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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550729/bioaccessibility-and-size-distribution-of-metals-in-road-dust-and-roadside-soils-along-a-peri-urban-transect
#1
Elio Padoan, Chiara Romè, Franco Ajmone-Marsan
Road dust (RD), together with surface soils, is recognized as one of the main sinks of pollutants in urban environments. Over the last years, many studies have focused on total and bioaccessible concentrations while few have assessed the bioaccessibility of size-fractionated elements in RD. Therefore, the distribution and bioaccessibility of Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn in size fractions of RD and roadside soils (<2.5μm, 2.5-10μm and 10-200μm) have been studied using aqua regia extraction and the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550016/genomic-analysis-of-genotype-by-social-environment-interaction-for-drosophila-aggressive-behavior
#2
Palle Duun Rohde, Bryn Gaertner, Kirsty Wards, Peter Sørensen, Trudy F C Mackay
Human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder often include adverse behaviors including increased aggressiveness. Individuals with psychiatric disorders often exhibit social withdrawal, which can further increase the probability of conducting a violent act. Here, we used the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to investigate the genetic basis of variation in male aggressive behavior for flies reared in a socialized and socially isolated environment...
May 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549651/enriched-environment-alters-the-behavioral-profile-of-tenascin-c-deficient-mice
#3
V Stamenkovic, I Milenkovic, N Galjak, V Todorovic, P Andjus
Tenascin-C (TnC) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein implicated in a variety of processes ranging from brain development to synaptic plasticity in the adult vertebrates. Although the role of the TnC gene in regulation of behavior has been investigated, it remained elusive how TnC deficiency interacts with the environment in shaping the behavioral phenotype. To address this, 3-week-old TnC+/+ and TnC-/- male mice were housed over an 8-week period in standard conditions (SC), or enriched environment (EE)...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549454/genomic-adaptation-to-agricultural-environments-cabbage-white-butterflies-pieris-rapae-as-a-case-study
#4
Kristin L Sikkink, Megan E Kobiela, Emilie C Snell-Rood
BACKGROUND: Agricultural environments have long presented an opportunity to study evolution in action, and genomic approaches are opening doors for testing hypotheses about adaptation to crops, pesticides, and fertilizers. Here, we begin to develop the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a system to test questions about adaptation to novel, agricultural environments. We focus on a population in the north central United States as a unique case study: here, canola, a host plant, has been grown during the entire flight period of the butterfly over the last three decades...
May 26, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545539/the-role-of-nature-in-cancer-patients-lives-a-systematic-review-and-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#5
Sarah Blaschke
BACKGROUND: A systematic review and meta-synthesis was conducted to identify, compare and synthesize the published qualitative literature contributing to our understanding of the role of nature in cancer patients' lives. METHOD: An electronic search of Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Databases was conducted to identify qualitative studies focused on cancer patients' nature experiences published between January 1985 and May 2015. Records were assessed according to pre-defined inclusion criteria...
May 25, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542312/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-a-thermal-resistant-vs-sensitive-silkworm-strain-in-response-to-high-temperature-under-stressful-humidity-condition
#6
Wenfu Xiao, Peng Chen, Jinshu Xiao, La Wang, Taihang Liu, Yunfei Wu, Feifan Dong, Yaming Jiang, Minhui Pan, Youhong Zhang, Cheng Lu
Thermotolerance is important particularly for poikilotherms such as insects. Understanding the mechanisms by which insects respond to high temperatures can provide insights into their adaptation to the environment. Therefore, in this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of two silkworm strains with significantly different resistance to heat as well as humidity; the thermo-resistant strain 7532 and the thermos-sensitive strain Knobbed. We identified in total 4,944 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using RNA-Seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541485/histologically-defined-intratumoral-sequencing-uncovers-evolutionary-cues-into-conserved-molecular-events-driving-gliomagenesis
#7
Antony Prabhu, Pravin Kesarwani, Shiva Kant, Stewart F Graham, Prakash Chinnaiyan
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma represents an archetypal example of a heterogeneous malignancy. To understand the diverse molecular consequences of this complex tumor ecology, we analyzed RNA-seq data generated from commonly identified intra-tumoral structures in glioblastoma enriched using laser capture microdissection. METHODS: Raw gene-level fragments per kilobase of transcript per million reads mapped (FPKM) values and the associated clinical data were acquired from the publically available Ivy GAP database and analyzed using MetaboAnalyst (v...
