other numerous anaerobes, such as Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus mulieris, Prevotella bivia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptoniphilus species. Currently, the role of G. vaginalis in the etiology of BV remains a matter of controversy...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ammar Algburi, Anna Volski, Michael L Chikindas
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of clindamycin and metronidazole to synergize with natural antimicrobials against biofilms of bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated Gardnerella vaginalis. Minimum bactericidal concentrations for biofilm cells (MBCs-B) were determined for each antimicrobial. The MBCs-B of lauramide arginine ethyl ester (LAE), subtilosin, clindamycin and metronidazole were 50, 69.5, 20 and 500 μg mL(-1), respectively. A checkerboard assay and isobologram were used to analyze the type of interactions between these antimicrobials...
July 2015: Pathogens and Disease
Veronica L Cavera, Anna Volski, Michael L Chikindas
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common, recurrent vaginal infection linked to increased chances of preterm delivery, incidence of sexually transmitted infections and fertility problems. BV is caused by a shift of the vaginal ecosystem from predominately Lactobacillus to a multispecies Actinomyces biofilm with the most common representatives identified as Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella spp. Current treatments have been associated with increased resistance as well as negative effects on healthy microbiota...
June 2015: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Chris R Kenyon, Kara Osbak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial vaginosis epidemiology has been transformed by new theoretical insights and methodologies, such as molecular sequencing. We summarize the progress made in these domains. RECENT FINDINGS: The vaginal microbiome can be classified in five to eight clusters. Bacterial vaginosis-type clusters typically constitute one of these clusters, but in higher risk women, it can constitute up to three clusters. The vaginal microbiomes may be fairly stable or be subject to rapid changes in their constitutive makeup...
December 2014: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Franco Vicariotto, Luca Mogna, Mario Del Piano
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common reason for abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-age women and one of its most important causative agents is the gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is not accompanied by significant local inflammation, whereas the "fishy odor" test is always positive. In contrast, aerobic vaginitis (AV) is predominantly associated with Escherichia coli, but Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are also involved. Standard treatment of BV consists of oral or intravaginal antibiotics, although these are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by a high concentration of lactobacilli...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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