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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750597/dissemination-of-vana-type-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-in-hungary
#1
Szilvia Melegh, Adrienn Nyul, Krisztina Kovács, Tamás Kovács, Ágoston Ghidán, Zsuzsanna Dombrádi, Judit Szabó, Brigitta Berta, Virág Lesinszki, Judit Pászti, Ákos Tóth, Gyula Mestyán
Although vanA carrying Enterococcus faecium human clinical isolates have been rarely found in Hungary before 2012, they have been detected in continuously increasing numbers since then. To identify factors associated with their dissemination, we investigated the clonal relatedness and plasmids of 30 vanA carrying E. faecium isolates originating from different Hungarian healthcare institutions from 2012 to 2014. Molecular typing of the isolates (n = 30) was performed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, Tn1546 polymerase chain reaction mapping, plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and sequencing...
May 11, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625041/mechanistic-view-and-genetic-control-of-dna-recombination-during-meiosis
#2
Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat, Md Muntaz Khan, Jonathan Schott, Xuan Zhu, Bertrand Llorente
Meiotic recombination is essential for fertility and allelic shuffling. Canonical recombination models fail to capture the observed complexity of meiotic recombinants. Here, by combining genome-wide meiotic heteroduplex DNA patterns with meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites, we show that part of this complexity results from frequent template switching during synthesis-dependent strand annealing that yields noncrossovers and from branch migration of double Holliday junction (dHJ)-containing intermediates that mainly yield crossovers...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483821/disruption-of-gen1-causes-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-in-mice
#3
Herui Wang, Chi Zhang, Xiaowen Wang, Yaru Lian, Bin Guo, Miao Han, Xiaoe Zhang, Xiaoting Zhu, Sixian Xu, Zengli Guo, Yunli Bi, Qian Shen, Xiang Wang, Jiaojiao Liu, Yuan Zhuang, Ting Ni, Hong Xu, Xiaohui Wu
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are among the most common developmental defects in humans. Despite of several known CAKUT-related loci ( HNF1B , PAX2 , EYA1 , etc.), the genetic etiology of CAKUT remains to be elucidated for most patients. In this study, we report that disruption of the Holliday Junction resolvase gene Gen1 leads to renal agenesis, duplex kidney, hydronephrosis, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in mice. GEN1 interacts with SIX1 and enhances the transcriptional activity of SIX1/EYA1, a key regulatory complex of the GDNF morphogen...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471050/the-protein-protein-interactions-between-amsacta-moorei-entomopoxvirus-amev-protein-kinases-pks-and-all-viral-proteins
#4
Mehtap Danismazoglu, Remziye Nalcacioglu, Hacer Muratoglu, Zihni Demirbag
Entomopoxviruses are an important group of viruses infecting only insects. They belong to Poxviridae which infect both invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Protein kinases are known to have roles at virus morphogenesis, host selectivity, the regulation of cell division and apoptosis in some vertebrate poxviruses. In this study, 2 protein kinases (PKs) (AMV153 and AMV197) of Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) were investigated for the interactions among 230 viral proteins using yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H)...
March 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458775/preparation-and-resolution-of-holliday-junction-dna-recombination-intermediates
#5
Rajvee Shah Punatar, Stephen C West
Holliday junctions provide a covalent link between recombining DNA molecules and need to be removed prior to chromosome segregation at mitosis. Defects in their resolution lead to mitotic catastrophe, characterized by the formation of DNA breaks and chromosome aberrations. Enzymes that resolve recombination intermediates have been identified in all forms of life, from bacteriophage, to bacteria, yeast, and humans. In higher eukaryotes, Holliday junctions are resolved by GEN1, a nuclease that is mechanistically similar to the prototypic resolvase Escherichia coli RuvC, and by the SMX trinuclease complex...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403466/the-novel-phages-phicd5763-and-phicd2955-represent-two-groups-of-big-plasmidial-siphoviridae-phages-of-clostridium-difficile
#6
Gabriel Ramírez-Vargas, Shan Goh, César Rodríguez
Until recently, Clostridium difficile phages were limited to Myoviruses and Siphoviruses of medium genome length (32-57 kb). Here we report the finding of phiCD5763, a Siphovirus with a large extrachromosomal circular genome (132.5 kb, 172 ORFs) and a large capsid (205.6 ± 25.6 nm in diameter) infecting MLST Clade 1 strains of C. difficile . Two subgroups of big phage genomes similar to phiCD5763 were identified in 32 NAPCR1 /RT012/ST-54 C. difficile isolates from Costa Rica and in whole genome sequences (WGS) of 41 C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348327/genome-instability-as-a-consequence-of-defects-in-the-resolution-of-recombination-intermediates
#7
Stephen C West, Ying Wai Chan
The efficient processing of homologous recombination (HR) intermediates, which often contain four-way structures known as Holliday junctions (HJs), is required for proper chromosome segregation at mitosis. Eukaryotic cells possess three distinct pathways of resolution: (i) HJ dissolution mediated by BLM-topoisomerase IIIα-RMI1-RMI2 (BTR) complex, and HJ resolution catalyzed by either (ii) SLX1-SLX4-MUS81-EME1-XPF-ERCC1 (SMX complex) or (iii) GEN1. The BTR pathway acts at all times throughout the cell cycle, whereas the actions of SMX and GEN1 are restrained in S phase and become elevated late in the cell cycle to ensure the resolution of persistent recombination intermediates before mitotic division...
