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renal calculi and diet

Gerry K Schwalfenberg, Stephen J Genuis
The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways. Inadequate magnesium status may impair biochemical processes dependent on sufficiency of this element. Emerging evidence confirms that nearly two-thirds of the population in the western world is not achieving the recommended daily allowance for magnesium, a deficiency problem contributing to various health conditions...
2017: Scientifica
Peter J Simm, Jillian Bicknell-Royle, Jock Lawrie, Judy Nation, Kellie Draffin, Karen G Stewart, Fergus J Cameron, Ingrid E Scheffer, Mark T Mackay
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a medically supervised, high fat, low carbohydrate and restricted protein diet which has been used successfully in patients with refractory epilepsy. Only one published report has explored its effect on the skeleton. We postulated that the KD impairs skeletal health parameters in patients on the KD. Patients commenced on the KD were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study, with monitoring of Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone parameters including bone mineral content and density (BMD)...
October 2017: Epilepsy Research
A Abou-Elela
An in-depth comprehension of the epidemiology as well as pathophysiology of uric acid urolithiasis is important for the identification, treatment, and prophylaxis of calculi in these patients. Persistently low urinary pH, hyperuricosuria, and low urinary volume are the most important factors in pathogenesis of uric acid urolithiasis. Other various causes of calculus formation comprises of chronic diarrhea, renal hyperuricosuria, insulin resistance, primary gout, extra purine in the diet, neoplastic syndromes, and congenital hyperuricemia...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
A V Sin'kov, I N Volosatova, G M Sin'kova, L A Nikolaeva
AIM: To determine the prevalence of nephrolithiasis, assess the significance of known risk factors, and identify new risk factors for nephrolithiasis among young rural residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 settlements of the Irkutsk rural district of the Irkutsk region and involved 408 inhabitants (93 men, 315 women) aged from 18 to 47 years. The selection of candidates for the study was randomized. The response of the population was 81...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Montanari
The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted...
December 2017: Urolithiasis
Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Croppi, Emanuele Montanari
There is evidence that obese patients have an increased risk of renal stone formation, although this relationship could be less evident in some populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of overweight and obesity on the risk of renal stone formation in a population consuming a Mediterranean diet and to better elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of urolithiasis observed in obese subjects. We performed a retrospective review of 1698 stone forming patients (mean age 45.9 ± 14...
June 2017: Urolithiasis
H Kaaroud El Jery, A Harzallah, S Chouchi, E Talbi, H Baccouch, J Abdelmoula, A Bouzouita, M Chebil, F Ben Hamida, T Ben Abdallah
INTRODUCTION: Calcium oxalate stones are the most common urolithiasis. Changes in dietary habits, socio-economic and health status of populations explain its progression. The aim of our study was to determine metabolic factors leading to lithiasis and clarify its causes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 100 patients with calcium oxalate stones identified by morpho-constitutional study, collected in our department over a period of 5 years (2008-2013)...
June 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Camilla Urbaniak, Gregor Reid
Humans have been exploring space for almost 55 years but space travel comes with many psychological and physiological changes that astronauts have to adapt to, both during and post flight missions. Now, with the reality of such missions lasting years, maintaining proper health of the flight crew is a high priority. While conditions such as nausea, bone loss, renal calculi and depression have been recognized, and approaches to medical and surgical care in space considered, the influence of the microbiota could be of added significance in maintaining astronaut health...
2016: Women's Health
Witty A Brathwaite, Christine M Crincoli, Alex K Eapen, Marisa O Rihner, Andrey I Nikiforov, Amera K Remick
In a combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study, groups of Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (2 control groups), 5000, 20,000, or 40,000 ppm (2R,4R)-monatin salt (hereafter "R,R-monatin") in the diet for up to one year in the chronic toxicity phase and up to two years in the carcinogenicity phase. There were no adverse effects on survival, incidence of palpable masses, neoplasms, organ weights, or ophthalmic examinations. The only notable effect was statistically significantly lower mean body weights and body weight gains in all treated groups generally throughout the study, which were most likely a result of caloric dilution of the test diets...
May 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Siew Le Chong, Yong Hong Ng
BACKGROUND: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an uncommon genetic cause of chronic kidney disease due to crystalline nephropathy. METHODS: A case of a Chinese boy with APRT deficiency presenting with severe acute kidney injury secondary to obstructive uropathy from multiple renal calculi was reviewed. RESULTS: The patient underwent staged removal of the calculi. Infrared spectrometry of the renal calculi showed 2,8-dihydroxyadenine...
May 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Jassia Pang, Tiffany M Borjeson, Nicola M A Parry, James G Fox
Struvite urinary calculi, which are composed of magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate, can cause complications including sepsis and renal failure. Struvite calculi were identified within the urinary bladder and renal pelvis of 2 Long-Evans rats that died within days after arrival from a commercial vendor. The remaining rats in the shipment were screened by physical examination, radiography, and ultrasonography, revealing an additional 2 animals that were clinically affected. These rats were euthanized, necropsied, and yielded similar findings to those from the first 2 rats...
December 2015: Comparative Medicine
Bhamar Lal, Jai Pal Paryani, Shafique-ur-Rehman Memon
BACKGROUND: Bladder calculi are one of the commonest health problems in young children especially in rural and underprivileged areas. METHODS: All children of bladder stones operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi from July 2009 to June 2012 were included in this cross-sectional study. Data was collected regarding age, sex, address (rural or urban), body weight, duration of breast feeding, weaning, detailed dietary history regarding milk type, volume, amount of water intake, recurrent diarrhoea, urinary tract infection (UTI), family history, and socioeconomic history...
