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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222443/metabolic-versatility-of-small-archaea-micrarchaeota-and-parvarchaeota
#1
Lin-Xing Chen, Celia Méndez-García, Nina Dombrowski, Luis E Servín-Garcidueñas, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Bao-Zhu Fang, Zhen-Hao Luo, Sha Tan, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Esperanza Martinez-Romero, Tanja Woyke, Li-Nan Huang, Jesús Sánchez, Ana Isabel Peláez, Manuel Ferrer, Brett J Baker, Wen-Sheng Shu
Small acidophilic archaea belonging to Micrarchaeota and Parvarchaeota phyla are known to physically interact with some Thermoplasmatales members in nature. However, due to a lack of cultivation and limited genomes on hand, their biodiversity, metabolisms, and physiologies remain largely unresolved. Here, we obtained 39 genomes from acid mine drainage (AMD) and hot spring environments around the world. 16S rRNA gene based analyses revealed that Parvarchaeota were only detected in AMD and hot spring habitats, while Micrarchaeota were also detected in others including soil, peat, hypersaline mat, and freshwater, suggesting a considerable higher diversity and broader than expected habitat distribution for this phylum...
December 8, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222345/type-vi-secretion-system-sheath-inter-subunit-interactions-modulate-its-contraction
#2
Maximilian Brackmann, Jing Wang, Marek Basler
Secretion systems are essential for bacteria to survive and manipulate their environment. The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) generates the force needed for protein translocation by the contraction of a long polymer called sheath. The sheath is a six-start helical assembly of interconnected VipA/VipB subunits. The mechanism of T6SS sheath contraction is unknown. Here, we show that elongating the N-terminal VipA linker or eliminating charge of a specific VipB residue abolishes sheath contraction and delivery of effectors into target cells...
December 8, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220785/metagenomic-exploration-reveals-a-marked-change-in-the-river-resistome-and-mobilome-after-treated-wastewater-discharges
#3
Itziar Lekunberri, José Luis Balcázar, Carles M Borrego
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are key agents in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) across environments. Here we used metagenomics to compare the river resistome (collection of all ARGs) and mobilome (e.g., integrases, transposases, integron integrases and insertion sequence common region "ISCR" elements) between samples collected upstream (n = 6) and downstream (n = 6) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP). In comparison to upstream metagenomes, downstream metagenomes showed a drastic increase in the abundance of ARGs, as well as markers of MGEs, particularly integron integrases and ISCR elements...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220501/combination-of-247-genome-wide-association-studies-reveals-high-cancer-risk-as-a-result-of-evolutionary-adaptation
#4
Konstantinos Voskarides
Analysis of GLOBOCAN-2012 data shows clearly here that cancer incidence worldwide is highly related with low average annual temperatures and extreme low temperatures. This applies for all cancers together or separately for many frequent or rare cancer types (all cancers P = 9.49 x 10-18). Supporting fact is that Inuit people, living at extreme low temperatures, have the highest cancer rates today. Hypothesizing an evolutionary explanation, 240 cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and seven GWAS for cold and high-altitude adaptation were combined...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220418/plant-mediated-female-transcriptomic-changes-post-mating-in-a-tephritid-fruit-fly-bactrocera-tryoni
#5
Kumaran Nagalingam, Chloé A van der Burg, Yujia Qin, Stephen L Cameron, Anthony R Clarke, Peter J Prentis
Female post-mating behaviours are regulated by complex factors involving males, females and the environment. In insects, plant secondary compounds that males actively forage for, may indirectly modify female behaviours by altering male behaviour and physiology. In the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, females mated with males previously fed on plant-derived phenylpropanoids (= 'lures' based on usage in tephritid literature), have longer mating refractoriness, greater fecundity and reduced longevity than females mated with non-lure fed males...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216547/seasonal-variations-of-c1-c4-alkyl-nitrates-at-a-coastal-site-in-hong-kong-influence-of-photochemical-formation-and-oceanic-emissions
#6
Junwei Song, Yingyi Zhang, Yu Huang, Kin Fai Ho, Zibing Yuan, Zhenhao Ling, Xiaojun Niu, Yuan Gao, Long Cui, Peter K K Louie, Shun-Cheng Lee, Senchao Lai
Five C1-C4 alkyl nitrates (RONO2) were measured at a coastal site in Hong Kong in four selected months of 2011 and 2012. The total mixing ratios of C1-C4 RONO2 (Σ5RONO2) ranged from 15.4 to 143.7 pptv with an average of 65.9 ± 33.0 pptv. C3-C4 RONO2 (2-butyl nitrate and 2-propyl nitrate) were the most abundant RONO2 during the entire sampling period. The mixing ratios of C3-C4 RONO2 were higher in winter than those in summer, while the ones of methyl nitrate (MeONO2) were higher in summer than those in winter...
