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chronic kidney disease and diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921039/clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-adpkd-in-western-countries
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Sommerer, Martin Zeier
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease in Western countries. The prevalence is between 2.4/10,000 and 3.9/10,000. ADPKD represents a systemic disease resulting in deterioration in renal function. Until now, mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) have been identified. Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency connected with ADPKD in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921038/the-clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-china
#2
REVIEW
Cheng Xue, Chen-Chen Zhou, Ming Wu, Chang-Lin Mei
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. Mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) cause ADPKD. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for ADPKD patients in China. Summary: This review focused on advances in clinical manifestation, gene diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ADPKD in China. There is an age-dependent increase in total kidney volume (TKV) and decrease in renal function in Chinese ADPKD patients...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920727/genetic-targeting-of-arginase-ii-in-mouse-prevents-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Ji Huang, Angana Rajapakse, Yuyan Xiong, Jean-Pierre Montani, François Verrey, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I) and arginase-II (Arg-II) in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916702/chronic-kidney-disease-accelerates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-ii
#4
Takashi Nakagawa, Yu Hasegawa, Ken Uekawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor in the development of cognitive decline. However, the exact role of CKD in cognitive impairment or dementia is unclear. This work was performed to examine the potential impact of CKD on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on angiotensin II. (1) CKD was induced in 5XFAD mice, an AD model mouse, and wild-type mice by feeding adenine-containing diet and the effect on cognitive function was compared between both strains...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914731/self-management-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-is-associated-with-incremental-benefit-in-hrqol
#5
Edward Zimbudzi, Clement Lo, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Peter G Kerr, Timothy Usherwood, Alan Cass, Gregory R Fulcher, Sophia Zoungas
AIMS: There is insufficient and inconsistent data regarding the association between diabetes self-management, the process of facilitating the knowledge, skill, and ability necessary for diabetes self-care, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people with diabetes and moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: In a cross sectional study, participation in diabetes self-management assessed by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaire and HRQOL was examined in 308 patients with diabetes and CKD (stages 3 to 5) recruited from outpatient diabetes and renal clinics of 4 public tertiary hospitals...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914710/higher-net-acid-excretion-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-kidney-disease-progression-in-patients-with%C3%A2-diabetes
#6
Julia J Scialla, John Asplin, Mirela Dobre, Alex R Chang, James Lash, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Radhakrishna R Kallem, L Lee Hamm, Harold I Feldman, Jing Chen, Lawrence J Appel, Cheryl A M Anderson, Myles Wolf
Higher diet-dependent nonvolatile acid load is associated with faster chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but most studies have used estimated acid load or measured only components of the gold standard, net acid excretion (NAE). Here we measured NAE as the sum of urine ammonium and titratable acidity in 24-hour urines from a random subset of 980 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. In multivariable models accounting for demographics, comorbidity and kidney function, higher NAE was significantly associated with lower serum bicarbonate (0...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898405/n-acetyl-cysteine-attenuated-the-deleterious-effects-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-on-the-kidney-of-non-diabetic-rats
#7
Karina Thieme, Karolline S Da Silva, Nelly T Fabre, Sergio Catanozi, Maria Beatriz Monteiro, Daniele Pereira Santos-Bezerra, Juliana Martins Costa-Pessoa, Maria Oliveira-Souza, Ubiratan F Machado, Marisa Passarelli, Maria Lucia Correa-Giannella
AIM: To assess the renal effects of chronic exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the absence of diabetes and the potential impact of concomitant treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). METHODS: Wistar rats received intraperitoneally 20 mg/kg/day of albumin modified (AlbAGE) or not (AlbC) by advanced glycation for 12 weeks and oral NAC (600mg/L; AlbAGE+NAC and AlbC+NAC, respectively). Biochemical, urinary and renal morphological analyses; carboxymethyl-lysine (CML, an AGE), CD68 (macrophage infiltration), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, marker of oxidative stress) immunostaining; intrarenal mRNA expression of genes belonging to pathways related to AGEs (Ager, Ddost, Nfkb1), renin-angiotensin system (Agt, Ren, Ace), fibrosis (Tgfb1, Col4a1), oxidative stress (Nox4, Txnip), and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl2); and reactive oxidative species (ROS) content were performed...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898000/patient-survival-and-costs-on-moderately-restricted-low-protein-diets-in-advanced-ckd-equivalent-survival-at-lower-costs
