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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315832/modulating-crossover-frequency-and-interference-for-obligate-crossovers-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-meiosis
#1
Parijat Chakraborty, Ajith V Pankajam, Gen Lin, Abhishek Dutta, Krishnaprasad G Nandanan, Manu M Tekkedil, Akira Shinohara, Lars M Steinmetz, Nishant K Thazath
Meiotic crossover frequencies show wide variation among organisms. But most organisms maintain at least one crossover per homolog pair (obligate crossover). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous studies have shown crossover frequencies are reduced in the mismatch repair related mutant mlh3Δ and enhanced in a meiotic checkpoint mutant pch2Δ by up to two-fold at specific chromosomal loci, but both mutants maintain high spore viability. We analyzed meiotic recombination events genome-wide in mlh3Δ, pch2Δ and mlh3Δ pch2Δ mutants to test the effect of variation in crossover frequency on obligate crossovers...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242657/tn6350-a-novel-transposon-carrying-pyocin-s8-genes-encoding-a-bacteriocin-with-activity-against-carbapenemase-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Helena Turano, Fernando Gomes, Gesiele A Barros-Carvalho, Ralf Lopes, Louise Cerdeira, Luis E S Netto, Ana C Gales, Nilton Lincopan
A novel transposon belonging to the Tn3-like family was identified on the chromosome of a commensal strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST2343. Tn6350 is 7,367 bp in size, harboring eight ORFs, an ATPase (IS481 family), a transposase (DDE catalytic type), a Tn3 resolvase, three hypothetical proteins, and genes encoding the new pyocin S8 with their immunity protein. We show that pyocin S8 displays activity against carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa, including IMP-1, SPM-1, VIM-1, GES-5 and KPC-2 producers.
February 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238763/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-atpase-that-interacts-with-holliday-junction-resolvase-hjc-and-promotes-branch-migration
#3
Binyuan Zhai, Kevin DuPrez, Tzanko I Doukov, Huan Li, Mengting Huang, Guijun Shang, Jinfeng Ni, Lichuan Gu, Yulong Shen, Li Fan
Holliday junction (HJ) is a hallmark intermediate in DNA recombination and must be processed by dissolution (for double HJ) or resolution to ensure genome stability. Although HJ resolvases have been identified in all domains of life, there is a long-standing effort to search in prokaryotes and eukarya for proteins promoting HJ migration. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a novel ATPase, Sulfolobus islandicusPilT N-terminal-domain-containing ATPase (SisPINA), encoded by the gene adjacent to the resolvase Hjc coding gene...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180323/the-borrelia-burgdorferi-telomere-resolvase-rest-possesses-atp-dependent-dna-unwinding-activity
#4
Shu Hui Huang, McKayla R Cozart, Madison A Hart, Kerri Kobryn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096179/dbf4-dependent-kinase-and-the-rtt107-scaffold-promote-mus81-mms4-resolvase-activation-during-mitosis
#5
Lissa N Princz, Philipp Wild, Julia Bittmann, F Javier Aguado, Miguel G Blanco, Joao Matos, Boris Pfander
DNA repair by homologous recombination is under stringent cell cycle control. This includes the last step of the reaction, disentanglement of DNA joint molecules (JMs). Previous work has established that JM resolving nucleases are activated specifically at the onset of mitosis. In case of budding yeast Mus81-Mms4, this cell cycle stage-specific activation is known to depend on phosphorylation by CDK and Cdc5 kinases. Here, we show that a third cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK), targets Mus81-Mms4 in conjunction with Cdc5-both kinases bind to as well as phosphorylate Mus81-Mms4 in an interdependent manner...
March 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049850/resolution-of-single-and-double-holliday-junction-recombination-intermediates-by-gen1
#6
Rajvee Shah Punatar, Maria Jose Martin, Haley D M Wyatt, Ying Wai Chan, Stephen C West
Genetic recombination provides an important mechanism for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Homologous pairing and strand exchange lead to the formation of DNA intermediates, in which sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes are covalently linked by four-way Holliday junctions (HJs). Depending on the type of recombination reaction that takes place, intermediates may have single or double HJs, and their resolution is essential for proper chromosome segregation. In mitotic cells, double HJs are primarily dissolved by the BLM helicase-TopoisomeraseIIIα-RMI1-RMI2 (BTR) complex, whereas single HJs (and double HJs that have escaped the attention of BTR) are resolved by structure-selective endonucleases known as HJ resolvases...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049740/resolvase-osgen1-mediates-dna-repair-by-homologous-recombination
#7
Chong Wang, James D Higgins, Yi He, Pingli Lu, Dabing Zhang, Wanqi Liang
Yen1/GEN1 are canonical Holliday junction resolvases that belong to the RAD2/XPG family. In eukaryotes, such as budding yeast, mice, worms, and humans, Yen1/GEN1 work together with Mus81-Mms4/MUS81-EME1 and Slx1-Slx4/SLX1-SLX4 in DNA repair by homologous recombination to maintain genome stability. In plants, the biological function of Yen1/GEN1 remains largely unclear. In this study, we characterized the loss of function mutants of OsGEN1 and OsSEND1, a pair of paralogs of Yen1/GEN1 in rice (Oryza sativa). We first investigated the role of OsGEN1 during meiosis and found a reduction in chiasma frequency by ∼6% in osgen1 mutants, compared to the wild type, suggesting a possible involvement of OsGEN1 in the formation of crossovers...
