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emerging and reemerging diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529975/phylogenetic-analyses-suggest-that-factors-other-than-the-capsid-protein-play-a-role-in-the-epidemic-potential-of-gii-2-norovirus
#1
Kentaro Tohma, Cara J Lepore, Lauren A Ford-Siltz, Gabriel I Parra
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. For over two decades, a single genotype (GII.4) has been responsible for most norovirus-associated cases. However, during the winter of 2014 to 2015, the GII.4 strains were displaced by a rarely detected genotype (GII.17) in several countries of the Asian continent. Moreover, during the winter of 2016 to 2017, the GII.2 strain reemerged as predominant in different countries worldwide. This reemerging GII.2 strain is a recombinant virus that presents a GII...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529708/yellow-fever-in-the-americas-the-growing-concern-about-new-epidemics
#2
Yeimer Ortiz-Martínez, Andrés Mauricio Patiño-Barbosa, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Yellow fever (YF) is a haemorrhagic viral disease with a high case fatality rate. It is considered a reemerging infectious disease of remarkable importance. During the last outbreaks in Angola (2015-2016) and Brazil (2016-2017), many cases of YF emerged despite high YF vaccination coverage, increasing the risk of major epidemics in the Americas. Several factors, including the vast border and migratory status of Brazil, the widespread distribution of Aedes mosquitoes and the lack of efficient health policies and surveillance systems, favour this complex epidemiological scenario of reemergence...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515300/a-novel-a-h7n2-influenza-virus-isolated-from-a-veterinarian-caring-for-cats-in-a-new-york-city-animal-shelter-causes-mild-disease-and-transmits-poorly-in-the-ferret-model
#3
Jessica A Belser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Xiangjie Sun, Nicole Brock, Claudia Pappas, Hannah M Creager, Hui Zeng, Terrence M Tumpey, Taronna R Maines
In December 2016, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) virus was identified as the causative source of an outbreak in a cat shelter in New York City, which subsequently spread to multiple shelters in New York and Pennsylvania. One person with occupational exposure to infected cats became infected with the virus, representing the first LPAI H7N2 human infection in North America since 2003. Considering the close contact that frequently occurs between companion animals and humans, it was critical to assess the relative risk of this novel virus to public health...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511142/tailoring-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-for-the-delivery-of-protein-antigens-physicochemical-properties-versus-immunogenicity-studies
#4
Thomas Courant, Emilie Bayon, Hei Lanne Reynaud-Dougier, Christian Villiers, Mathilde Menneteau, Patrice N Marche, Fabrice P Navarro
New vaccine formulations are still highly anticipated in the near-future to face incoming health challenges, such as emergence or reemergence of severe infectious diseases, immunosenescence associated with elderly or the spread of pathogens resistant to antibiotics. In particular, new nanoparticle-based adjuvants are promising for sub-unit vaccines in order to elicit potent and long lasting immune responses with a better control on their safety. In this context, an innovative delivery system of protein antigens has been designed based on the chemical grafting of the antigen onto the shell of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC)...
May 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475453/presence-of-antibodies-to-leptospira-spp-in-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus-and-beavers-castor-canadensis-in-northwestern-mexico
#5
Andrés M López-Pérez, Gerardo Carreón-Arroyo, Daniel Atilano, Ana L Vigueras-Galván, Carlos Valdez, Daniel Toyos, Daniel Mendizabal, Jonathan López-Islas, Gerardo Suzán
Leptospires are widespread spirochete bacteria that infect mammals, including rodents and humans. We investigated the presence of Leptospira antibodies in two species of rodents from San Pedro River Basin (SPRB) in northwestern Mexico as part of the black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) monitoring plan and the North American beaver ( Castor canadensis ) reintroduction program. We sampled a total of 26 black-tailed prairie dogs and three beavers during October-November 2015. We detected antibodies against Leptospira spp...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427535/pathogens-of-food-animals-sources-characteristics-human-risk-and-methods-of-detection
#6
Catherine M Logue, Nicolle L Barbieri, Daniel W Nielsen
Pathogens associated with food production (livestock) animals come in many forms causing a multitude of disease for humans. For the purpose of this review, these infectious agents can be divided into three broad categories: those that are associated with bacterial disease, those that are associated with viruses, and those that are parasitic in nature. The goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of the most common pathogens that cause disease in humans through exposure via the food chain and the consequence of this exposure as well as risk and detection methods...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418744/taiwan-s-travel-and-border-health-measures-in-response-to-zika
#7
Li-Li Ho, Yu-Hui Tsai, Wang-Ping Lee, Szu-Tsai Liao, Li-Gin Wu, Yi-Chun Wu
Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418737/public-health-emergency-response-in-taiwan
#8
Yi-Feng Su, Cheng-Hao Wu, Tsui-Feng Lee
In recent years, growth of international travel and trade, as well as climate change, has resulted in the frequent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, Zika, and MERS. In 2016, Taiwan used the Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool to evaluate its public health emergency response capacities and understand important areas for improvement. This article presents Taiwan's disaster and public health emergency response organizational structure, real-time integrated information, response processes, and command center structure...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399216/emergent-and-reemergent-arboviruses-in-south-america-and-the-caribbean-why-so-many-and-why-now
#9
Carlos Brisola Marcondes, Marta Contigiani, Raquel Miranda Gleiser