#8
Piccoli Barbara Giorgina, Nazha Marta, Capizzi Irene, Vigotti Federica Neve, Mongilardi Elena, Bilocati Marilisa, Avagnina Paolo, Versino Elisabetta
The indications for delaying the start of dialysis have revived interest in low-protein diets (LPDs). In this observational prospective study, we enrolled all patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who followed a moderately restricted LPD in 2007-2015 in a nephrology unit in Italy: 449 patients, 847 years of observation. At the start of the diet, the median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 20 mL/min, the median age was 70, the median Charlson Index was 7. Standardized mortality rates for the "on-diet" population were significantly lower than for patients on dialysis (United States Renal Data System (USRDS): 0...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890838/preoperative-evaluation-of-the-renal-function-before-the-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#9
Raphael Coscas, Sandra Wagner, Eve Vilaine, Albane Sartorius, Isabelle Javerliat, Olivier Goeau-Brissonniere, Marc Coggia, Ziad Massy
OBJECTIVES: Chronic impaired renal function (IRC) constitutes a major risk factor of morbi-mortality during the treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA). The inflammatory state due to the AAA could result in a reduction in the muscular mass and an over-estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with the usual formulas. The objective of this study was to determine if the formulae used to evaluate the estimated GFR were adapted in patients with AAA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2013 and November 2014, we conducted an exploratory study to evaluate the renal function before surgery for AAA in 28 patients...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889756/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-reveals-the-effect-of-lactobacillus-treatment-on-the-faecal-metabolite-profile-of-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#10
Bin Wu, Hongli Jiang, Quan He, Meng Wang, Jinhong Xue, Hua Liu, Kehui Shi, Meng Wei, Shanshan Liang, Liwen Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic kidney disease is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and by an increase in the number of gut pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of the faecal metabolic profiles in rats with uremia, and to determine whether the altered metabolites in the rats with uremia can be restored by Lactobacillus. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, uremia and uremia + probiotic (UP) groups...
November 26, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872172/urea-a-true-uremic-toxin-the-empire-strikes-back
#11
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865566/phosphorus-additives-and-albuminuria-in-early-stages-of-ckd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Alex R Chang, Edgar R Miller, Cheryl A Anderson, Stephen P Juraschek, Melissa Moser, Karen White, Bobbie Henry, Caitlin Krekel, Susan Oh, Jeanne Charleston, Lawrence J Appel
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of phosphorus additives on patients with kidney disease. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults with early stages of presumed chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 45mL/min/1.73m(2); urine albumin-creatinine ratio sex-specific cutoff points: men ≥ 17mg/g, women ≥ 25mg/g). INTERVENTION: Higher versus lower phosphorus intake for 3 weeks...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861335/response-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-to-volume-interventions-in-arterial-hypertension-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
Jelmer K Humalda, Sarah Seiler-Muler, Arjan J Kwakernaak, Marc G Vervloet, Gerjan Navis, Danilo Fliser, Gunnar H Heine, Martin H de Borst
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) rises progressively in chronic kidney disease and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. FGF-23 putatively induces volume retention by upregulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). We studied whether, conversely, interventions in volume status affect FGF-23 concentrations.We performed a post hoc analysis of 1) a prospective saline infusion study with 12 patients with arterial hypertension who received 2 L of isotonic saline over 4 hours, and 2) a randomized controlled trial with 45 diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients on background angiotensin-converting enzyme -inhibition (ACEi), who underwent 4 6-week treatment periods with add-on hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) or placebo, combined with regular sodium (RS) or low sodium (LS) diet in a cross-over design...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834801/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#14
REVIEW
Manuel T Velasquez, Ali Ramezani, Alotaibi Manal, Dominic S Raj
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported...
