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Bladder cancer, biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540249/liquid-biopsies-for-bladder-cancer
#1
EDITORIAL
Douglas G Ward, Richard T Bryan
The development of accurate urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) could transform patient pathways by reducing reliance on cystoscopy, and the identification of highly prognostic (or even predictive) biomarkers could better guide patient management. A number of approaches are being utilised to address these challenges in both urinary- and plasma-borne tumour DNA (tDNA), so-called "liquid biopsies". Next generation sequencing (NGS) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allow detection of very low levels of such tDNA amongst a large excess of non-tumour DNA, the former permitting large mutation panels to be assessed and the latter potentially identifying ultrarare mutant alleles yet restricted for multiplexing...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537880/biological-effects-and-epidemiological-consequences-of-arsenic-exposure-and-reagents-that-can-ameliorate-arsenic-damage-in-vivo
#2
REVIEW
Chinthalapally V Rao, Sanya Pal, Altaf Mohammed, Mudassir Farooqui, Mark P Doescher, Adam S Asch, Hiroshi Y Yamada
Through contaminated diet, water, and other forms of environmental exposure, arsenic affects human health. There are many U.S. and worldwide "hot spots" where the arsenic level in public water exceeds the maximum exposure limit. The biological effects of chronic arsenic exposure include generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage, epigenetic DNA modification, induction of genomic instability, and inflammation and immunomodulation, all of which can initiate carcinogenesis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534535/the-potential-of-organoids-in-urological-cancer-research
#3
REVIEW
Shangqian Wang, Dong Gao, Yu Chen
Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo...
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533484/insights-from-animal-models-of-bladder-cancer-recent-advances-challenges-and-opportunities
#4
REVIEW
Bincy Anu John, Neveen Said
Bladder cancer (urothelial cancer of the bladder) is the most common malignancy affecting the urinary system with increasing incidence and mortality. Treatment of bladder cancer has not advanced in the past 30 years. Therefore, there is a crucial unmet need for novel therapies, especially for high grade/stage disease that can only be achieved by preclinical model systems that faithfully recapitulate the human disease. Animal models are essential elements in bladder cancer research to comprehensively study the multistep cascades of carcinogenesis, progression and metastasis...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524004/urinary-biomarkers-for-prostate-cancer
#5
Francesca Giunchi, Chiara Ciccarese, Rodolfo Montironi, Marina Scarpelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Holger Moch, Francesco Massari, Michelangelo Fiorentino
Urine may represent a convenient source of biomarkers for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) since contains secreted prostatic products and exfoliated tumor cells. Furthermore urine are easy to collect with non-invasive procedures and they are repeatable. Several urinary biomarkers for PCa have been proposed in the past but only one (PCA3) has been approved for clinical use and even this is not widely utilized in the routine practice. Most of these, particularly the proteins, were abandoned due to lack of confirmation...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512267/exploratory-investigation-of-psca-protein-expression-in-primary-breast-cancer-patients-reveals-a-link-to-her2-neu-overexpression
#6
Theresa Link, Friederike Kuithan, Armin Ehninger, Jan Dominik Kuhlmann, Michael Kramer, Andreas Werner, Axel Gatzweiler, Barbara Richter, Gerhard Ehninger, Gustavo Baretton, Michael Bachmann, Pauline Wimberger, Katrin Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) has been suggested as biomarker and therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Recent advances showed that PSCA is up-regulated in other cancer entities, such as bladder or pancreatic cancer. However, the clinical relevance of PSCA-expression in breast cancer patients has not yet been established and is therefore addressed by the current study. METHODS: PSCA-protein expression was assessed in 405 breast cancer patients, using immunohistochemistry (PSCA antibody MB1) and tissue microarrays...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507806/preclinical-efficacy-of-immune-checkpoint-monotherapy-does-not-recapitulate-corresponding-biomarkers-based-clinical-predictions-in-glioblastoma
#7
Abhishek D Garg, Lien Vandenberk, Matthias Van Woensel, Jochen Belmans, Marco Schaaf, Louis Boon, Steven De Vleeschouwer, Patrizia Agostinis
Glioblastoma (GBM) is resistant to most multimodal therapies. Clinical success of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has spurred interest in applying ICIs targeting CTLA4, PD1 or IDO1 against GBM. This amplifies the need to ascertain GBM's intrinsic susceptibility (or resistance) toward these ICIs, through clinical biomarkers that may also "guide and prioritize" preclinical testing. Here, we interrogated the TCGA and/or REMBRANDT human patient-cohorts to predict GBM's predisposition toward ICIs. We exploited various broad clinical biomarkers, including mutational or predicted-neoantigen burden, pre-existing or basal levels of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs), differential expression of immune-checkpoints within the tumor and their correlation with particular TILs/Treg-associated functional signature and prognostic impact of differential immune-checkpoint expression...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504717/fibulin-3-promotes-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#8
A L Han, B A Veeneman, L El-Sawy, K C Day, M L Day, S A Tomlins, E T Keller
Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can be categorized as either non-muscle-invasive (Ta-T1) or muscle-invasive (⩾T2). The majority of bladder cancers are non-muscle-invasive at presentation; however, the recurrence rate for these tumors is high and a subset can progress to T2. In this study, we aimed to identify genes differentially expressed between T1 vs T2 bladder cancer to identify key regulators of bladder cancer progression and/or invasion. We performed RNA-Seq on T1 and T2 bladder cancer tissues and used publicly available bladder cancer profiling studies to prioritize differentially expressed genes for validation and functional assessment...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498805/foxm1-predicts-overall-and-disease-specific-survival-in-muscle-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma-and-presents-a-differential-expression-between-bladder-cancer-subtypes
#9
Sebastien Rinaldetti, Ralph Markus Wirtz, Thomas Stefan Worst, Markus Eckstein, Cleo Aaron Weiss, Johannes Breyer, Wolfgang Otto, Christian Bolenz, Arndt Hartmann, Philipp Erben
Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a late cell cycle gene that plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this study, the impact of FOXM1 expression on patient outcome was investigated for the first time in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples of chemotherapy naïve muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. Expression analyses were performed on the Mannheim cohort (n=84) and validated on the independent Chungbuk cohort (n=61). In a Cox' proportional hazards model, a distinct FOXM1 expression cut-off dividing both cohorts in a 'high-risk' and 'low-risk' group has been determined...
April 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493171/immunotherapy-in-urothelial-cancer-recent-results-and-future-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Matthew S Farina, Kevin T Lundgren, Joaquim Bellmunt
Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the only systemic treatment of locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma for decades. Long-term survival remains stagnant around 12-14 months for patients with advanced disease who have progressed on or recurred after receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Improving clinical outcomes for patients with urothelial carcinoma in all disease settings requires the development of novel treatments, especially for patients who failed on first-line chemotherapy. Since the discovery of intravesical Bacillus-Calmette Guerin (BCG) in the 1970s for non-muscle invasive disease, there have not been any major breakthrough drugs that exploit the immune-sensitivity of bladder cancer until recently...
May 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469965/eight-plex-itraq-labeling-and-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-for-human-bladder-cancer
#11
Qimin Zhang, Shengsong Huang, Huarong Luo, Xin Zhao, Gang Wu, Denglong Wu
Bladder cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, and increasing research has focused on new technologies for early detection of bladder cancer. For example, proteomic techniques for biomarker discovery have been implemented for the detection and analysis of protein changes in the tissues, blood, and urine from bladder cancer patients. In this present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the eight-plex iTRAQ labeling and quantitative proteomic approaches for differentially analyzing proteins found in normal and bladder cancer tissues from individual patients...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469300/bladder-cancer-micro-rnas-as-biomolecules-for-prognostication-and-surveillance
#12
REVIEW
Nilay Mitash, Swasti Tiwari, Shalini Agnihotri, Anil Mandhani
INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (BC) has varied clinical behavior in terms of recurrence and progression. Current pathological characteristics are insufficient to prognosticate the outcome of a given treatment. Cellular metabolic regulatory molecules, such as micro RNA (miRNA), could be a potential biomarker to prognosticate the treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for publications from 1990 to 2016, related to miRNA biogenesis, its function, and role in the pathogenesis of bladder as well as other cancers...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468590/ubc-%C3%A2-rapid-test-for-detection-of-carcinoma-in-situ-for-bladder-cancer
#13
Thorsten H Ecke, Sarah Weiß, Carsten Stephan, Steffen Hallmann, Dimitri Barski, Thomas Otto, Holger Gerullis
UBC(®) Rapid Test is a test that detects fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicentre study measuring UBC(®) Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls with focus on carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade bladder cancer. From our study with N = 452 patients, we made a stratified sub-analysis for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Clinical urine samples were used from 87 patients with tumours of the urinary bladder (23 carcinoma in situ, 23 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumours, 21 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours and 20 muscle-invasive high-grade tumours) and from 22 healthy controls...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466543/mutation-patterns-in-genes-encoding-interferon-signaling-and-antigen-presentation-a-pan-cancer-survey-with-implications-for-the-use-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#14
Jan Budczies, Michael Bockmayr, Frederick Klauschen, Volker Endris, Stefan Fröhling, Peter Schirmacher, Carsten Denkert, Albrecht Stenzinger
Blockade of immune checkpoints has become a powerful tool in cancer medicine, which is effective across various solid cancer types and hematologic malignancies. While immunohistochemical detection of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells, immune cells, or both has been introduced as predictive biomarker in several clinical trials, shortcomings and limitations of this approach were quickly recognized. As a single biomarker is unlikely to adequately reflect the complex interplay between immune cells and cancer, various genetic determinants of therapy success, including microsatellite instability, mutational burden, and PD-L1 amplification, are being investigated...