February 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940553/the-borrelia-burgdorferi-telomere-resolvase-rest-possesses-atp-dependent-dna-unwinding-activity
#8
Shu Hui Huang, McKayla R Cozart, Madison A Hart, Kerri Kobryn
Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes harboring multiple linear and circular replicons. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin (hp) telomeres. Hairpin telomeres are formed from replicated intermediates by the telomere resolvase, ResT, in a phosphoryl transfer reaction with mechanistic similarities to those promoted by type 1B topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. There is growing evidence that ResT is multifunctional. Upon ResT depletion DNA replication unexpectedly ceases...
December 9, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908236/interaction-between-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-mitochondrial-dna-binding-protein-abf2p-and-cce1p-resolvase
#9
E O Samoilova, I A Krasheninnikov, S A Levitskii
Mitochondrial DNA is susceptible to the action of reactive oxygen species generated by the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation. Homologous recombination is one of the mechanisms providing integrity of the mitochondrial genome. Some proteins that take part in this process in budding yeast mitochondria have been identified. These include Abf2p, the major protein of the mt-nucleoid that specifically binds cruciform DNA, and Cce1p - Holliday junction resolvase. Here we show that Abf2p does not significantly affect either binding of Cce1p to branched DNA or rate and specificity of Holliday junction resolution...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891116/complete-genome-sequence-of-clostridium-estertheticum-dsm-8809-a-microbe-identified-in-spoiled-vacuum-packed-beef
#10
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Evan Brennan, Rachael Reid, Patrick G Wall, Peadar Ó Gaora, Daniel Hurley, Declan Bolton, Séamus Fanning
Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855779/local-chromosome-context-is-a-major-determinant-of-crossover-pathway-biochemistry-during-budding-yeast-meiosis
#11
Darpan Medhi, Alastair Sh Goldman, Michael Lichten
The budding yeast genome contains regions where meiotic recombination initiates more frequently than in others. This pattern parallels enrichment for the meiotic chromosome axis proteins Hop1 and Red1. These proteins are important for Spo11-catalyzed double strand break formation; their contribution to crossover recombination remains undefined. Using the sequence-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) to initiate recombination in meiosis, we show that chromosome structure influences the choice of proteins that resolve recombination intermediates to form crossovers...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806301/meiotic-nuclear-oscillations-are-necessary-to-avoid-excessive-chromosome-associations
#12
Mariola R Chacón, Petrina Delivani, Iva M Tolić
Pairing of homologous chromosomes is a crucial step in meiosis, which in fission yeast depends on nuclear oscillations. However, how nuclear oscillations help pairing is unknown. Here, we show that homologous loci typically pair when the spindle pole body is at the cell pole and the nucleus is elongated, whereas they unpair when the spindle pole body is in the cell center and the nucleus is round. Inhibition of oscillations demonstrated that movement is required for initial pairing and that prolonged association of loci leads to mis-segregation...
November 1, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779184/replication-intermediates-that-escape-dna2-activity-are-processed-by-holliday-junction-resolvase-yen1
#13
Gizem Ölmezer, Maryna Levikova, Dominique Klein, Benoît Falquet, Gabriele Alessandro Fontana, Petr Cejka, Ulrich Rass
Cells have evolved mechanisms to protect, restart and repair perturbed replication forks, allowing full genome duplication, even under replication stress. Interrogating the interplay between nuclease-helicase Dna2 and Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase Yen1, we find the Dna2 helicase activity acts parallel to homologous recombination (HR) in promoting DNA replication and chromosome detachment at mitosis after replication fork stalling. Yen1, but not the HJ resolvases Slx1-Slx4 and Mus81-Mms4, safeguards chromosome segregation by removing replication intermediates that escape Dna2...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565373/reduced-kinase-activity-of-polo-kinase-cdc5-affects-chromosome-stability-and-dna-damage-response-in-s-cerevisiae
#14
Chetan C Rawal, Sara Riccardo, Chiara Pesenti, Matteo Ferrari, Federica Marini, Achille Pellicioli
Polo-like kinases (PLKs) control several aspects of eukaryotic cell division and DNA damage response. Remarkably, PLKs are overexpressed in several types of cancer, being therefore a marker of bad prognosis. As such, specific PLK kinase activity inhibitors are already used in clinical trials and the regulation of PLK activation is a relevant topic of cancer research. Phosphorylation of threonine residues in the T-loop of the kinase domain is pivotal for PLKs activation. Here, we show that T238A substitution in the T-loop reduces the kinase activity of Cdc5, the only PLK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with minor effect on cell growth in unperturbed conditions...