November 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829582/postprandial-hyperlipidemia-and-remnant-lipoproteins
#15
Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita
Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829460/renal-function-estimation-and-cockroft-gault-formulas-for-predicting-cardiovascular-mortality-in-population-based-cardiovascular-risk-heart-failure-and-post-myocardial-infarction-cohorts-the-heart-omics-in-ageing-homage-and-the-high-risk-myocardial-infarction
#16
João Pedro Ferreira, Nicolas Girerd, Pierpaolo Pellicori, Kevin Duarte, Sophie Girerd, Marc A Pfeffer, John J V McMurray, Bertram Pitt, Kenneth Dickstein, Lotte Jacobs, Jan A Staessen, Javed Butler, Roberto Latini, Serge Masson, Alexandre Mebazaa, Hans Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Christian Delles, Stephane Heymans, Naveed Sattar, J Wouter Jukema, John G Cleland, Faiez Zannad, Patrick Rossignol
BACKGROUND: Renal impairment is a major risk factor for mortality in various populations. Three formulas are frequently used to assess both glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or creatinine clearance (CrCl) and mortality prediction: body surface area adjusted-Cockcroft-Gault (CG-BSA), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD4), and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The CKD-EPI is the most accurate eGFR estimator as compared to a "gold-standard"; however, which of the latter is the best formula to assess prognosis remains to be clarified...
November 10, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828870/association-of-chronic-kidney-disease-with-periprocedural-myocardial-injury-after-elective-stent-implantation-a-single-center-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Helena Jerkic, Tomislav Letilovic, Mario Stipinovic, Darko Pocanic, Jasmina Catic, Mladen Knotek
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may have more ischemic events than patients without CKD. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) after elective stent implantation in patients with CKD using the Third Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF PMI definition.In a single center prospective cohort study, we enrolled 344 consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI in a period of 39 months...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825577/efficacy-and-safety-of-febuxostat-in-73-gouty-patients-with-stage-4-5-chronic-kidney-disease-a-retrospective-study-of-10-centers
#18
Pierre-Antoine Juge, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Evangeline Pillebout, Sébastien Ottaviani, Cécile Vigneau, Clotilde Loustau, Divi Cornec, Tristan Pascart, Renaud Snanoudj, Florian Bailly, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Alain Saraux, Philippe Dieudé, René-Marc Flipo, Pascal Richette, Frédéric Lioté, Thomas Bardin, Gérard Chalès, Hang-Korng Ea
OBJECTIVES: The allopurinol dose is limited in chronic kidney disease, particularly stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. Febuxostat has a hepatic metabolism and has been approved without dose adaptation in gouty patients with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease. We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of febuxostat for stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included patients with (1) a diagnosis of gout, (2) febuxostat treatment, (3) estimated glomerular filtration rate≤30mL/min/1...
November 4, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806940/nadph-oxidase-2-mediates-zinc-deficiency-induced-oxidative-stress-and-kidney-damage
#19
Mirandy S Li, Sherry E Adesina, Jennifer L Gooch, Robert S Hoover, Clintoria R Williams
Zn(2+) deficiency (ZnD) is comorbid with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and worsens kidney complications. Oxidative stress is implicated in the detrimental effects of ZnD. However, the sources of oxidative stress continue to be identified. Since NADPH oxidases (Nox) are the primary enzymes that contribute to renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, this study's objective was to determine the role of these enzymes in ZnD-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that ZnD promotes Nox upregulation resulting in oxidative stress and kidney damage...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803315/inhibition-of-gsk-3%C3%AE-increases-trabecular-bone-volume-but-not-cortical-bone-volume-in-adenine-induced-uremic-mice-with-severe-hyperparathyroidism
#20
Narihito Tatsumoto, Masaki Arioka, Shunsuke Yamada, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Masanori Tokumoto, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Takanari Kitazono, Toshiyuki Sasaguri
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for bone fractures compared with the general population. Repression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is associated with bone abnormalities. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, increases bone volume through accumulation of β-catenin. It remains unknown whether inhibition of GSK-3β increases bone volume in CKD The present in vivo study examined the effects of GSK-3β inhibition on bone volume in CKD mice...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
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