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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137892/role-of-pyrophosphate-in-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Daniel Azpiazu, Sergio Gonzalo, Emilio González-Parra, Jesús Egido, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta
Vascular calcification is a pathology characterized by the deposition of calcium-phosphate in cardiovascular structures, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals, resulting in ectopic calcification. It is correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction in diabetic patients and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular smooth muscle cells are sensitive to changes in inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels. They are able to adapt and modify some of their functions and promote changes which trigger calcification...
November 11, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137886/diesel-exhaust-inhalation-exposure-induces-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-mice
#2
Jing Liu, Xiaoqing Ye, Dapeng Ji, Xiaofei Zhou, Cong Qiu, Weiping Liu, Luyang Yu
Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the main sources of urban air pollution. An increasing number of evidence showed the association of air pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the most disastrous vascular diseases, which results in right ventricular failure and death. However, the relationship of DE inhalation exposure with PAH is still unknown. In this study, male adult mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered ambient air (negative control), 10% O2 hypoxia (PAH-phenotype positive control), 350 μg/m(3) particulate matter whole DE, or the combination of DE and hypoxic condition...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137225/circular-rna-expression-profile-and-potential-function-of-hsa_circrna_101238-in-human-thoracic-aortic-dissection
#3
Meisheng Zou, Chixiong Huang, Xinzhong Li, Xiang He, Yanmei Chen, Wangjun Liao, Yulin Liao, Jie Sun, Ze Liu, Lintao Zhong, Jianping Bin
Objective: To assess the circular RNAs (circRNAs) expression profile and explore the potential functions in human thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Methods: The differentially expressed circRNAs profiles of the aortic segments between human type A TAD patients (n=3) and age-matched normal donors (NA; n=3) were analyzed using the Arraystar human circRNAs microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of circRNAs, parental genes, and hsa-miR-320a; Western blotting confirmed MMP9 expression with additional samples...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135921/nox-reactive-oxygen-species-and-regulation-of-vascular-cell-fate
#4
REVIEW
Denise Burtenshaw, Roya Hakimjavadi, Eileen M Redmond, Paul A Cahill
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an imbalance of antioxidant defence mechanisms can result in oxidative stress. Several pro-atherogenic stimuli that promote intimal-medial thickening (IMT) and early arteriosclerotic disease progression share oxidative stress as a common regulatory pathway dictating vascular cell fate. The major source of ROS generated within the vascular system is the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes (Nox), of which seven members have been characterized...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133788/regulation-of-angiotensin-ii-actions-by-enhancers-and-super-enhancers-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Sadhan Das, Parijat Senapati, Zhuo Chen, Marpadga A Reddy, Rituparna Ganguly, Linda Lanting, Varun Mandi, Anita Bansal, Amy Leung, Selena Zhang, Ye Jia, Xiwei Wu, Dustin E Schones, Rama Natarajan
Angiotensin II (AngII) promotes hypertension and atherosclerosis by activating growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Enhancers and super-enhancers (SEs) play critical roles in driving disease-associated gene expression. However, enhancers/SEs mediating VSMC dysfunction remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that AngII alters vascular enhancer and SE repertoires in cultured VSMCs in vitro, ex vivo, and in AngII-infused mice aortas in vivo. AngII-induced enhancers/SEs are enriched in binding sites for signal-dependent transcription factors and dependent on key signaling kinases...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131252/yap1-up-regulation-inhibits-apoptosis-of-aortic-dissection-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
T Liu, J Xu, J-L Guo, C-Y Lin, W-M Luo, Y Yuan, H Liu, J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Elevated apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is correlated with the occurrence of aortic dissection (AD). Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is the major effector in Hippo-YAP signal pathway, which facilitates cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. Several studies have been performed regarding the relationship between YAP1 and AD pathogenesis. This study established the AD rat model to investigate possible roles of YAP1 in regulating VSMC apoptosis and AD pathogenesis...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131001/atorvastatin-calcium-inhibits-pdgf-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-vsmcs-through-the-g0-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-and-suppression-of-activated-pdgfr%C3%AE-pi3k-akt-signaling-cascade
#7
Shuang Chen, Siyuan Dong, Zhao Li, Xiaofan Guo, Naijin Zhang, Bo Yu, Yingxian Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a hallmark of vascular lesions, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. PDGF-ββ, an isoform of PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), has been demonstrated to induce proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, has favorable protective effects on VSMCs. This study examined the effects of atorvastatin calcium on the proliferation and migration of PDGF-ββ-treated VSMCs, as well as its underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129602/standardized-fraction-of-xylocarpus-moluccensis-fruits-improve-vascular-relaxation-and-plaque-stability-in-dyslipidemic-models-of-atherosclerosis
#8
Jitendra S Kanshana, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Hobby Aggarwal, Vasundhara Srivastava, Vivek Khanna, Vishal Singh, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Manoj K Barthwal, Madhu Dikshit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lamk.) M. Roem of family Meliaceae has triterpenoids rich fruits. Triterpenoids have been known to possess cardioprotection and anti-atherosclerotic activities (Han and Bakovic, 2015; Wu et al., 2009). Standardised fraction of these fruits exhibited anti-dyslipidemic (Srivastava et al., 2015), anti-inflammatory (Ravangpai et al., 2011) and CNS depressant activity (Sarker et al., 2007). However, there is no report in the literature on its cardiovascular effects...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129208/augmented-gene-expression-triggered-by-na-k-atpase-inhibition-role-of-ca-2-i-mediated-and-independent-excitation-transcription-coupling
#9
Larisa V Smolyaninova, Svetlana V Koltsova, Svetlana V Sidorenko, Sergei N Orlov
In rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMC), 3-h Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibition by ouabain or in K(+)-free medium resulted in the inversion of the [Na(+)]i/[K(+)]i ratio and elevation up to 7-fold the content of Egr1, Atf3, Nr4a1 and Ptgs2 mRNAs. Ouabain increased the rate of 45Ca(2+) influx by 2-fold that was abolished by L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine, but it was resistant to Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor KB-R7943. To study the role of Ca(2+)-mediated signaling in the expression of Na(+)i/K(+)i-sensitive genes we used intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and incubated RVSMC in Ca(2+)-free medium...
