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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944982/evaluation-of-inos-inhibition-on-kidney-function-and-structure-in-high-fat-diet-induced-kidney-disease
#1
Blanche Martin, Nathalie Caron, Inès Jadot, Vanessa Colombaro, Gabrielle Federici, Clara Depommier, Anne-Émilie Declèves
BACKGROUND: Central obesity is related to caloric excess promoting deleterious cellular responses in targeted organs. Nitric oxide (NO) has been determined as a key player in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated the implication of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the development of obesity-induced kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57Bl/6 male mice were randomized to a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with L-NIL, a specific iNOS inhibitor for 16 weeks...
September 25, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944920/periodic-acid%C3%A2-schiff-staining-method-for-function-detection-of-liver-cells-is-affected-by-2-horse-serum-in-induction-medium
#2
Hui Hui, Wenjun Ma, Jiejie Cui, Mengjia Gong, Yi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tongchuan He, Yang Bi, Yun He
Developing a thorough understanding of experimental methods of hepatic differentiation in hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) should expand the knowledge of hepatocyte induction in vitro and may help to develop cell transplantation therapies for the clinical usage of HPCs in liver diseases. A previous induction method effectively induced differentiation and metabolic abilities in HPCs. Periodic acid‑Schiff (PAS) staining is used to identify glycogen synthesis and hepatocyte function; however, this method failed to detect induced hepatocytes...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944880/edoxaban-improves-venous-thrombosis-via-increasing-hydrogen-sulfide-and-homocysteine-in-rat-model
#3
Wei Song, Hongbo Ci, Guanglei Tian, Yanjun Zhang, Xiaohu Ge
Anticoagulant therapy is prescribed to millions of patients worldwide for the prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis. Evidence has indicated that edoxaban is a potential drug of oral anticoagulant in the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism. Hydrogen sulfide and homocysteine plasma concentration are indicators of cardiovascular and neurovascular disease risk factors that have attracted considerable attention for regulation of vascular health and homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism of edoxaban‑mediated differences of hydrogen sulfide and homocysteine has not been investigated in the progression of venous thrombosis...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944830/application-of-the-amniotic-fluid-metabolome-to-the-study-of-fetal-malformations-using-down-syndrome-as-a-specific-model
#4
Jun Huang, Jinhua Mo, Guili Zhao, Qiyin Lin, Guanhui Wei, Weinan Deng, Dunjin Chen, Bolan Yu
Although monitoring and diagnosis of fetal diseases in utero remains a challenge, metabolomics may provide an additional tool to study the etiology and pathophysiology of fetal diseases at a functional level. In order to explore specific markers of fetal disease, metabolites were analyzed in two separate sets of experiments using amniotic fluid from fetuses with Down syndrome (DS) as a model. Both sets included 10‑15 pairs of controls and cases, and amniotic fluid samples were processed separately; metabolomic fingerprinting was then conducted using UPLC‑MS...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944807/conjugated-fatty-acid-rich-oil-from-gynostrmma-pentaphyllum-seed-can-ameliorate-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-mice
#5
Mingxing Zhang, Nan Du, Lu Wang, Xiaobing Wang, Yaping Xiao, Kun Zhang, Quanhong Liu, Pan Wang
Gynostrmma pentaphyllum seed oil (GPSO), extracted from G. pentaphyllum seeds, is rich in conjugated linolenic acid, which is a special fatty acid consisting of cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 isomers. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin resistance, and is usually accompanied by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (i.e., the metabolic syndrome, or syndrome X), and polycystic ovarian disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of GPSO on T2DM hepatic lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanism involving level of protein expression...
September 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944798/transcriptomic-analysis-of-bama-pig-s-liver-in-various-nutritional-states-reveals-a-metabolic-difference-of-fatty-acids
#6
Yixing Li, Yi Chu, Lin Yu, Huifang Kang, Lei Zhou
Both fasting and treatment with a high-fat diet (HFD) can dramatically change fat metabolism in the liver and, thus, are commonly used methods to investigate hepatic fat metabolism and related diseases. Here, the gene expression profiles of pig liver under both conditions were investigated and changes in hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) levels under different diet conditions were determined. In this study, both fasting and HFD conditions significantly increased hepatic TG levels and serum levels of cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B...
September 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944771/the-spectrum-of-t-cell-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Glenn R Bantug, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Christoph Hess
In healthy individuals, metabolically quiescent T cells survey lymph nodes and peripheral tissues in search of cognate antigens. During infection, T cells that encounter cognate antigens are activated and - in a context-specific manner - proliferate and/or differentiate to become effector T cells. This process is accompanied by important changes in cellular metabolism (known as metabolic reprogramming). The magnitude and spectrum of metabolic reprogramming as it occurs in T cells in the context of acute infection ensure host survival...
