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emerging and reemerging diseases

Nikolaos Tsirigotakis, Christoforos Pavlou, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Emmanouil Dokianakis, Christos Kourouniotis, Bulent Alten, Maria Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. Different Phlebotomus species transmit different Leishmania species causing leishmaniases which are neglected diseases emerging/reemerging in new regions. Thirteen sand fly species, ten belonging to the medically important genus Phlebotomus and three belonging to Sergentomyia are known in Greece. An increasing number of human and dog cases are reported each year from all parts of the country including the Aegean Islands...
February 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sharon Melamed, Tomer Israely, Nir Paran
Declaration of smallpox eradication by the WHO in 1980 led to discontinuation of the worldwide vaccination campaign. The increasing percentage of unvaccinated individuals, the existence of its causative infectious agent variola virus (VARV), and the recent synthetic achievements increase the threat of intentional or accidental release and reemergence of smallpox. Control of smallpox would require an emergency vaccination campaign, as no other protective measure has been approved to achieve eradication and ensure worldwide protection...
January 29, 2018: Vaccines
Paula Beatriz Santiago, Carla Nunes de Araújo, Sébastien Charneau, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos, Teresa Cristina F Assumpção, Rayner Myr Lauterjung Queiroz, Yanna Reis Praça, Thuany de Moura Cordeiro, Carlos Henrique Saraiva Garcia, Ionizete Garcia da Silva, Tainá Raiol, Flávia Nader Motta, João Victor de Araújo Oliveira, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, José Marcos C Ribeiro, Jaime Martins de Santana
Triatoma dimidiata, a Chagas disease vector widely distributed along Central America, has great capability for domestic adaptation as the majority of specimens caught inside human dwellings or in peridomestic areas fed human blood. Exploring the salivary compounds that overcome host haemostatic and immune responses is of great scientific interest. Here, we provide a deeper insight into its salivary gland molecules. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing to examine in depth the T. dimidiata salivary gland transcriptome...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Guido Bendezu-Quispe, Junior Smith Torres-Roman, Brenda Salinas-Ochoa, Akram Hernández-Vásquez
The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, chikungunya, and Zika increase the necessity of knowledgeable and skilled health professionals. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) arise as opportunities that allow people around the world to participate in higher education courses. A search was conducted on specialized MOOC platforms to find courses related to outbreaks, using terms included in the list of the WHO disease outbreaks from January 1st to December 31 st, 2016. We found seven courses about Ebola, two about Zika, three about the dynamics of epidemics and pandemics, and only one course about dengue, chikungunya, and malaria...
2017: F1000Research
Najmeh Parhizgari, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Ehsan Mostafavi
Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans' demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Qianqian Li, Qiang Liu, Weijin Huang, Xuguang Li, Youchun Wang
Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases have a strong negative impact on public health. However, because many of these pathogens must be handled in biosafety level, 3 or 4 containment laboratories, research and development of antivirals or vaccines against these diseases are often impeded. Alternative approaches to address this issue have been vigorously pursued, particularly the use of pseudoviruses in place of wild-type viruses. As pseudoviruses have been deprived of certain gene sequences of the virulent virus, they can be handled in biosafety level 2 laboratories...
January 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Yhojan Rodríguez, Manuel Rojas, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are emerging and reemerging diseases transmitted by ticks, which portray wide heterogeneity and global distribution. TBDs may present acute clinical pictures that resemble those of autoimmune diseases (i.e., musculoskeletal symptoms, cutaneous involvement, neurologic impairment, renal failure, etc.), and in some cases infection is considered a triggering factor for autoimmunity (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroid disease, vasculitides). The clinician should consider TBDs among the differential diagnoses when approaching autoimmune-like signs in areas of tick infestation...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
Sílvia C Barros, Fernanda Ramos, Teresa Fagulha, Margarida Duarte, Ana Margarida Henriques, Helga Waap, Tiago Luís, Teresa Costa, Rita Amador, Sofia Quintans, Miguel Fevereiro
West Nile fever (WNF) is an emergent disease in Europe, under surveillance in the European Union. Following a 5-year period of apparent silence (autumn 2010 to summer 2015), West Nile virus (WNV) reemerged in the South of Portugal, in July 2015. Here we present data from the onset, geographic location within mainland Portugal, and outcome of clinical cases of WNV infection in horses in 2015 and 2016. During the transmission seasons of 2015 and 2016, twenty-seven horses, most symptomatic (n=20) were found positive to IgM, pr-E immunoglobulins and VNT, leading to the subsequent report to Animal Disease Notification System of the European Commission (ADNS) by the Portuguese National Authority for Animal Health...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Carol Y Rao, Grace W Goryoka, Olga L Henao, Kevin R Clarke, Stephanie J Salyer, Joel M Montgomery
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Carlos Alva-Urcia, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, Carlos Palomares-Reyes, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Luis Suarez-Ognio, Pablo Weilg, Carlos Manrique, Fernando Vasquez-Achaya, Luis J Del Valle, Juana Del Valle-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) and a significant health problem in South America. In Peru, laboratory etiologic identification of these infections occurs in less than 50% of cases, leading to underdiagnoses of important emerging arboviruses. AIM: To assess the prevalence of the Dengue (DENV), Oropouche (OROV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in patients with acute febrile illness from Puerto Maldonado (Peru)...