December 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129081/identification-of-mature-atherosclerotic-plaque-proteome-signatures-using-data-independent-acquisition-mass-spectrometry
#10
Nicole Hansmeier, Josef Buttigieg, Pankaj Kumar, Shaneen Pelle, Kyoo Yoon Choi, David Kopriva, Tzu-Chiao Chao
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathobiology and one of the most common causes of cardiovascular events. The process is characterized by complex vascular remodeling processes that require the actions of numerous proteins. The composition of atherosclerotic plaque is increasingly recognized as a major factor governing the occurrence of cardiovascular or neurological symptoms. In order to gain deeper insights in the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, we created quantitative proteome profiles of advanced plaque tissues of six male patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy for stroke prevention...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128791/acpa-and-jwh-133-modulate-the-vascular-tone-of-superior-mesenteric-arteries-through-cannabinoid-receptors-bkca-channels-and-nitric-oxide-dependent-mechanisms
#11
Evelyn López-Dyck, Felipa Andrade-Urzúa, Alejandro Elizalde, Tania Ferrer-Villada, Adan Dagnino-Acosta, Miguel Huerta, Zyanya Osuna-Calleros, Cinthia Rangel-Sandoval, Enrique Sánchez-Pastor
BACKGROUND: Some cannabinoids, a family of compounds derived from Cannabis sativa (marijuana), have previously shown vasodilator effects in several studies, a feature that makes them suitable for the generation of a potential treatment for hypertension. The mechanism underlying this vasodilator effect in arteries is still controversial. In this report, we explored how the synthetic cannabinoids ACPA (CB1-selective agonist) and JWH-133 (CB2-selective agonist) regulate the vascular tone of rat superior mesenteric arteries...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128361/involvement-of-mitochondrial-fission-in-calcium-sensing-receptor-mediated-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-during-hypertension
#12
Xin Zhang, Wenjia Chen, Jiawen Li, Shuhan Qi, Siting Hong, Ying Wang, Lei Gao, Zhiyu Shi, Yue Liu, Wenxiu Liu, Yinyu Chi, Chunnan Liu, Yu Fu, Xinhua Yin
Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Proper mitochondrial fission and fusion is involved with VSMC function. However, the role and mechanism of mitochondrial morphological changes in VSMC proliferation are not well understood. Here, we found that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) was increased in the aortas from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared with age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. There was also an increase in mitochondrial fission and VSMC proliferation, which was attenuated by Calhex231...