Varios arbovirus han emergido y/o reemergido en el Nuevo Mundo en las últimas décadas. Los virus Zika y chikungunya, anteriormente restringidos a África y quizás Asia, invadieron el continente, causando gran preocupación; además siguen ocurriendo brotes causados por el virus dengue en casi todos los países, con millones de casos por año. El virus West Nile invadió rápidamente América del Norte, y ya se han encontrado casos en América Central y del Sur. Otros arbovirus, como Mayaro y el virus de la encefalitis equina del este han aumentado su actividad y se han encontrado en nuevas regiones...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396438/emerging-infectious-diseases-a-proactive-approach
#10
David E Bloom, Steven Black, Rino Rappuoli
Infectious diseases are now emerging or reemerging almost every year. This trend will continue because a number of factors, including the increased global population, aging, travel, urbanization, and climate change, favor the emergence, evolution, and spread of new pathogens. The approach used so far for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) does not work from the technical point of view, and it is not sustainable. However, the advent of platform technologies offers vaccine manufacturers an opportunity to develop new vaccines faster and to reduce the investment to build manufacturing facilities, in addition to allowing for the possible streamlining of regulatory processes...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357048/bibliometric-analysis-of-oropouche-research-impact-on-the-surveillance-of-emerging-arboviruses-in-latin-america
#11
Carlos Culquichicón, Jaime A Cardona-Ospina, Andrés M Patiño-Barbosa, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Given the emergence and reemergence of viral diseases, particularly in Latin America, we would like to provide an analysis of the patterns of research and publication on Oropouche virus (OROV). We also discuss the implications of recent epidemics in certain areas of South America, and how more clinical and epidemiological information regarding OROV is urgently needed.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348502/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-saudi-arabia-and-gulf-countries-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Hawra Al-Ghafli, Sahal Al-Hajoj
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are causing growing health problems worldwide. This is indicated by an increasing amount of scientific reports showing not only well-identified species reemerging but also emergence of new species. The emergence and reemergence of NTM are particularly worrying in developing countries due to scarce published data and improper identification. Here we aimed to examine the main epidemiological aspects and diagnostic challenges associated with NTM in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and compare these findings to the international arena findings...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291501/lateral-flow-rapid-test-for-accurate-and-early-diagnosis-of-scrub-typhus-a-febrile-illness-of-historically-military-importance-in-the-pacific-rim
#13
Chien-Chung Chao, Zhiwen Zhangm, Giulia Weissenberger, Hua-Wei Chen, Wei-Mei Ching
Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275047/the-new-biology-and-pharmacology-of-glucagon
#14
REVIEW
T D Müller, B Finan, C Clemmensen, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes management. These and related developments have fostered the discovery of novel insights into endocrine control of systemic metabolism, and in particular a deeper understanding of the importance of communication across vital organs, and specifically the gut-brain-pancreas-liver network...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207078/emerging-infectious-diseases-animals-and-future-epidemics
#15
Herbert L DuPont
Emerging and reemerging infections have become prevalent in the United States since the 1970s, causing illness, death, and fear among the public. The published literature was reviewed to offer a perspective on risk factors for disease acquisition and to allow a prediction of the next microbial assault after Ebola and Zika. Four well-integrated factors likely will contribute simultaneously: animals colonized or infected by pathogens capable of human transmission, microbes recurrently changing their virulence, a growing number of susceptible people, and climatic and environmental factors encouraging disease transmission...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192064/aedes-borne-virus-mosquito-interactions-mass-spectrometry-strategies-and-findings
#16
Victoria Pando-Robles, Cesar V Batista
Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever...
February 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143444/peritoneal-and-genital-coccidioidomycosis-in-an-otherwise-healthy-danish-female-a-case-report
#17
Ole Bæk, Karen Astvad, Reza Serizawa, Lawrence J Wheat, Pia T Brenøe, Ann-Brit E Hansen
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that usually presents as a primary lung infection. The fungus is endemic to the Southwest United States of America, northern Mexico and parts of Central and South America the infection is rare outside these areas. However, some patients develop disseminated infection that can lie dormant for several years and can present itself in travelers. We report the first case of extra pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis in a non-immunocompromised individual in Denmark...
January 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099652/path-of-infectious-diseases-in-brazil-in-the-last-50-years-an-ongoing-challenge
#18
Eliseu Alves Waldman, Ana Paula Sayuri Sato
In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097318/emerging-and-reemerging-infectious-diseases-the-dichotomy-between-acute-outbreaks-and-chronic-endemicity
#19
Catharine I Paules, Anthony S Fauci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095455/novel-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-variants-with-large-deletions-in-the-spike-s-gene-coexist-with-pedv-strains-possessing-an-intact-s-gene-in-domestic-pigs-in-japan-a-new-disease-situation
#20
Nguyen Van Diep, Junzo Norimine, Masuo Sueyoshi, Nguyen Thi Lan, Ryoji Yamaguchi
Since late 2013, after an absence of seven years, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection have reemerged and swept rapidly across Japan, resulting in significant economic losses. In this study, we report the emergence, mixed infection, and genetic characterization of 15 novel field PEDV variants with large genomic deletions. The sizes of deletion varied between 582 nt (194 aa) and 648 nt (216 aa) at positions 28-714 (10-238) on the S gene (protein). Among 17 PEDV samples isolated from individual pigs, all of them contained at least two distinct genotypes with large genomic deletions, and 94...
2017: PloS One
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