September 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944671/prioritizing-popular-proteins-in-liver-cancer-remodelling-one-carbon-metabolism
#8
María Isabel Mora, Manuela Molina, Leticia Odriozola, Felix Elortza, Jose M Mato, Barbara Sitek, Pumin Zhang, Fuchu He, Maria Uxue Latasa, Matías Avila, Fernando Corrales
Primary liver cancer (HCC) is recognized as the fifth most common neoplasm and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Most risk factors are known and the molecular pathogenesis has been widely studied in the last decade; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be unveiled, as they will facilitate definition of novel biomarkers and clinical targets for more effective patient management. In this study, we utilize the B/D-HPP popular protein strategy. We report a list of popular proteins that have been highly co-cited with the expression "liver cancer"...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944484/the-stem-cell-club-a-model-for-unrelated-stem-cell-donor-recruitment
#9
Warren Fingrut, Simran Parmar, Ari Cuperfain, Kiran Rikhraj, Erin Charman, Emilie Ptak, Manjot Kahlon, Alice Graham, Susan Luong, Yongjun George Wang, Janice Yu, Neha Arora, Roopa Suppiah, Edward W Li, Anna Lee, Christopher Welsh, Menachem Benzaquen, Alicia Thatcher, Iman Baharmand, Aedan Ladd, Tanya Petraszko, David Allan, Hans Messner
BACKGROUND: Patients with blood, immune, or metabolic diseases may require a stem cell transplant as part of their treatment. However, 70% of patients do not have a suitable human leukocyte antigen match in their family, and need an unrelated donor. Individuals can register as potential donors at stem cell drives, where they provide consent and a tissue sample for human leukocyte antigen typing. The ideal donors are young, male, and from a diversity of ethnic backgrounds. However, in Canada, non-Caucasian males ages 17 to 35 years represent only 8...
September 24, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944315/is-chronic-ahr-activation-by-rapidly-metabolized-ligands-safe-for-the-treatment-of-immune-mediated-diseases
#10
Allison K Ehrlich, Nancy I Kerkvliet
There is a long standing perception that AhR ligands are automatically disqualified from pharmaceutical development due to their induction of Cyp1a1 as well as their potential for causing "dioxin-like" toxicities. However, recent discoveries of new AhR ligands with potential therapeutic applications have been reported, inviting reconsideration of this policy. One area of exploration is focused on the activation of AhR to promote the generation of regulatory T cells, which control the intensity and duration of immune responses...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944271/the-effect-of-passive-heating-on-heat-shock-protein-70-and-interleukin-6-a-possible-treatment-tool-for-metabolic-diseases
#11
S H Faulkner, S Jackson, G Fatania, C A Leicht
Increasing physical activity remains the most widely publicized way of improving health and wellbeing. However, in populations that benefit most from exercise (EX), adherence is often poor and alternatives to EX are important to bring about health improvements. Recent work suggests a role for passive heating (PH) and heat shock proteins (HSP) in improving cardio-metabolic health. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of HSP70 and interleukin-6 in response to either EX or PH and the subsequent effect on glucose control...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944270/the-role-of-leptin-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Jose Donato
Leptin is a master regulator of energy balance and body adiposity. Additionally, leptin exerts important control on glucose homeostasis, thermogenesis, autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine axes. In metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, leptin signaling may be compromised, indicating the important role of this hormone in the etiology and pathophysiological manifestations of these conditions. In the present manuscript, we reviewed important concepts of leptin signaling, as well as about the effects of leptin on several biologic functions...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944164/hypoxia-inducible-factors-and-cancer
#13
Jonathan C Jun, Aman Rathore, Haris Younas, Daniele Gilkes, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) mediate the transcription of hundreds of genes that allow cells to adapt to hypoxic environments. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about mechanisms of HIF activation in cancer, as well as downstream cancer-promoting consequences such as altered substrate metabolism, angiogenesis, and cell differentiation. In addition, we examine the proposed relationship between respiratory-related hypoxia, HIFs, and cancer...
March 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944059/biodegradable-porous-silk-microtubes-for-tissue-vascularization
#14
V E Bosio, J Brown, M J Rodriguez, David L Kaplan
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality around the globe, and microvasculature replacements to help stem these diseases are not available. Additionally, some vascular surgeries needing small diameter vascular grafts present different performance requirements. In this work silk fibroin scaffolds based on silk/polyethylene oxide blends were developed as microtubes for vasculature needs and for different tissue regeneration times, mechanical properties and structural designs. Systems with 13, 14 and 15% silk alone or blended with 1 or 2% of polyethylene oxide (PEO) were used to generate porous microtubes using gel-spinning...