May 2, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464906/adjuvant-radiotherapy-after-radical-cystectomy-for-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-a-phase-ii-trial
#15
Valérie Fonteyne, Piet Dirix, Sara Junius, Elke Rammant, Piet Ost, Gert De Meerleer, Martijn Swimberghe, Karel Decaestecker
BACKGROUND: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection is considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Despite this aggressive treatment the outcome is poor and ultimately, 30% of the patients with ≥pT3 tumors develop a pelvic recurrence. We hypothesize that postoperative adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) might prevent local and lymph node recurrence and improve disease free- and overall survival as loco-regional recurrence is linked to the development of distant metastasis...
May 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462847/breaking-the-ritual-metabolic-cycle-in-order-to-save-acetyl-coa-a-potential-role-for-mitochondrial-humanin-in-t2-bladder-cancer-aggressiveness
#16
Nesreen Nabil Omar, Reham Fathy Tash, Youssef Shoukry, Karim Omar ElSaeed
INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells may exhibit outsourcing of their high energy need in order to avoid the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and accumulation of mitochondrial genome mutations are among metabolic transformations in this regard. Mitochondrial humanin (MT-RNR2) is a small peptide with anti-apoptotic activities attributed to binding some pro-apoptotic proteins. AIM OF THE WORK: The current study aims at investigating the expression of mitochondrial humanin in bladder tumor cells and the possible casting of humanin anti-apoptotic action through orchestrating some of the mitochondrial metabolic enzymes...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454095/association-between-psca-gene-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-cancer-an-updated-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#17
Zhiqiang Qin, Jingyuan Tang, Xiao Li, Yajie Yu, Chuanjie Zhang, Peng Han, Ran Li, Xuping Jiang, Chengdi Yang, Wei Wang, Min Tang, Wei Zhang
Previous studies have investigated the relationships between PSCA rs2294008 C>T and rs2976392 G>A polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. However, the available findings remained inconsistent and even controversial. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was performed to clarify such associations. The online databases PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science searched for relevant studies, covering all the papers published until September 1st, 2016. Data were pooled by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the strength of such associations...
April 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445936/increased-expression-of-zeb1-as1-correlates-with-higher-histopathological-grade-and-promotes-tumorigenesis-in-bladder-cancer
#18
Junhao Lin, Yonghao Zhan, Yuchen Liu, Zhicong Chen, Jianbo Liang, Wei Li, Anbang He, Liqun Zhou, Hongbin Mei, Feng Wang, Weiren Huang
Bladder cancer is one of the most common urinary cancers worldwide. Emerging studies indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in cancer biology. In this study, we found that a novel lncRNA Zinc finger E-box-binding homeebox1 (ZEB1) antisense RNA (ZEB1-AS1) was overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues compared to paired noncancerous tissues. Moreover, the expression of ZEB1-AS1 was positive correlated with higher histological grade and TNM stage in bladder cancer. Furthermore, Loss-of-function experiments showed that down-regulation of ZEB1-AS1 not only can suppress cell growth but also can inhibit migration and induce apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and SW780...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443245/overexpression-of-the-atpase-inhibitory-factor-1-favors-a-non-metastatic-phenotype-in-breast-cancer
#19
Lucía García-Ledo, Cristina Nuevo-Tapioles, Carmen Cuevas-Martín, Inmaculada Martínez-Reyes, Beatriz Soldevilla, Lucía González-Llorente, José M Cuezva
Partial suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the concurrent activation of aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of proliferating cancer cells. Overexpression of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), an in vivo inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, is observed in most prevalent human carcinomas favoring metabolic rewiring to an enhanced glycolysis and cancer progression. Consistently, a high expression of IF1 in hepatocarcinomas and in carcinomas of the lung, bladder, and stomach and in gliomas is a biomarker of bad patient prognosis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438520/urinary-long-noncoding-rnas-in-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-new-architects-in-cancer-prognostic-biomarkers
#20
REVIEW
Daniela Terracciano, Matteo Ferro, Sara Terreri, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Carolina D'Elia, Gennaro Musi, Ottavio de Cobelli, Vincenzo Mirone, Amelia Cimmino
Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer...
April 7, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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