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enriched environment

Lara Vezula Gonçalves, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Tamara Andrea Alarcon Ferreira, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
Stroke is considered a major cause of global morbidity. Currently, there are no effective treatments for post-stroke cognitive impairment. Enriched environment (EE) has been brought forward as a preconditioning method to induce cerebral tolerance in an ischemic event. However, the subjacent mechanisms involved in this tolerance are not yet clear. Herein we aimed to identify the mechanisms of neuroprotection triggered by EE preconditioning in a murine model of ischemic stroke. In order to do so, C57Bl/6 mice were kept for five weeks either in EE or in standard environment (SC) prior to ischemic injury through bilateral carotid occlusion (BCCAo) or sham surgery...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Victoria L Templer, Taylor B Wise, Katrina Isabel T Dayaw, Judith Nicole T Dayaw
Sociability is the act or quality of social interaction and can be quantified by determining the number and duration of interactions with conspecifics. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which sustained social contact, as achieved by constant social living conditions, influenced social behavior. Beginning in juvenility, 19 male Long-Evans rats were housed in enriched environments, with half living socially in a large group and half living individually. After several months in these housing conditions, rats were tested on a sociality test and a social novelty preference test...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, Fatemeh S Majedi, Steven J Bensinger, Benjamin M Wu, Louis-S Bouchard, Paul S Weiss, Alireza Moshaverinia
The unique properties of immune cells have inspired many efforts in engineering advanced biomaterials capable of mimicking their behaviors. However, an inclusive model capable of mimicking immune cells in different situations remains lacking. Such models can provide invaluable data for understanding immune-biomaterial crosstalk. Inspired by CD4+ T cells, polymeric microparticles with physicochemical properties similar to naïve and active T cells are engineered. A lipid coating is applied to enhance their resemblance and provide a platform for conjugation of desired antibodies...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
José Antonio Rodríguez Martin, Carmen Gutiérrez, Manuel Torrijos, Nikos Nanos
Natural levels of heavy metals (HM) have increased during the industrial era to the point of posing a serious threat to the environment. The use of tree species to record contamination is a well-known practice. The objective of the study was to compare HM levels under different pollution conditions: a) soil pollution due to mining waste; b) atmospheric pollution due to coal-fired power plant emissions. We report significant HM enrichment in Pinus halepensis tissues. Near a burning power plant, Pb content in a tree wood was 2...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Rehemanjiang Wufuer, Wenjuan Song, Daoyong Zhang, Xiangliang Pan, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Recent reports have drawn attention to the uranium contamination arising from coal mining activities in the Yili region of Xinjiang, China due to the mixed distribution of uranium and coal mines, and some of the coal mines being associated with a high uranium content. In this study, we have collected water samples, solid samples such as soil, mud, coal, and coal ash, and hair and urine samples from local populations in order to evaluate the uranium level in this environment and its implications for humans in this high uranium coal mining area...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Evangelia A Zilelidou, Panagiotis N Skandamis
Like with all food microorganisms, many basic aspects of L. monocytogenes life are likely to be influenced by its interactions with bacteria living in close proximity. This pathogenic bacterium is a major concern both for the food industry and health organizations since it is ubiquitous and able to withstand harsh environmental conditions. Due to the ubiquity of Listeria monocytogenes, various strains may contaminate foods at different stages of the supply chain. Consequently, simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains is also possible...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shubo Jin, Dajiang Sun, Dan Song, Nianmin Wang, Hongtuo Fu, Feng Ji, Ying Zhang
The Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, is an important aquaculture species in China with annual production of about 150 thousand tons in 2015. In this study, we investigated the regulatory proteins and pathways affecting embryonic development of Amur sturgeon, by analyzing of the differential proteomes among four embryonic developmental stages using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), combined with the analysis of effects of microelements and antioxidants on embryonic development...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shunli Wang, Keri Lydon, Evan M White, Joe B Grubbs Iii, Erin Lipp, Jason Locklin, Jenna Jambeck
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (poly(3HB-co-3HHx)) thermoplastics are a promising biodegradable alternative to traditional plastics for many consumer applications. Biodegradation measured by gaseous carbon loss of several types of poly(3HB-co-3HHx) plastic were investigated under anaerobic conditions and aerobic seawater environments. Under anaerobic conditions, the biodegradation of a manufactured sheet of poly(3HB-co-3HHx) and cellulose powder were not significantly different from one another over 85 days with 77...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lu Zhang, Yan Wang, Dongxin Liu, Lijuan Luo, Yi Wang, Changyun Ye
Listeria monocytogenes , an important food-borne pathogen, causes listeriosis and is widely distributed in many different environments. In a previous study, we developed a novel enrichment broth containing D-allose that allows better isolation of L. monocytogenes from samples. However, the mechanism of D-allose utilization by L. monocytogenes remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the metabolism of D-allose in L. monocytogenes and found that lineage II strains of L. monocytogenes can utilize D-allose as the sole carbon source for growth, but lineage I and III strains cannot...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amanda Avelar de Oliveira, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Filipe de Souza, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella, Roberto Willians Noda, Maria Lúcia Ferreira Simeone, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Jurandir Vieira de Magalhães, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Gabriel Rodrigues Alves Margarido
The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves have created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. Due to its abiotic stress tolerance and annual cultivation, high-biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shows potential as a bioenergy crop. Genomic selection is a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains and could restructure plant breeding programs by enabling early selection and reducing breeding cycle duration. This work aimed at predicting breeding values via genomic selection models for 200 sorghum genotypes comprising landrace accessions and breeding lines from biomass and saccharine groups...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Jing Yang, Chuling Guo, Shasha Liu, Weiting Liu, Han Wang, Zhi Dang, Guining Lu
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), as a plasticizer, is widely used in China, and it is easily released into diverse environments. In this study, we have obtained a stable bacterial consortium (B1) enriched from municipal sewage treatment plant activated sludge. The obtained bacterial consortium B1 was capable of degrading DBP and was mainly composed of Pandoraea sp. and Microbacterium sp. From the initial concentrations of 35-500 mg L-1 , DBP was efficiently degraded by the consortium, with the degradation rates above 92% within 3 days...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
George S Prounis, Kyle Thomas, Alexander G Ophir
Nonapeptide receptors, like oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR), modulate a variety of functions across taxa, and mediate phenotypic variation within and between species. Despite the popularity of studying nonapeptides in adults, developmental perspectives on properties of OTR and V1aR expression are lacking. Study of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) has facilitated an understanding of mechanisms of social behavior, and provides great potential to inform how early life experiences alter phenotype...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Heikki Mykrä, Romain Sarremejane, Tiina Laamanen, Satu Maaria Karjalainen, Annamari Markkola, Sirkku Lehtinen, Kaisa Lehosmaa, Timo Muotka
We examined how short-term (19 days) nutrient enrichment influences stream fungal and diatom communities, and rates of leaf decomposition and algal biomass accrual. We conducted a field experiment using slow-releasing nutrient pellets to increase nitrate (NO3 -N) and phosphate (PO4 -P) concentrations in a riffle section of six naturally acidic (naturally low pH due to catchment geology) and six circumneutral streams. Nutrient enrichment increased microbial decomposition rate on average by 14%, but the effect was significant only in naturally acidic streams...