2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943861/a-practical-and-time-efficient-high-intensity-interval-training-program-modifies-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-adults-with-risk-factors-for-type-ii-diabetes
#15
Bethan E Phillips, Benjamin M Kelly, Mats Lilja, Jesús Gustavo Ponce-González, Robert J Brogan, David L Morris, Thomas Gustafsson, William E Kraus, Philip J Atherton, Niels B J Vollaard, Olav Rooyackers, James A Timmons
INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity (PA) can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but adherence to time-orientated (150 min week(-1) or more) PA guidelines is very poor. A practical and time-efficient PA regime that was equally efficacious at controlling risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease is one solution to this problem. Herein, we evaluate a new time-efficient and genuinely practical high-intensity interval training (HIT) protocol in men and women with pre-existing risk factors for type 2 diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943765/lactobacillus-acidophilus-ns1-reduces-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-expression-by-regulating-hnf4%C3%AE-transcriptional-activity
#16
Sung-Soo Park, Garam Yang, Eungseok Kim
Probiotics have been known to reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We recently observed that Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 (LNS1), distinctly suppresses increase of blood glucose levels and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that oral administration of LNS1 with HFD feeding to mice significantly reduces hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis which is highly increased by HFD feeding...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943449/inactivation-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-gsk-3%C3%AE-enhances-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-metabolism
#17
W F Theeuwes, H R Gosker, R C J Langen, K J P Verhees, N A M Pansters, A M W J Schols, A H V Remels
BACKGROUND: Aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is a debilitating feature of chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic heart failure. Evidence in non-muscle cells suggests that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) represses mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibits PPAR-γ co-activator 1 (PGC-1), a master regulator of cellular oxidative metabolism. The role of GSK-3β in the regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism is unknown...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943448/molecular-integration-of-incretin-and-glucocorticoid-action-reverses-immunometabolic-dysfunction-and-obesity
#18
Carmelo Quarta, Christoffer Clemmensen, Zhimeng Zhu, Bin Yang, Sini S Joseph, Dominik Lutter, Chun-Xia Yi, Elisabeth Graf, Cristina García-Cáceres, Beata Legutko, Katrin Fischer, Robert Brommage, Philippe Zizzari, Bernardo S Franklin, Martin Krueger, Marco Koch, Sabine Vettorazzi, Pengyun Li, Susanna M Hofmann, Mostafa Bakhti, Aimée Bastidas-Ponce, Heiko Lickert, Tim M Strom, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Ingo Bechmann, Diego Perez-Tilve, Jan Tuckermann, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Darleen Sandoval, Daniela Cota, Eicke Latz, Randy J Seeley, Timo D Müller, Richard D DiMarchi, Brian Finan, Matthias H Tschöp
Chronic inflammation has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. However, scarce therapeutic options are available to treat obesity and the associated immunometabolic complications. Glucocorticoids are routinely employed for the management of inflammatory diseases, but their pleiotropic nature leads to detrimental metabolic side effects. We developed a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-dexamethasone co-agonist in which GLP-1 selectively delivers dexamethasone to GLP-1 receptor-expressing cells...
September 19, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943279/lobar-emphysema-distribution-is-associated-with-5-year-radiologic-disease-progression
#19
Adel Boueiz, Yale Chang, Michael H Cho, George R Washko, Raul San José Estépar, Russell P Bowler, James D Crapo, Dawn L DeMeo, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, Peter J Castaldi
BACKGROUND: Emphysema has considerable variability in its regional distribution. Cranio-caudal emphysema distribution is an important predictor of the response to lung volume reduction. However, there is little consensus regarding how to define upper and lower-lobe predominant emphysema subtypes. Consequently, the clinical and genetic associations with these subtypes are poorly characterized. METHODS: We sought to identify subgroups characterized by upper or lower lobe emphysema predominance and comparable amounts of total emphysema by analyzing data from 9,210 non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient smokers in the COPDGene cohort...
September 21, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943268/regulated-efflux-of-photoreceptor-outer-segment-derived-cholesterol-by-human-rpe-cells
#20
Federica Storti, Gabriele Raphael, Vera Griesser, Katrin Klee, Faye Drawnel, Carolin Willburger, Rebecca Scholz, Thomas Langmann, Arnold von Eckardstein, Jürgen Fingerle, Christian Grimm, Cyrille Maugeais
Genetic studies have linked age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to genes involved in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) handles large amounts of lipids, among others cholesterol, partially derived from internalized photoreceptor outer segments (OS) and lipids physiologically accumulate in the aging eye. To analyze the potential function of ABCA1 in the eye, we measured cholesterol efflux, the first step of HDL generation, in RPE cells...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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