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metabolic disease

Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wilber Escorcia, Dana L Ruter, James Nhan, Sean P Curran
Caenorhabditis elegans is an exceptional model organism in which to study lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. Many of its lipid genes are conserved in humans and are associated with metabolic syndrome or other diseases. Examination of lipid accumulation in this organism can be carried out by fixative dyes or label-free methods. Fixative stains like Nile red and oil red O are inexpensive, reliable ways to quantitatively measure lipid levels and to qualitatively observe lipid distribution across tissues, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Toshiaki Teratani, Kengo Tomita, Takahiro Suzuki, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Rie Irie, Makoto Nishikawa, Junji Yamamoto, Toshifumi Hibi, Soichiro Miura, Tohru Minamino, Yuichi Oike, Ryota Hokari, Takanori Kanai
Incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been increasing worldwide with the rise in obesity; however, its pathological mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the hepatic expression of aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP), a glycosylated, secreted protein, increases in NASH in humans and mice. Furthermore, we elucidate that ACLP is a ligand, unrelated to WNT proteins, that activates the canonical WNT pathway and exacerbates NASH pathology...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Giulia Canali, Victoria Tittle, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) estimated that in 2016, 11% of Palestine refugees older than 40 years living in Jordan were diagnosed with diabetes and that the disease is controlled in only 45% of Palestine refugees with diabetes. As medication adherence is one of the most important modifiable self-care behaviours to achieve adequate metabolic control, the aims of this study were to measure medication adherence and to review the factors associated with different levels of medication adherence in patients with diabetes...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Tesfaye W Tefera, Karin Borges
Although alterations in energy metabolism are known in ALS, the specific mechanisms leading to energy deficit are not understood. We measured metabolite levels derived from injected [1-13 C]glucose and [1,2-13 C]acetate (i.p.) in cerebral cortex and spinal cord extracts of wild type and hSOD1G93A mice at onset and mid disease stages using high-pressure liquid chromatography,1 H and13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of spinal and cortical CNS total lactate, [3-13 C]lactate, total alanine and [3-13 C]alanine, but not cortical glucose and [1-13 C]glucose, were reduced mostly at mid stage indicating impaired glycolysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Yoshiya Tanaka
Vascular endothelial function is important for maintaining the homeostasis of the living body. Especially, nitric oxide (NO) produced in vascular endothelial cells regulates blood vessel tone and has an antiatherosclerotic effect. Type 2 diabetes is a typical disease that causes impaired vascular endothelial function, resulting in various vascular complications and damage to organs. Cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that starts with endothelial dysfunction (ED), and vascular ED is important as an initial change in arteriosclerotic lesions...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Wei-Wei Tao, Jin-Gao Yu, Yan-Yan Chen, Dong Xiao, Jian-Ming Guo, Pei Liu, Jin-Ao Duan
The study was based on the toxic characteristics of the compatibility between "Zaojisuiyuan" and Gancao, with intestinal tract and intestinal bacteria as subject. From the angle of intestinal barrier function, motor function, steady state of intestinal flora and metabolism genes, the toxic and side effects of the compatibility between Qianjinzi and Gancao with similar properties, bases and chemical composition and types were further explored. The results showed that the combined application of Qianjinzi and Gancao enhanced intestinal mucosa damage, and led to abnormal changes in intestinal bacteria structure and metabolic function...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Bo-Yang Shang, Ping Yang, Li Chen, Xiao-Juan Gao, Jing-Jiao Yong, Xia Zhang, Jian-Jun Zhao, Han-Qing Wang
It was aimed at exploring the potential pharmacological effects of alkaloids in Sophora alopecuroides by means of network pharmacology in this study. The main alkaloids in S. alopecuroides were collected for analysis of drug properties, prediction of potential targets and screening of signaling pathways. DAVID analysis tool combined with KEGG database was used to annotate and analyze the signaling pathway. The alkaloids-targets-signaling pathways network was built through Cytoscape software. Results showed that 17 alkaloids in S...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jing Tian, Rong Lv, Wei Guo
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, which are uncorrelated with underlying coronary artery disease or hypertension. As an important metabolic organelle, mitochondria directly involve the process of cell growth, proliferation, signal transduction, apoptosis and so on. Recent studies have demonstrated a close correlation between the mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The underlying effects of mitochondrial dysfunction in the progress of diabetic cardiomyopathy involve disturbed metabolism, oxidative stress, defective calcium handling, mitochondrial uncoupling, apoptosis, imbalance of mitochondrial quality control and regulation of MicroRNAs...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jihyun Kim, Hyunhee Kim, Heewon Roh, Youngjoo Kwon
In the last 10 years, homocysteine has been regarded as a marker of cardiovascular disease and a definite risk factor for many other diseases. Homocysteine is biosynthesized from methionine through multiple steps and then goes through one of two major metabolic pathways: remethylation and transsulfuration. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a state in which too much homocysteine is present in the body. The main cause of hyperhomocysteinemia is a dysfunction of enzymes and cofactors associated with the process of homocysteine biosynthesis...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Laurence Britton, Lesley-Anne Jaskowski, Kim Bridle, Eriza Secondes, Daniel Wallace, Nishreen Santrampurwala, Janske Reiling, Gregory Miller, Salvatore Mangiafico, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, V Nathan Subramaniam, Darrell Crawford
Background & Aims: Iron has an increasingly recognized role in the regulation of adipose tissue function, including the expression of adipokines involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, has been proposed as being a key determinant of adipocyte iron homeostasis. Methods: We studied an adipocyte-specific ferroportin ( Fpn1 ) knockout mouse model, using an Adipoq -Cre recombinase driven Fpn1 deletion and fed mice according to the fast food diet model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Sanna Rauhamäki, Pekka A Postila, Sanna Niinivehmas, Sami Kortet, Emmi Schildt, Mira Pasanen, Elangovan Manivannan, Mira Ahinko, Pasi Koskimies, Niina Nyberg, Pasi Huuskonen, Elina Multamäki, Markku Pasanen, Risto O Juvonen, Hannu Raunio, Juhani Huuskonen, Olli T Pentikäinen
Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) catalyzes deamination of monoamines such as neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. Accordingly, small-molecule MAO-B inhibitors potentially alleviate the symptoms of dopamine-linked neuropathologies such as depression or Parkinson's disease. Coumarin with a functionalized 3-phenyl ring system is a promising scaffold for building potent MAO-B inhibitors. Here, a vast set of 3-phenylcoumarin derivatives was designed using virtual combinatorial chemistry or rationally de novo and synthesized using microwave chemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Matthew Klinge, Tami Coppler, Jane M Liebschutz, Mohannad Dugum, Ajay Wassan, Andrea DiMartini, Shari Rogal
Purpose of review: The treatment of pain in patients with cirrhosis is complicated by unpredictable hepatic drug metabolism and a higher risk of adverse drug reactions. We aimed to conduct a scoping review regarding pain management in cirrhosis. Recent findings: Despite the high prevalence of pain in patients with cirrhosis, there is little literature to guide the management of pain in this population. Complex pain syndromes and disease-specific pain etiologies exist are common in patients with cirrhosis...
