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Chetan C Rawal, Sara Riccardo, Chiara Pesenti, Matteo Ferrari, Federica Marini, Achille Pellicioli
Polo-like kinases (PLKs) control several aspects of eukaryotic cell division and DNA damage response. Remarkably, PLKs are overexpressed in several types of cancer, being therefore a marker of bad prognosis. As such, specific PLK kinase activity inhibitors are already used in clinical trial and the regulation of PLK activation is a relevant topic of cancer research. Phosphorylation of threonine residues in the T-loop of the kinase domain is pivotal for PLKs activation. Here, we show that T238A substitution in the T-loop reduces the kinase activity of Cdc5, the only PLK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with minor effect on cell growth in unperturbed conditions...
August 26, 2016: Cell Cycle
Dylan J McClung, Abigail Calixto, Mackenzie N Mosera, Raagni Kumar, Ellen L Neidle, Kathryn T Elliott
Despite its presence in most bacteria, yqgF remains one of only 13 essential genes of unknown function in Escherichia coli. Predictions of YqgF function often derive from sequence similarity to RuvC, the canonical Holliday junction resolvase. To clarify its role, we deleted yqgF from a bacterium where it is not essential, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Loss of yqgF impaired growth and increased the frequency of transformation and allelic replacement (TAR). When E. coli yqgF was inserted in place of its A. baylyi chromosomal ortholog, wild-type growth and TAR were restored...
August 15, 2016: Microbiology
Ramreddy Tippana, Helen Hwang, Patricia L Opresko, Vilhelm A Bohr, Sua Myong
G-quadruplex (GQ) is a four stranded DNA secondary structure that arises from a guanine rich sequence. Stable formation of GQ in genomic DNA can be counteracted by the resolving activity of specialized helicases including RNA helicase AU (associated with AU rich elements) (RHAU) (G4 resolvase 1), Bloom helicase (BLM), and Werner helicase (WRN). However, their substrate specificity and the mechanism involved in GQ unfolding remain uncertain. Here, we report that RHAU, BLM, and WRN exhibit distinct GQ conformation specificity, but use a common mechanism of repetitive unfolding that leads to disrupting GQ structure multiple times in succession...
July 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaowen Wang, Herui Wang, Bin Guo, Ya Zhang, Yinv Gong, Chi Zhang, Hong Xu, Xiaohui Wu
Resolution of the Holliday junction (HJ) is essential for homologous recombination and DNA repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HJ resolvase Yen1 and the Mus81-Mms4 complex are redundant in DNA damage repair. In cultured mammalian cells, such redundancy also exists between Yen1 ortholog GEN1 and the Mus81-Mms1 ortholog MUS81-EME1. In this report, we further tested if GEN1 and EME1 redundantly affect HJ-related physiological processes in mice. We found that combined homozygous mutations of Gen1 and Eme1 led to synthetic lethality during early embryonic stages...
July 6, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Astha Nautiyal, P Sandhya Rani, Gary J Sharples, K Muniyappa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Yunlu Wu, Ying Qian, Guozhong Zhou, Juan Lv, Qiuyue Yan, Xuejun Dong
Chemotherapy is a notable method for the treatment of breast cancer. Numerous genes associated with the sensitivity of cancer to chemotherapy have been found. In recent years, evidence has suggested that a particular structure termed Holliday junction (HJ) plays a crucial role in cancer chemosensitivity. Targeting HJ resolvases, such as structure-specific endonuclease subunit SLX4 (Slx4) and MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease subunit (Mus81), significantly increases the chemosensitivity of tumor cells. Flap endonuclease GEN homolog 1 (GEN1) is a HJ resolvase that belongs to the Rad2/xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G nuclease family...
June 2016: Oncology Letters
Livija Zlopasa, Andreas Brachner, Roland Foisner
BACKGROUND: Ankyrin repeats and LEM domain containing protein 1 (Ankle1) belongs to the LEM protein family, whose members share a chromatin-interacting LEM motif. Unlike most other LEM proteins, Ankle1 is not an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane but shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It contains a GIY-YIG-type nuclease domain, but its function is unknown. The mammalian genome encodes only one other GIY-YIG domain protein, termed Slx1. Slx1 has been described as a resolvase that processes Holliday junctions during homologous recombination-mediated DNA double strand break repair...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Yihui Yuan, Meiying Gao
Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michaela Šimčíková, Cláudia P A Alves, Liliana Brito, Kristala L J Prather, Duarte M F Prazeres, Gabriel A Monteiro
The use of minicircles in gene therapy applications is dependent on the availability of high-producer cell systems. In order to improve the performance of minicircle production in Escherichia coli by ParA resolvase-mediated in vivo recombination, we focus on the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of parA messenger RNA (mRNA). The arabinose-inducible PBAD/araC promoter controls ParA expression and strains with improved arabinose uptake are used. The 27-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of parA mRNA was optimized using a predictive thermodynamic model...
August 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shu Hui Huang, Kerri Kobryn
Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes that consist in a linear chromosome and multiple linear and circular plasmids. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin ends, referred to as hairpin telomeres. The hairpin telomeres represent a simple solution to the end-replication problem. Deoxyribonucleic acid replication initiates internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the hairpin telomeres. The telomere resolvase, ResT, forms the hairpin telomeres from replicated telomere intermediates in a reaction with similarities to those promoted by type IB topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases...