November 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527105/novel-heterologous-bacterial-system-reveals-enhanced-susceptibility-to-dna-damage-mediated-by-yqgf-a-nearly-ubiquitous-and-often-essential-gene
#15
Dylan J McClung, Abigail Calixto, Mackenzie N Mosera, Raagni Kumar, Ellen L Neidle, Kathryn T Elliott
Despite its presence in most bacteria, yqgF remains one of only 13 essential genes of unknown function in Escherichia coli. Predictions of YqgF function often derive from sequence similarity to RuvC, the canonical Holliday junction resolvase. To clarify its role, we deleted yqgF from a bacterium where it is not essential, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Loss of yqgF impaired growth and increased the frequency of transformation and allelic replacement (TAR). When E. coli yqgF was inserted in place of its A. baylyi chromosomal orthologue, wild-type growth and TAR were restored...
October 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407146/single-molecule-imaging-reveals-a-common-mechanism-shared-by-g-quadruplex-resolving-helicases
#16
Ramreddy Tippana, Helen Hwang, Patricia L Opresko, Vilhelm A Bohr, Sua Myong
G-quadruplex (GQ) is a four stranded DNA secondary structure that arises from a guanine rich sequence. Stable formation of GQ in genomic DNA can be counteracted by the resolving activity of specialized helicases including RNA helicase AU (associated with AU rich elements) (RHAU) (G4 resolvase 1), Bloom helicase (BLM), and Werner helicase (WRN). However, their substrate specificity and the mechanism involved in GQ unfolding remain uncertain. Here, we report that RHAU, BLM, and WRN exhibit distinct GQ conformation specificity, but use a common mechanism of repetitive unfolding that leads to disrupting GQ structure multiple times in succession...
July 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383418/gen1-and-eme1-play-redundant-roles-in-dna-repair-and-meiotic-recombination-in-mice
#17
Xiaowen Wang, Herui Wang, Bin Guo, Ya Zhang, Yinv Gong, Chi Zhang, Hong Xu, Xiaohui Wu
Resolution of the Holliday junction (HJ) is essential for homologous recombination and DNA repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HJ resolvase Yen1 and the Mus81-Mms4 complex are redundant in DNA damage repair. In cultured mammalian cells, such redundancy also exists between Yen1 ortholog GEN1 and the Mus81-Mms1 ortholog MUS81-EME1. In this report, we further tested if GEN1 and EME1 redundantly affect HJ-related physiological processes in mice. We found that combined homozygous mutations of Gen1 and Eme1 led to synthetic lethality during early embryonic stages...
October 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345943/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ruvx-is-a-holliday-junction-resolvase-formed-by-dimerisation-of-the-monomeric-yqgf-nuclease-domain
#18
Astha Nautiyal, P Sandhya Rani, Gary J Sharples, K Muniyappa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284361/effect-of-gen1-interference-on-the-chemosensitivity-of-the-breast-cancer-mcf-7-and-skbr3-cell-lines
#19
Yunlu Wu, Ying Qian, Guozhong Zhou, Juan Lv, Qiuyue Yan, Xuejun Dong
Chemotherapy is a notable method for the treatment of breast cancer. Numerous genes associated with the sensitivity of cancer to chemotherapy have been found. In recent years, evidence has suggested that a particular structure termed Holliday junction (HJ) plays a crucial role in cancer chemosensitivity. Targeting HJ resolvases, such as structure-specific endonuclease subunit SLX4 (Slx4) and MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease subunit (Mus81), significantly increases the chemosensitivity of tumor cells. Flap endonuclease GEN homolog 1 (GEN1) is a HJ resolvase that belongs to the Rad2/xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G nuclease family...
June 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245214/nucleo-cytoplasmic-shuttling-of-the-endonuclease-ankyrin-repeats-and-lem-domain-containing-protein-1-ankle1-is-mediated-by-canonical-nuclear-export-and-nuclear-import-signals
#20
Livija Zlopasa, Andreas Brachner, Roland Foisner
BACKGROUND: Ankyrin repeats and LEM domain containing protein 1 (Ankle1) belongs to the LEM protein family, whose members share a chromatin-interacting LEM motif. Unlike most other LEM proteins, Ankle1 is not an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane but shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It contains a GIY-YIG-type nuclease domain, but its function is unknown. The mammalian genome encodes only one other GIY-YIG domain protein, termed Slx1. Slx1 has been described as a resolvase that processes Holliday junctions during homologous recombination-mediated DNA double strand break repair...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
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