March 2018: Current Hepatology Reports
N W Badri, S W Flatt, H S Barkai, B Pakiz, D D Heath, C L Rock
Background: Fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are important measures of the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Weight loss interventions are considered part of the first line of therapy for those who develop disease states associated with insulin resistance, such as pre-diabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Sex differences in insulin resistance have been extensively reported, but sex differences in the ability to improve insulin sensitivity are not well-established...
2018: Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Dominique Lombardo, Françoise Silvy, Isabelle Crenon, Emmanuelle Martinez, Aurélie Collignon, Evelyne Beraud, Eric Mas
Pancreatic adenocarcinomas and diabetes mellitus are responsible for the deaths of around two million people each year worldwide. Patients with chronic pancreatitis do not die directly of this disease, except where the pathology is hereditary. Much current literature supports the involvement of bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL), also known as carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), in the pathophysiology of these pancreatic diseases. The purpose of this review is to shed light on connections between chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas by gaining an insight into BSDL and its variants...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Jinhua Wang, Wan Li, Xiangjin Zheng, Xiaocong Pang, Guanhua Du
FOXC1 is a vital member of FOX families which play important roles in biological processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, metabolism, and longevity. Here we are focusing on roles of FOXC1 and their mechanisms in cancers. FOXC1 promoted progress of many cancers, such as breast cancer (especially basal-like breast cancer), hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and so on. FOXC1 was also found to be associated with drug resistance of cancers. FOXC1 promoted metastasis of cancers by increasing expression of MMP7, NEDD9 and Snail...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Yajing Huo, Xuqing Wu, Jing Ding, Yang Geng, Weiwei Qiao, Anyan Ge, Cen Guo, Jianing Lv, Haifeng Bao, Wei Fan
Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is associated with metabolic syndrome. Our study was aimed at exploring the effect of long-term hyperhomocysteinemia with metabolic disturbances on vascular remodeling. We also studied oxidative stress and expression of PPAR γ in the coronary arteriole as a possible mechanism underlying vascular remodeling. Rats were treated with standard rodent chow (Control) or diet enriched in methionine (Met) for 48 weeks. Plasma homocysteine, blood glucose, serum lipids, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured...
2018: PPAR Research
Yimeng Li, Xiaolong Hu, Shuang Yang, Juntong Zhou, Lei Qi, Xiaoning Sun, Mengyuan Fan, Shanghua Xu, Muha Cha, Meishan Zhang, Shaobi Lin, Shuqiang Liu, Defu Hu
Diarrhea constitutes one of the most common diseases affecting the survival of captive musk deer and is usually caused by an imbalance in intestinal microbiota. Currently, research regarding the structure and function of intestinal microbiota in diarrheic musk deer is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, high-throughput 16S-rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the intestinal microbiota in feces of healthy captive musk deer (HMD) ( n = 8) and musk deer with mild (MMD) ( n = 8), and severe ( n = 5) (SMD) diarrhea to compare the difference in intestinal microbiota of musk deer under various physiological conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David Lopez, Sébastien Ribeiro, Philippe Label, Boris Fumanal, Jean-Stéphane Venisse, Annegret Kohler, Ricardo R de Oliveira, Kurt Labutti, Anna Lipzen, Kathleen Lail, Diane Bauer, Robin A Ohm, Kerrie W Barry, Joseph Spatafora, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin, Valérie Pujade-Renaud
Corynespora cassiicola is an Ascomycetes fungus with a broad host range and diverse life styles. Mostly known as a necrotrophic plant pathogen, it has also been associated with rare cases of human infection. In the rubber tree, this fungus causes the Corynespora leaf fall (CLF) disease, which increasingly affects natural rubber production in Asia and Africa. It has also been found as an endophyte in South American rubber plantations where no CLF outbreak has yet occurred. The C. cassiicola species is genetically highly diverse, but no clear relationship has been evidenced between phylogenetic lineage and pathogenicity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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