May 25, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541234/psychiatric-specialty-training-in-greece
#8
EDITORIAL
M Margariti, V Kontaxakis, D Ploumpidis
The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540724/pde%C3%AE-binding-to-ras-isoforms-provides-a-route-to-proper-membrane-localization
#9
Serena Muratcioglu, Hyunbum Jang, Attila Gursoy, Ozlem Keskin, Ruth Nussinov
To signal, Ras isoforms must be enriched at the plasma membrane (PM). It was suggested that phosphodiesterase-δ (PDEδ) can bind and shuttle some farnesylated Ras isoforms to the PM - but not all. Among these, interest focused on K-Ras4B, the most abundant oncogenic Ras isoform. To study PDEδ/Ras interactions, we modeled and simulated the PDEδ/K-Ras4B complex. We obtained structures which were similar to two subsequently determined crystal structures. We next modeled and simulated complexes of PDEδ with the farnesylated hypervariable regions (HVRs) of K-Ras4A and N-Ras...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536962/trace-element-contents-in-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-in-urban-school-microenvironments-near-a-contaminated-beach-with-mine-tailings-cha%C3%A3-aral-chile
#10
Stephanie Mesías Monsalve, Leonardo Martínez, Karla Yohannessen Vásquez, Sergio Alvarado Orellana, José Klarián Vergara, Miguel Martín Mateo, Rogelio Costilla Salazar, Mauricio Fuentes Alburquenque, Dante D Cáceres Lillo
Air quality in schools is an important public health issue because children spend a considerable part of their daily life in classrooms. Particulate size and chemical composition has been associated with negative health effects. We studied levels of trace element concentrations in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in indoor versus outdoor school settings from six schools in Chañaral, a coastal city with a beach severely polluted with mine tailings. Concentrations of trace elements were measured on two consecutive days during the summer and winter of 2012 and 2013 and determined using X-ray fluorescence...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536510/influence-of-pre-reproductive-maternal-enrichment-on-coping-response-to-stress-and-expression-of-c-fos-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-adolescent-offspring
#11
Debora Cutuli, Erica Berretta, Greta Pasqualini, Paola De Bartolo, Paola Caporali, Daniela Laricchiuta, Patricia Sampedro-Piquero, Francesca Gelfo, Matteo Pesoli, Francesca Foti, Azucena Begega, Laura Petrosini
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental setting broadly used for investigating the effects of complex social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations on brain structure and function. Recent studies point out that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects neural development and behavioral trajectories of the offspring. In the present study we investigated the influences of pre-reproductive EE of female rats on maternal behavior and adolescent male offspring's coping response to an inescapable stressful situation after chronic social isolation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535757/intracellular-product-recycling-in-high-succinic-acid-producing-yeast-at-low-ph
#12
S Aljoscha Wahl, Cristina Bernal Martinez, Zheng Zhao, Walter M van Gulik, Mickel L A Jansen
BACKGROUND: The metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of succinic acid has progressed dramatically, and a series of high-producing hosts are available. At low cultivation pH and high titers, the product transport can become bidirectional, i.e. the acid is reentering the cell and is again exported or even catabolized. Here, a quantitative approach for the identification of product recycling fluxes is developed. RESULTS: The metabolic flux distributions at two time-points of the fermentation process were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535085/characterization-of-an-encapsulated-insulin-secreting-human-pancreatic-beta-cell-line-in-a-modular-microfluidic-device
#13
Argia Acarregui, Jesús Ciriza, Laura Saenz Del Burgo, Haritz Gurruchaga, José Yeste, Xavier Illa, Gorka Orive, Rosa M Hernández, Rosa Villa, Jose Luis Pedraz
Type I diabetes mellitus is characterized by the destruction of the insulin producing beta cells within the pancreas by the immune system. After the success of Edmonton protocol, islet transplantation has shown to be a promising therapy, but with the Achilles´ heel of the need of using immunosuppressive drugs. Currently, cell encapsulation technology represents a real alternative to protect transplanted islets from the host´s immune attack. Although preliminary in vitro studies with encapsulated cells have been traditionally performed under static conditions in terms of viability and efficiency, these static cultures do not represent a close approach to in vivo environments...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533464/the-colours-of-humanity-the-evolution-of-pigmentation-in-the-human-lineage
#14
REVIEW
Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin
Humans are a colourful species of primate, with human skin, hair and eye coloration having been influenced by a great variety of evolutionary forces throughout prehistory. Functionally naked skin has been the physical interface between the physical environment and the human body for most of the history of the genus Homo, and hence skin coloration has been under intense natural selection. From an original condition of protective, dark, eumelanin-enriched coloration in early tropical-dwelling Homo and Homo sapiens, loss of melanin pigmentation occurred under natural selection as Homo sapiens dispersed into non-tropical latitudes of Africa and Eurasia...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532904/cr-in-dredged-marine-sediments-anthropogenic-enrichment-bioavailability-and-potential-adverse-effects
#15
Fabienne Baraud, Lydia Leleyter, Mélanie Lemoine, Hakim Hamdoun
This study focuses on chromium detected in 13 harbor sediments dredged across the English Channel. The total concentrations of Cr range from 5 to 61mgkg(-1), which reveal no or low enrichment for 12 of the 13 samples, according the enrichment factor (EF) calculations. Sequential extraction procedure was applied to determine the mineralogical speciation of Cr, in order to assess its potential (re)mobilization to the aquatic environment. Cr is mainly associated to the residual fraction, then distributed in the oxydizable and reducible fractions...