November 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216488/microbial-community-composition-and-pahs-removal-potential-of-indigenous-bacteria-in-oil-contaminated-sediment-of-taean-coast-korea
#7
Dong Wan Lee, Hanbyul Lee, Aslan Hwanhwi Lee, Bong-Oh Kwon, Jong Seong Khim, Un Hyuk Yim, Beom Seok Kim, Jae-Jin Kim
The tidal flats near Sinduri beach in Taean, Korea, have been severely contaminated by heavy crude oils due to the Korea's worst oil spill accident, say the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, in 2007. Crude oil compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pose significant environmental damages due to their wide distribution, persistence, high toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. Microbial community of Sinduri beach sediments samples was analyzed by metagenomic data with 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216469/background-element-content-of-the-lichen-pseudevernia-furfuracea-a-supra-national-state-of-art-implemented-by-novel-field-data-from-italy
#8
Elva Cecconi, Guido Incerti, Fiore Capozzi, Paola Adamo, Roberto Bargagli, Renato Benesperi, Fabio Candotto Carniel, Sergio Enrico Favero-Longo, Simonetta Giordano, Domenico Puntillo, Sonia Ravera, Valeria Spagnuolo, Mauro Tretiach
In biomonitoring, the knowledge of background element content (BEC) values is an essential pre-requisite for the correct assessment of pollution levels. Here, we estimated the BEC values of a highly performing biomonitor, the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, by means of a careful review of literature data, integrated by an extensive field survey. Methodologically homogeneous element content datasets, reflecting different exposure conditions across European and extra-European countries, were compiled and comparatively analysed...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215197/enrichment-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-bean-sprouts-exploring-biosynthesis-of-plant-metabolite-using-common-household-reagents
#9
Theerasak Rojanarata, Samarwadee Plianwong, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based on the GABA biosynthesis pathways, two key factors, being the availability of l-glutamic acid and the acidification of the germination environment, were chosen for the study of the effects on the enhancement of GABA levels...
December 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214118/the-plasma-environment-inside-geostationary-orbit-a-van-allen-probes-hope-survey
#10
Philip A Fernandes, Brian A Larsen, Michelle F Thomsen, Ruth M Skoug, Geoffrey D Reeves, Michael H Denton, Reinhard H W Friedel, Herbert O Funsten, Jerry Goldstein, Michael G Henderson, Jörg-Micha Jahn, Elizabeth A MacDonald, David K Olson
The two full precessions in local time completed by the Van Allen Probes enable global specification of the near-equatorial inner magnetosphere plasma environment. Observations by the Helium-Oxygen-Proton-Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometers provide detailed insight into the global spatial distribution of electrons, H+, He+, and O+. Near-equatorial omnidirectional fluxes and abundance ratios at energies 0.1-30 keV are presented for 2 ≤ L ≤ 6 as a function of L shell, magnetic local time (MLT), and geomagnetic activity...
September 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212719/a-novel-pathway-of-nutrient-absorption-in-crustaceans-branchial-amino-acid-uptake-in-the-green-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas
#11
Tamzin A Blewett, Greg G Goss
Estuaries are environments enriched with dissolved nutrients such as amino acids. To date, marine arthropods are the only invertebrate group that have not been demonstrated to access this potentially important nutrient resource. Using in vitro gill perfusion techniques, we sought to investigate the ability of the green shore crab (Carcinus maenas) to take up the amino acid l-leucine directly from the water. Investigation of the concentration-dependent transport kinetics of radiolabelled l-leucine showed that there are two specific transport pathways across Carcinus gills, one with high affinity and low capacity, and the other with high capacity and low affinity...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211895/review-of-environmental-enrichment-for-broiler-chickens
#12
A B Riber, H A van de Weerd, I C de Jong, S Steenfeldt
Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#13
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211094/preparation-of-mos2-tio2-based-nanocomposites-for-photocatalysis-and-rechargeable-batteries-progress-challenges-and-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Biao Chen, Yuhuan Meng, Junwei Sha, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu, Naiqin Zhao
The rapidly increasing severity of the energy crisis and environmental degradation are stimulating the rapid development of photocatalysts and rechargeable lithium/sodium ion batteries. In particular, MoS2/TiO2 based nanocomposites show great potential and have been widely studied in the areas of both photocatalysis and rechargeable lithium/sodium ion batteries due to their superior combination properties. In addition to the low-cost, abundance, and high chemical stability of both MoS2 and TiO2, MoS2/TiO2 composites also show complementary advantages...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209149/electroencephalographic-evaluation-of-acoustic-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-and-refractory-tinnitus
#15
Luz María Alonso-Valerdi, David I Ibarra-Zarate, Francisco J Tavira-Sánchez, Ricardo A Ramírez-Mendoza, Manuel Recuero
Background: To date, a large number of acoustic therapies have been applied to treat tinnitus. The effect that produces those auditory stimuli is, however, not well understood yet. Furthermore, the conventional clinical protocol is based on a trial-error procedure, and there is not a formal and adequate treatment follow-up. At present, the only way to evaluate acoustic therapies is by means of subjective methods such as analog visual scale and ad-hoc questionnaires. Methods: This protocol seeks to establish an objective methodology to treat tinnitus with acoustic therapies based on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity evaluation...