June 20, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Yao Zhai, Zilong He, Yu Kang, Haiying Yu, Jianfeng Wang, Pengcheng Du, Zhao Zhang, Songnian Hu, Zhancheng Gao
The complete 284,628bp sequence of pH11, an IncHI2 plasmid, was determined through single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Harbored by a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain H11, and isolated in Beijing, this plasmid contains multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including catA2, aac(6')-Ib, strB, strA, dfrA19, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-12, sul1, qacE delta 1, ereA, arr2, and aac3. The aac(6')-Ib is carried by a class I integron. Plasmid pH11 also carries several genes associated with resistance to heavy metals, such as tellurium, mercury, cobalt, zinc, nickel, copper, lead and cadmium...
July 2016: Plasmid
Robert G Lloyd, Christian J Rudolph
The RecG protein of Escherichia coli is a double-stranded DNA translocase that unwinds a variety of branched substrates in vitro. Although initially associated with homologous recombination and DNA repair, studies of cells lacking RecG over the past 25 years have led to the suggestion that the protein might be multi-functional and associated with a number of additional cellular processes, including initiation of origin-independent DNA replication, the rescue of stalled or damaged replication forks, replication restart, stationary phase or stress-induced 'adaptive' mutations and most recently, naïve adaptation in CRISPR-Cas immunity...
April 2, 2016: Current Genetics
Huiguang Li, Young Hwang, Kay Perry, Frederic Bushman, Gregory D Van Duyne
Poxviruses replicate their linear genomes by forming concatemers that must be resolved into monomeric units to produce new virions. A viral resolvase cleaves DNA four-way junctions extruded at the concatemer junctions to produce monomeric genomes. This cleavage reaction is required for viral replication, so the resolvase is an attractive target for small molecule inhibitors. To provide a platform for understanding resolvase mechanism and designing inhibitors, we have determined the crystal structure of the canarypox virus (CPV) resolvase...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ye Hong, Remi Sonneville, Ana Agostinho, Bettina Meier, Bin Wang, J Julian Blow, Anton Gartner
Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) to generate crossovers (COs) during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair...
March 2016: PLoS Genetics
Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Harlan R Barker, Martti E E Tolvanen, Seppo Parkkila, Vesa P Hytönen
BACKGROUND: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a movement of genetic information occurring outside of normal mating activities. It is especially common between prokaryotic endosymbionts and their protozoan, insect, and nematode hosts. Although beta carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) plays a crucial role in metabolic functions of many living organisms, the origin of β-CA genes in eukaryotic species remains unclear. METHODS: This study was conducted using phylogenetics, prediction of subcellular localization, and identification of β-CA, transposase, integrase, and resolvase genes on the MGEs of bacteria...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Aruna Govindaraju, Jeremy D Cortez, Brad Reveal, Shawn M Christensen
Non-LTR retrotransposons are an important class of mobile elements that insert into host DNA by target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Non-LTR retrotransposons must bind to their mRNA, recognize and cleave their target DNA, and perform TPRT at the site of DNA cleavage. As DNA binding and cleavage are such central parts of the integration reaction, a better understanding of the endonuclease encoded by non-LTR retrotransposons is needed. This paper explores the R2 endonuclease domain from Bombyx mori using in vitro studies and in silico modeling...
April 20, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Renata Galetti, Leonardo Neves Andrade, Michael Chandler, Alessandro de Mello Varani, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini
The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type 244 from Brazil. The blaKPC-2 gene was detected in a new small plasmid, pBH6. Complete sequencing revealed that pBH6 was 3,652 bp long and included the Tn3 resolvase and Tn3 inverted repeat (IR), a partial copy of ISKpn6, and a putative ori region but no rep genes. pBH6 replicated stably into Escherichia coli strain DH10B and P. aeruginosa strain PAO.
May 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Qin Chen, Guntram Christiansen, Li Deng, Rainer Kurmayer
BACKGROUND: Bloom-forming cyanobacteria cause toxic algae outbreaks in lakes and reservoirs. We aimed to explore and quantify mutation events occurring within the large mcy gene cluster (55 kbp) encoding microcystin (MC) biosynthesis that inactivate MC net production. For this purpose we developed a workflow to detect mutations in situ occurring anywhere within the large mcy gene cluster as amplified from one single filament of the red-pigmented cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens. From five lakes of the Alps eight hundred Planktothrix filaments were isolated and each individual filament was analyzed for mutations affecting the mcy genes...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Astha Nautiyal, P Sandhya Rani, Gary J Sharples, K Muniyappa
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome possesses homologues of the ruvC and yqgF genes that encode putative Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases. However, their gene expression profiles and enzymatic properties have not been experimentally defined. Here we report that expression of ruvC and yqgF is induced in response to DNA damage. Protein-DNA interaction assays with purified M. tuberculosis RuvC (MtRuvC) and YqgF (MtRuvX) revealed that both associate preferentially with HJ DNA, albeit with differing affinities...
May 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Kazuaki Matsui, Satoshi Yoshinami, Masaru Narita, Mei-Fang Chien, Le T Phung, Simon Silver, Ginro Endo
A total of 65 spore-forming mercury-resistant bacteria were isolated from natural environments worldwide in order to understand the acquisition of additional genes by and dissemination of mercury resistance transposons across related Bacilli genera by horizontal gene movement. PCR amplification using a single primer complementary to the inverted repeat sequence of TnMERI1-like transposons showed that 12 of 65 isolates had a transposon-like structure. There were four types of amplified fragments: Tn5084, Tn5085, Tn(d)MER3 (a newly identified deleted transposon-like fragment) and Tn6294 (a newly identified transposon)...
March 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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