January 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
I R Reid, S M Bristow, M J Bolland
Calcium is an essential element in the diet, but there is continuing controversy regarding its optimal intake, and its role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Most studies show little evidence of a relationship between calcium intake and bone density, or the rate of bone loss. Re-analysis of data from the placebo group from the Auckland Calcium Study demonstrates no relationship between dietary calcium intake and rate of bone loss over 5 years in healthy older women with intakes varying from <400 to >1500 mg day(-1) ...
October 2015: Journal of Internal Medicine
Domenico Prezioso, Pasquale Strazzullo, Tullio Lotti, Giampaolo Bianchi, Loris Borghi, Paolo Caione, Marco Carini, Renata Caudarella, Manuel Ferraro, Giovanni Gambaro, Marco Gelosa, Andrea Guttilla, Ester Illiano, Marangella Martino, Tiziana Meschi, Piergiorgio Messa, Roberto Miano, Giorgio Napodano, Antonio Nouvenne, Domenico Rendina, Francesco Rocco, Marco Rosa, Roberto Sanseverino, Annamaria Salerno, Sebastiano Spatafora, Andrea Tasca, Andrea Ticinesi, Fabrizio Travaglini, Alberto Trinchieri, Giuseppe Vespasiani, Filiberto Zattoni
OBJECTIVE: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori...
July 7, 2015: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Yongwang Liu, Haibin Xu, Wenting Zhong, Qingpeng Shen, Tenghan Zhuang, Kehe Huang
Twenty one-year-old local male dogs were randomly assigned into four groups (five dogs per group). The control and the ethylene glycol (EG) groups were fed basal diets without and with EG, and the EG+sodium selenite (EG+SS) and EG+selenium yeast (EG+SY) groups were fed basal diets with EG containing SS and SY, respectively. Blood, urine, and renal samples were taken after 18 weeks of feeding. The results showed that compared with the control group, the serum calcium levels and antioxidase activities significantly decreased in the EG group...
December 2015: Biological Trace Element Research
M R Naghii, M Jafari, M Mofid, E Eskandari, M Hedayati, K Khalagie
Administration of natural antioxidants has been used to protect against nephrolithiasis. Urolithiasis was induced by ethylene glycol (EG) in Wistar rats. For 4 weeks, group 1 (control) was fed with a standard commercial diet. Group 2 received the same diet with 0.75% of EG. Group 3 received EG plus the diet and water added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice as the dietary source of citrate (EG + AX). Group 4 same as group 3 with no EG in water. For 8 weeks, group 5 was fed the standard diet with EG in water for the first 28 days, followed by no EG...
July 2015: Human & Experimental Toxicology
George Habib, Samih Badarny, Maroun Khreish, Fadi Khazin, Vivian Shehadeh, Geries Hakim, Suheil Artul
BACKGROUNDS: Ramadan fast is a religious custom in Islam. Increased serum uric acid level during this month had been reported in past studies of nongout patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of Ramadan fast on patients with gout. METHODS: All Moslem patients with gout from the registry of Nazareth Hospital, who intended to fast during Ramadan, were asked to participate in our study (group 1). Data regarding age, gender, income, education, duration of gout, meds, adherence to low-purine diet, and gouty attacks were documented...
October 2014: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Ponnusamy Sasikumar, Sivasamy Gomathi, Kolandaswamy Anbazhagan, Albert Abhishek, Eldho Paul, Varadaraj Vasudevan, Sundaresan Sasikumar, Govindan Sadasivam Selvam
BACKGROUND: Calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the major constituent of about 75% of all urinary stone and the secondary hyperoxaluria is a primary risk factor. Current treatment options for the patients with hyperoxaluria and CaOx stone diseases are limited. Oxalate degrading bacteria might have beneficial effects on urinary oxalate excretion resulting from decreased intestinal oxalate concentration and absorption. Thus, the aim of the present study is to examine the in vivo oxalate degrading ability of genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum (L...
2014: Journal of Biomedical Science
M R Naghii
OBJECTIVE: Stone disease is an increasingly common form of renal disease. Diet plays an important role in expression of the tendency to stone formation. Renal epithelial cell injury by reactive oxygen species is a pre-requisite step and the administration of natural antioxidants has been used to protect against nephrolithiasis. Considering the nutrients, boron as an ultra-trace element is revealing to enhance the antioxidant defense mechanism and along vitamin status seems to have an impact on the stone removal...
July 2014: Endocrine Regulations
Fèlix Grases, Antonia Costa-Bauzá, Carlo R Bonarriba, Enrique C Pieras, Rafael A Fernández, Adrián Rodríguez
Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi can be initiated by subepithelial calcification of the renal papillae. Hydroxyapatite disruption of the papillary epithelial layer can become the nidus of a COM papillary calculus. This study evaluated the causes of papillary tissue calcifications in 60 patients with calcium oxalate lithiasis, 30 with COM papillary and 30 with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) calculi. Urinary redox potential was higher in the COM than the COD group, suggesting that the former is more deficient in antioxidants due to increased oxidative stress...
January 2015: Urolithiasis
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