April 16, 2018: Ambio
Lubov B Glukhova, Yulia A Frank, Ehrzena V Danilova, Marat R Avakyan, David Banks, Olli H Tuovinen, Olga V Karnachuk
The role of fungi in metal cycling in acidic environments has been little explored to date. In this study, two acid-tolerant and metal-resistant Penicillium isolates, strains ShG4B and ShG4C, were isolated from a mine site in the Transbaikal area of Siberia (Russia). Waters at the mine site were characterized by extremely high metal concentrations: up to 18 g l-1 Fe and > 2 g l-1 each of Cu, Zn, Al, and As. Both isolates were identified as Penicillium spp. by phylogenetic analyses and they grew well in Czapek medium acidified to pH 2...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Frédérique Pasquali, Federica Palma, Laurent Guillier, Alex Lucchi, Alessandra De Cesare, Gerardo Manfreda
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1) assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2) select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3) compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chen Cai, Andy O Leu, Guo-Jun Xie, Jianhua Guo, Yuexing Feng, Jian-Xin Zhao, Gene W Tyson, Zhiguo Yuan, Shihu Hu
Microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key process in the regulation of methane emissions to the atmosphere. Iron can serve as an electron acceptor for AOM, and it has been suggested that Fe(III)-dependent AOM potentially comprises a major global methane sink. Although it has been proposed that anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea can facilitate this process, their active metabolic pathways have not been confirmed. Here we report the enrichment and characterisation of a novel archaeon in a laboratory-scale bioreactor fed with Fe(III) oxide (ferrihydrite) and methane...
April 16, 2018: ISME Journal
Hong Pan, Haiyang Liu, Yaowei Liu, Qichun Zhang, Yu Luo, Xingmei Liu, Yimeng Liu, Jianming Xu, Hongjie Di, Yong Li
Nitrifying microbes are of critical importance in regulating efficient nitrogen (N) cycling, which plays a crucial role in plant productivity and maintaining soil sustainability. Long-term different intensities of grazing can strongly influence the microbial communities, while our understanding of the complex nitrifying community in the grazed grassland soil environment is still limited. To investigate whether and how long-term grazing with different intensities influence soil nitrifying communities, high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR analyses were performed on soil samples from permanent grassland soils under four grazing intensities: 0 (G0), 1...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
María J Pérez, Iris C Zampini, Maria R Alberto, María I Isla
This work is part of the search in native food matrices from arid regions of Argentina of interest to improve human health. Prosopis species are ethnic food resources in South America capable of growing in arid and semi-arid environments. This work was focused to determine the nutritional and phytochemical composition of Prosopis nigra fine flour and to evaluate its biological properties. Flour showed a high level of sucrose (30.35 g/100 g flour), fiber (6.34 g/100 g flour), polyphenols (0.45 g GAE/100 g flour), and minerals (potassium, calcium, and magnesium)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Haiwu Zheng, Yunlong Zi, Xu He, Hengyu Guo, Ying-Chih Lai, Jie Wang, Steven L Zhang, Changsheng Wu, Gang Cheng, Zhong Lin Wang
Harvesting energy available from ambient environment is highly desirable for powering personal electronics and health applications. Due to natural process and human activities, steam can be produced by boilers, human perspiration and the wind exists ubiquitously. In the outdoor environment, these two phenomena usually exist at the same place, which contain heat and mechanical energies simultaneously. However, previous studies have isolated them as separate sources of energy to harvest and hence failed to utilize them effectively...
April 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bethany A Wellen Rudd, Andrew S Vidalis, Heather C Allen
Of the major cations in seawater (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), Ca2+ is found to be the most enriched in fine sea spray aerosols (SSA). In this work, we investigate the binding of Ca2+ to the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA), a marine-abundant fatty acid, and the impact such binding has on the stability of PA monolayers in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. A range of Ca2+ conditions from 10 μM to 300 mM was utilized to represent the relative concentration of Ca2+ in high and low relative humidity aerosol environments...
April 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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