January 18, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247687/genotypic-variations-between-wild-type-and-small-colony-variant-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-prosthetic-valve-infectious-endocarditis-a-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis
#8
Hongbin Chen, Qi Wang, Yuyao Yin, Shuguang Li, Deng-Ke Niu, Hui Wang
Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (SCVs) can cause persistent infections. However, the genomes and transcriptomes of S. aureus SCVs remain poorly understood. A pair of isogenic wild-type and SCV methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains (IE1 and IE2, respectively) were isolated from a patient with prosthetic valve infectious endocarditis. The SCV strain IE2 grew more slowly than the wild-type strain, and serum killing and mouse lethality assays revealed that the virulence of SCV strain IE2 was decreased...
April 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247012/loss-of-drosophila-mei-41-atr-alters-meiotic-crossover-patterning
#9
Morgan M Brady, Susan McMahan, Jeff Sekelsky
Meiotic crossovers must be properly patterned to ensure accurate disjunction of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I. Disruption of the spatial distribution of crossovers can lead to nondisjunction, aneuploidy, gamete dysfunction, miscarriage, or birth defects. One of the earliest identified genes involved in proper crossover patterning is Drosophila mei-41 , which encodes the ortholog of the checkpoint kinase ATR. Analysis of hypomorphic mutants suggested the existence of crossover patterning defects, but it was not possible to assess this in null mutants because of maternal-effect embryonic lethality...
February 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129742/the-sequence-preference-of-dna-cleavage-by-t4-endonuclease-vii
#10
Megan E Hardie, Vincent Murray
The enzyme T4 endonuclease VII is a resolvase that acts on branched DNA intermediates during genetic recombination, by cleaving DNA with staggered cuts approximately 3-6 bp apart. In this paper, we investigated the sequence preference of this cleavage reaction utilising two different DNA sequences. For the first time, the DNA sequence preference of T4 endonuclease VII cleavage sites has been examined without the presence of a known DNA substrate to mask any inherent nucleotide preference. The use of the ABI3730 platform enables the cleavage site to be determined at nucleotide resolution...
March 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038281/putative-integrative-mobile-elements-that-exploit-the-xer-recombination-machinery-carrying-bla-imi-type-carbapenemase-genes-in-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-isolates-in-singapore
#11
Tse H Koh, Nurdyana Binte Abdul Rahman, Jeanette W P Teo, My-Van La, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Swaine L Chen
Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 16 isolates of the carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex to determine the flanking regions of bla IMI -type genes. Phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targets separated the isolates into 4 clusters. The bla IMI -type genes were all found on Xer-dependent integrative mobile elements (IMEX). The IMEX elements of 5 isolates were similar to those described in Canada, while the remainder were novel. Five isolates had IMEX elements lacking a resolvase and recombinase...
January 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018417/molecular-mechanisms-that-contribute-to-horizontal-transfer-of-plasmids-by-the-bacteriophage-spp1
#12
Ana Valero-Rello, María López-Sanz, Alvaro Quevedo-Olmos, Alexei Sorokin, Silvia Ayora
Natural transformation and viral-mediated transduction are the main avenues of horizontal gene transfer in Firmicutes. Bacillus subtilis SPP1 is a generalized transducing bacteriophage. Using this lytic phage as a model, we have analyzed how viral replication and recombination systems contribute to the transfer of plasmid-borne antibiotic resistances. Phage SPP1 DNA replication relies on essential phage-encoded replisome organizer (G 38 P), helicase loader (G 39 P), hexameric replicative helicase (G 40 P), recombinase (G 35 P) and in less extent on the partially dispensable 5'→3' exonuclease (G 34 ...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961460/bacillus-subtilis-disa-helps-to-circumvent-replicative-stress-during-spore-revival
#13
Marina Raguse, Rubén Torres, Elena M Seco, Carolina Gándara, Silvia Ayora, Ralf Moeller, Juan C Alonso
The mechanisms that allow to circumvent replicative stress, and to resume DNA synthesis are poorly understood in Bacillus subtilis. To study the role of the diadenylate cyclase DisA and branch migration translocase (BMT) RadA/Sms in restarting a stalled replication fork, we nicked and broke the circular chromosome of an inert mature haploid spore, damaged the bases, and measured survival of reviving spores. During undisturbed ripening, nicks and breaks should be repaired by pathways that do not invoke long-range end resection or genetic exchange by homologous recombination, after which DNA replication might be initiated...