2017: PloS One
Zeinab M Hassan
INTRODUCTION: The recent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases have made the knowledge and practice of standard infection control precautions in developing countries more important than ever. However, schools of nursing in Jordan do not have a prescribed curriculum in Standard Precautions. PURPOSE: To test the effectiveness of using of an online education module and a learning contract on knowledge and compliance with infection control Standard Precautions among undergraduate nursing students in Jordan...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Evans Buliva, Mohamed Elhakim, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Amgad Elkholy, Peter Mala, Abdinasir Abubakar, Sk Md Mamunur Rahman Malik
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human-animal interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
R Scott Taylor, Matthew Pitzer, Grayson Goldman, Augusta Czysz, Thomas Simunich, John Ashurst
BACKGROUND: With the advancement of chemical, biological and nuclear warfare and the reemergence of infectious diseases, the possibility of intubating in personal protective equipment has become increasingly more real to the emergency physician. Human cadaveric models have been found to simulate real world conditions better than mannequins. The aim of the study was to determine the first pass success rate and average time to successful intubation while wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Stephan Drewes, Petra Straková, Jan F Drexler, Jens Jacob, Rainer G Ulrich
Rodents are distributed throughout the world and interact with humans in many ways. They provide vital ecosystem services, some species are useful models in biomedical research and some are held as pet animals. However, many rodent species can have adverse effects such as damage to crops and stored produce, and they are of health concern because of the transmission of pathogens to humans and livestock. The first rodent viruses were discovered by isolation approaches and resulted in break-through knowledge in immunology, molecular and cell biology, and cancer research...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
Mohammad Hosein Fallah Mehrabadi, Alireza Bahonar, Kamran Mirzaei, Aidin Molouki, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Farshad Tehrani, Swee Hua Erin Lim
Avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran and causes substantial economic loss to the growing poultry industry within the country. In this study, a cross-sectional analysis was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of H9N2 in several commercial farms between the years 2014 and 2015. The comparison of the mean of serum titers and the ratio of sero-positive birds between all units were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. In 2014, a total of 77 farms (58 turkey farms, 14 quail farms, and 5 partridge farms) and 894 birds (682 turkeys, 154 quails, and 58 partridges) were sampled while in 2015, a total of 69 farms (54 turkey farms, 8 quail farms, and 7 partridge farms) and 856 birds (675 turkeys, 105 quails, and 76 partridges) were sampled...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Denis Malvy, Daouda Sissoko, Alseny-Modet Camara
During the 2013-2016 west African Ebola outbreak that affected West Africa, accelerated clinical trials, testing unproven but promising and potentially lifesaving experimental interventions emerged as a key component of the global outbreak. In 2017, no Ebola medical countermeasures had proven antiviral efficacy in patients. However, in September 2014, the World Health Organization inventoried a list of potential drug candidates developed or repurposed with demonstrated antiviral efficacy in vitro or in animal models...
October 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Helena A Yu, Alexander Spira, Leora Horn, Jared Weiss, Howard West, Giuseppe Giaccone, Tracey Evans, Ronan J Kelly, Bhardwaj Desai, Andrew Krivoshik, Diarmuid Moran, Srinivasu Poondru, Fei Jie, Kouji Aoyama, Anne Keating, Geoffrey R Oxnard
Purpose: Acquired EGFR T790M mutations are the most frequently identified resistance mechanism to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers. ASP8273 is a third-generation EGFR TKI with antitumor activity in preclinical models of EGFR-mutant lung cancer that targets mutant EGFR, including EGFR T790M.Experimental Design: In this multicohort, phase I study (NCT02113813), escalating doses of ASP8273 (25-500 mg) were administered once daily to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with disease progression after prior treatment with an EGFR TKI...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Paulo Roberto Urbano, Dennis Minoru Fujita, Camila Malta Romano
INTRODUCTION: Neglected infectious diseases like mumps may be opportunistic in controlled areas with low vaccine coverage, particularly in developed and emerging countries. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of mumps-related data from 2001 to 2016 for São Paulo State, Brazil was conducted. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2015, there was an increase of 82% in reported mumps cases in São Paulo, with prevalence of n=49 and 297, respectively in young adults aged 15-29 years...
July 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Sarika Amdekar, Deepti Parashar, Kalichamy Alagarasu
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of Alphavirus genus, is responsible for chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by the presence of fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Reemergence of CHIKV has become a significant public health concern in Asian and African countries and is newly emerging in the Middle East, Pacific, American, and European countries. Cytokines, innate (monocytes, natural killer cells) and adaptive immune response (role of B cells and T cells i.e. CD4+ and CD8+ ), and/or viral factors contribute to CHIKV-induced arthritis...
December 2017: Viral Immunology
Cécile Khou, Nathalie Pardigon
Emerging Flaviviruses pose an increasing threat to global human health. To date, human vaccines against yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) exist. However, there is no human vaccine against other Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In order to restrict their spread and to protect populations against the diseases they induce, vaccines against these emerging viruses must be designed. Obtaining new live attenuated Flavivirus vaccines using molecular biology methods is now possible...
2017: Intervirology
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