November 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127880/effects-of-flavonoids-on-microrna-145-regulation-through-klf4-and-myocardin-in-neointimal-formation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Chiu-Mei Lin, Bao-Wei Wang, Chun-Ming Pan, Wei-Jen Fang, Su-Kiat Chua, Sheng-Wen Hou, Hang Chang, Kou-Gi Shyu
MicroRNA 145 (miR-145) is a critical modulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotyping and proliferation. Flavonoids have been studied extensively due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory effects. The aims of this study is designed to evaluate the atheroprotective effects on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced miR-145 and Klf4/myocardin expression in vitro and in vivo of flavonoids, including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), chrysin, wogonin, silibinin, and ferulic acid...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127112/reduced-expression-of-glutathione-s-transferase-%C3%AE-4-promotes-vascular-neointimal-hyperplasia-in-ckd
#14
Jinlong Luo, Guang Chen, Ming Liang, Aini Xie, Qingtian Li, Qunying Guo, Rajendra Sharma, Jizhong Cheng
Neointima formation is the leading cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. We have shown that CKD accelerates this process by transforming the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) lining the AVF from a contractile to the synthetic phenotype. However, the underlying mechanisms affecting this transformation are not clear. Previous studies have shown that the α-class glutathione transferase isozymes have an important role in regulating 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-mediated proliferative signaling of cells. Here, using both the loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase α4 (GSTA4) in modulating cellular 4-HNE levels for the transformation and proliferation of SMCs...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126441/tgf%C3%AE-3-recruits-endogenous-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-initiate-bone-regeneration
#15
Moyuan Deng, Tieniu Mei, Tianyong Hou, Keyu Luo, Fei Luo, Aijun Yang, Bo Yu, Hao Pang, Shiwu Dong, Jianzhong Xu
BACKGROUND: The recruitment of a sufficient number of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is the first stage of in-situ tissue regeneration. Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGFβ3) could recruit stem or progenitor cells and endothelial cells to participate in tissue regeneration. However, the mechanism of TGFβ3 recruiting MSCs toward bone regeneration has remained obscure. METHODS: We estimated the promigratory property of TGFβ3 on human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) cocultured with the vascular cells (human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells) or not by Transwell assay...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123890/efficacy-of-isoproterenol-for-treating-amlodipine-overdose-resulting-in-bradycardia
#16
Takeshi Ebihara, Masanori Morita, Masahiro Kawada, Koji Amano, Fumitaka Kato, Yasuki Nakata
Case: Amlodipine predominantly affects vascular smooth muscle cells. Amlodipine overdose usually presents with vasodilatory shock, accompanied by reflex tachycardia rather than bradycardia.An 81-year-old woman presented with impaired consciousness 8 h after ingesting 50 5-mg amlodipine tablets with suicidal intent. On admission, her blood pressure was 50/40 mmHg and her heart rate was 45 b.p.m. Serum amlodipine level was extremely high (474.4 ng/mL), causing refractory bradycardia. She remained hypotensive despite fluid resuscitation, and therefore was administered dopamine and norepinephrine...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122817/apo-a-i-apolipoprotein-a-i-vascular-gene-therapy-provides-durable-protection-against-atherosclerosis-in-hyperlipidemic-rabbits
#17
Bradley K Wacker, Nagadhara Dronadula, Lianxiang Bi, Alexis Stamatikos, David A Dichek
OBJECTIVE: Gene therapy that expresses apo A-I (apolipoprotein A-I) from vascular wall cells has promise for preventing and reversing atherosclerosis. Previously, we reported that transduction of carotid artery endothelial cells with a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing apo A-I reduced early (4 weeks) fatty streak development in fat-fed rabbits. Here, we tested whether the same HDAd could provide long-term protection against development of more complex lesions. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Fat-fed rabbits (n=25) underwent bilateral carotid artery gene transfer, with their left and right common carotids randomized to receive either a control vector (HDAdNull) or an apo A-I-expressing vector (HDAdApoAI)...
November 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122814/non-endoplasmic-reticulum-based-calr-calreticulin-can-coordinate-heterocellular-calcium-signaling-and-vascular-function
#18
Lauren A Biwer, Miranda E Good, Kwangseok Hong, Rahul K Patel, Neha Agrawal, Robin Looft-Wilson, Swapnil K Sonkusare, Brant E Isakson
OBJECTIVE: In resistance arteries, endothelial cell (EC) extensions can make contact with smooth muscle cells, forming myoendothelial junction at holes in the internal elastic lamina (HIEL). At these HIEL, calcium signaling is tightly regulated. Because Calr (calreticulin) can buffer ≈50% of endoplasmic reticulum calcium and is expressed throughout IEL holes in small arteries, the only place where myoendothelial junctions form, we investigated the effect of EC-specific Calr deletion on calcium signaling and vascular function...
November 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122755/renin-angiotensin-system-regulates-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Yun Xia Zhang, Ji Feng Li, Yuan Hua Yang, Zhen Guo Zhai, Song Gu, Yan Liu, Ran Miao, Ping Ping Zhong, Ying Wang, Xiao Xi Huang, Chen Wang
Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) migration plays a key role in vascular remodeling which occurs during development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to vascular remodeling observed in many diseases including idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the role of RAS imbalance in CTEPH has not been characterized. Here, we hypothesize that RAS imbalance regulates vascular remodeling by promoting PASMC migration in CTEPH...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121532/paeoniflorin-inhibits-vsmcs-proliferation-and-migration-by-arresting-cell-cycle-and-activating-ho-1-through-mapks-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#20
Weifeng Li, Wenbing Zhi, Fang Liu, Jinmeng Zhao, Qing Yao, Xiaofeng Niu
The proliferation, migration and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. Paeoniflorin (PF) as active compound in the Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala has been used for various diseases like cancer, splenic asthenia, anaphylaxis and anorexia. This study aimed to explore whether and how PF regulated the inflammation, proliferation and migration of VSMCs under ox-LDL stimulation. Here, we found that PF dose-dependently inhibited ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration, and decreased inflammatory cytokines and chemokine overexpression...
November 6, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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