November 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934297/molecular-and-biological-characterization-of-%C3%AF-rs551-a-filamentous-bacteriophage-isolated-from-a-race-3-biovar-2-strain-of-ralstonia-solanacearum
#14
Abdelmonim Ali Ahmad, Michael J Stulberg, John Patrick Mershon, Dimitre S Mollov, Qi Huang
A filamentous bacteriophage, designated ϕRs551, was isolated and purified from the quarantine and select agent phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551 (phylotype IIB sequevar 1) grown under normal culture conditions. Electron microscopy suggested that ϕRs551 is a member of the family Inoviridae, and is about 1200 nm long and 7 nm wide. ϕRs551 has a genome of 7929 nucleotides containing 14 open reading frames, and is the first isolated virion that contains a resolvase (ORF13) and putative type-2 phage repressor (ORF14)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922417/lingering-single-strand-breaks-trigger-rad51-independent-homology-directed-repair-of-collapsed-replication-forks-in-the-polynucleotide-kinase-phosphatase-mutant-of-fission-yeast
#15
Arancha Sanchez, Mariana C Gadaleta, Oliver Limbo, Paul Russell
The DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) protects genome integrity by restoring ligatable 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini at single-strand breaks (SSBs). In humans, PNKP mutations underlie the neurological disease known as MCSZ, but these individuals are not predisposed for cancer, implying effective alternative repair pathways in dividing cells. Homology-directed repair (HDR) of collapsed replication forks was proposed to repair SSBs in PNKP-deficient cells, but the critical HDR protein Rad51 is not required in PNKP-null (pnk1Δ) cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805810/trf2-binds-branched-dna-to-safeguard-telomere-integrity
#16
Isabelle Schmutz, Leonid Timashev, Wei Xie, Dinshaw J Patel, Titia de Lange
Although t-loops protect telomeres, they are at risk of cleavage by Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases if branch migration converts the three-way t-loop junction into four-way HJs. T-loop cleavage is repressed by the TRF2 basic domain, which binds three- and four-way junctions and protects HJs in vitro. By replacing the basic domain with bacterial-protein domains binding three- and four-way junctions, we demonstrated the in vivo relevance of branched-DNA binding. Branched-DNA binding also repressed PARP1, presumably by masking the PARP1 site in the t-loop junction...
September 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532385/erratum-to-the-holliday-junction-resolvase-recu-is-required-for-chromosome-segregation-and-dna-damage-repair-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Ana R Pereira, Patricia Reed, Helena Veiga, Mariana G Pinho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511132/activity-and-in-vivo-dynamics-of-bacillus-subtilis-disa-are-affected-by-rada-sms-and-by-holliday-junction-processing-proteins
#18
Carolina Gándara, Daniella K C de Lucena, Rubén Torres, Ester Serrano, Stephan Altenburger, Peter L Graumann, Juan C Alonso
Bacillus subtilis c-di-AMP synthase DisA and RecA-related RadA/Sms are involved in the repair of DNA damage in exponentially growing cells. We provide genetic evidence that DisA or RadA/Sms is epistatic to the branch migration translocase (BMT) RecG and the Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase RecU in response to DNA damage. We provide genetic evidence damage. Functional DisA-YFP formed dynamic foci in exponentially growing cells, which moved through the nucleoids at a speed compatible with a DNA-scanning mode...
July 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495749/holliday-junction-resolvases-mediate-chloroplast-nucleoid-segregation
#19
Yusuke Kobayashi, Osami Misumi, Masaki Odahara, Kota Ishibashi, Masafumi Hirono, Kumi Hidaka, Masayuki Endo, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa, Toshiharu Shikanai, Yoshiki Nishimura
Holliday junctions, four-stranded DNA structures formed during homologous recombination, are disentangled by resolvases that have been found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes but not in plant organelles. Here, we identify monokaryotic chloroplast 1 (MOC1) as a Holliday junction resolvase in chloroplasts by analyzing a green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant defective in chloroplast nucleoid (DNA-protein complex) segregation. MOC1 is structurally similar to a bacterial Holliday junction resolvase, resistance to ultraviolet (Ruv) C, and genetically conserved among green plants...
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453523/the-mismatch-repair-and-meiotic-recombination-endonuclease-mlh1-mlh3-is-activated-by-polymer-formation-and-can-cleave-dna-substrates-in-trans
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Carol M Manhart, Xiaodan Ni, Martin A White, Joaquin Ortega, Jennifer A Surtees, Eric Alani
Crossing over between homologs is initiated in meiotic prophase by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks that occur throughout the genome. In the major interference-responsive crossover pathway in baker's yeast, these breaks are resected to form 3' single-strand tails that participate in a homology search, ultimately forming double Holliday junctions (dHJs) that primarily include both homologs. These dHJs are resolved by endonuclease activity to form exclusively crossovers, which are critical for proper homolog segregation in Meiosis I...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
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