May 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532053/functionalized-fe3o4-graphene-oxide-nanocomposites-with-hairpin-aptamers-for-the-separation-and-preconcentration-of-trace-pb-2-from-biological-samples-prior-to-determination-by-icp-ms
#16
Mojtaba Shamsipur, Leila Farzin, Mahmoud Amouzadeh Tabrizi, Shahab Sheibani
Lead (Pb) as a topically poisonous metal represents a serious threat to the ecological environment and especially to human beings. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a rapid and reliable monitoring technique for this heavy metal in the environmental samples. In the present study, we have designed a selective and sensitive method for the determination of ultratrace contents of Pb(2+) in biological samples, based on the guanine (G)-quadruplex formed by the aptamer with hairpin structure and Pb(2+). For this purpose, Pb(2+) specific aptamer serving as affinity probe to capture and separate trace amounts of the analyte, was covalently linked to Fe3O4/graphene oxide (GO) surface by using a suitable cross-linking agent...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528263/influences-of-land-use-and-antecedent-dry-weather-period-on-pollution-level-and-ecological-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-road-deposited-sediment
#17
Jin Zhang, Pei Hua, Peter Krebs
Road-deposited sediment and its adsorbed pollutants have been regarded as significant sources of urban diffuse pollution. In this study, the solid-phase concentrations (mg/g), surface load (mg/m(2)) and chemical fractionation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were determined. Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and ecological risk (RI) indexes were employed for metal risk assessment. Results show that the highest solid-phase concentrations of Zn and Cu were usually found at an industrial area. However, Cd had the highest solid-phase concentrations at a rural area, followed by a commercial area...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528262/stable-isotope-tracing-of-ni-and-cu-pollution-in-north-east-norway-potentials-and-drawbacks
#18
Hana Šillerová, Vladislav Chrastný, Martina Vítková, Anna Francová, Jan Jehlička, Marissa R Gutsch, Jana Kocourková, Paul E Aspholm, Lars O Nilsson, Tore F Berglen, Henning K B Jensen, Michael Komárek
The use of Ni and Cu isotopes for tracing contamination sources in the environment remains a challenging task due to the limited information about the influence of various biogeochemical processes influencing stable isotope fractionation. This work focuses on a relatively simple system in north-east Norway with two possible endmembers (smelter-bedrock) and various environmental samples (snow, soil, lichens, PM10). In general, the whole area is enriched in heavy Ni and Cu isotopes highlighting the impact of the smelting activity...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526589/a-rapid-salmonella-detection-method-involving-thermophilic-helicase-dependent-amplification-and-a-lateral-flow-assay
#19
Xin-Jun Du, Tian-Jiao Zhou, Ping Li, Shuo Wang
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523623/microbial-population-shift-caused-by-sulfamethoxazole-in-engineered-soil-aquifer-treatment-e-sat-system
#20
Ashwinkumar P Rudrashetti, Niti B Jadeja, Deepa Gandhi, Asha A Juwarkar, Abhinav Sharma, Atya Kapley, R A Pandey
The engineered-Soil Aquifer Treatment (e-SAT) system was exploited for the biological degradation of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) which is known to bio-accumulate in the environment. The fate of SMX in soil column was studied through laboratory simulation for a period of 90 days. About 20 ppm SMX concentration could be removed in four consecutive cycles in e-SAT. To understand the microbial community change and biological degradation of SMX in e-SAT system, metagenomic analysis was performed for the soil samples before (A-EBD) and after SMX exposure (B-EBD) in the e-SAT...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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