2017: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208990/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-gynaephora-to-explore-the-genetic-basis-of-insect-adaptation-to-divergent-altitude-environments
#16
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xiao-Peng Li, Juan Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Adaptation of insects to different altitudes remain largely unknown, especially those endemic to the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we generated the transcriptomes of Gynaephora menyuanensis and G. alpherakii, inhabiting different high altitudes on the TP, and used these and the previously available transcriptomic and genomic sequences from low-altitude insects to explore potential genetic basis for divergent high-altitude adaptation in Gynaephora. An analysis of 5,869 orthologous genes among Gynaephora and other three low-altitude insects uncovered that fast-evolving genes and positively selected genes (PSGs) in the two Gynaephora species were enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207374/age-related-gene-expression-changes-and-transcriptome-wide-association-study-of-physical-and-cognitive-aging-traits-in-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#17
Sarah E Harris, Valentina Riggio, Louise Evenden, Tamara Gilchrist, Sarah McCafferty, Lee Murphy, Nicola Wrobel, Adele M Taylor, Janie Corley, Alison Pattie, Simon R Cox, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, James Prendergast, John M Starr, Riccardo E Marioni, Ian J Deary
Gene expression is influenced by both genetic variants and the environment. As individuals age, changes in gene expression may be associated with decline in physical and cognitive abilities. We measured transcriptome-wide expression levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at mean ages 70 and 76 years. Changes in gene expression levels were identified for 1,741 transcripts in 434 individuals. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated an enrichment of biological processes involved in the immune system...
December 1, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201017/characterization-of-metagenomes-in-urban-aquatic-compartments-reveals-high-prevalence-of-clinically-relevant-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-wastewaters
#18
Charmaine Ng, Martin Tay, Boonfei Tan, Thai-Hoang Le, Laurence Haller, Hongjie Chen, Tse H Koh, Timothy M S Barkham, Karina Y-H Gin
The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6) were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb) compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb) and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198785/the-distribution-of-tritium-in-aquatic-environments-lithuania
#19
Olga Jefanova, Jonas Mažeika, Rimantas Petrošius, Žana Skuratovič
The aim of this study is to investigate mobile radionuclide tritium (3H or T) activity dynamics in aquatic environments related to Ignalina NPP (INPP) site and water bodies located in remote areas unaffected by the INPP. The 3H excess in the INPP environment was analyzed and compared to the variable 3H background level over the period of operation of the INPP (end of 1983 - end of 2009) and during the initial stage of decommissioning (2010-2017). 3H in the INPP vicinity has been studied in the water of artificial channels related to operation of the INPP and site drainage, in natural surface water bodies and, at a smaller scale, in unconfined groundwater...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196610/single-molecule-live-cell-imaging-of-bacterial-dna-repair-and-damage-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Harshad Ghodke, Han Ho, Antoine M van Oijen
Genomic DNA is constantly under threat from intracellular and environmental factors that damage its chemical structure. Uncorrected DNA damage may impede cellular propagation or even result in cell death, making it critical to restore genomic integrity. Decades of research have revealed a wide range of mechanisms through which repair factors recognize damage and co-ordinate repair processes. In recent years, single-molecule live-cell imaging methods have further enriched our understanding of how repair factors operate in the crowded intracellular environment...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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