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Muhammad Shahab, Margaret Lippincott, Yee-Ming Chan, Addie Davies, Paulina M Merino, Lacey Plummer, Veronica Mericq, Stephanie Seminara
Context: Hypothalamic kisspeptin signaling plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of reproductive function. Biallelic mutations in the coding sequence of KISS1R (GPR54) have been identified in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), but it is unknown whether biallelic variants can also be associated with related reproductive disorders. Case description: A missense homozygous variant (c.890G>T p.R297L) in KISS1R was identified in a child who presented with microphallus and bilateral cryptorchidism...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Frances L Forrest, Thomas W Plummer, Ryan L Raaum
The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Kirsten White, Will Garner, Lilian Wei, Joseph J Eron, Lijie Zhong, Michael D Miller, Hal Martin, Andrew Plummer, Cecilia Tran-Muchowski, Kim Lindstrom, James Porter, David Piontkowsky, Angela Light, Heinz Reiske, Erin Quirk
OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of HIV-1 RNA repeat testing of stored samples in cases of low-level viremia during clinical trials. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective analysis of randomized clinical trial samples and reference standards. METHODS: To evaluate assay variability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0, three separate sources of samples were utilized: the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV reference standard (assayed using 50 independent measurements at six viral loads <200 copies/ml), retrospective analysis of four to six aliquots of plasma samples from four clinical trial participants, and prospective repeat testing of 120 samples from participants in randomized trials with low-level viremia...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Catherine de Martel, Silvia Franceschi, Martyn Plummer
High-quality data on liver cancers by probable cause are scarce in many regions of the world. The United Nations recently set a goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030. We aimed to estimate the number of new cases of cancers attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) at a global, regional and country level, and by development status. We used data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV in hepatocellular carcinoma from a systematic review including 119 000 cases in 260 studies covering 50 countries...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Carolyn Young, Clive Bock, Nikki Charlton, Chakradhar Mattupalli, Nick D Krom, Joanna K Bowen, Matt David Templeton, Kim Plummer, Bruce W Wood
Venturia effusa (syn. Fusicladium effusum), causal agent of pecan scab, is the most prevalent pathogen of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) causing severe yield losses in the southeastern U.S.A. Venturia effusa is currently known only by its asexual (conidial) stage. However, the degree and distribution of genetic diversity observed within and among populations of V. effusa are typical of a sexually reproducing fungal pathogen, and comparable to other Dothideomycetes with a known sexual stage, including the closely related apple scab pathogen, V...
January 30, 2018: Phytopathology
Masanari Kuwabara, Mayumi Tanaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Mark P Plummer, Natalia Notkina, Ivan Timofeev, Peter J Hutchinson, Mark E Finnis, Arun K Gupta
BACKGROUND: Optimal glycaemic targets for patients with severe traumatic brain injury remain unclear. The primary objective of this microdialysis study was to compare cerebral metabolism with strict versus conventional glycaemic control. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-centre randomised controlled within-subject crossover study of 20 adult patients admitted to an academic neurointensive care unit with severe traumatic brain injury. Patients underwent randomised, consecutive 24-h periods of strict (4-7 mmol/L; 72-126 mg/dl) and conventional (<10 mmol/L; 180 mg/dl) glycaemic control with microdialysis measurements performed hourly...
January 25, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Martin R Gaudinski, Emily E Coates, Katherine V Houser, Grace L Chen, Galina Yamshchikov, Jamie G Saunders, LaSonji A Holman, Ingelise Gordon, Sarah Plummer, Cynthia S Hendel, Michelle Conan-Cibotti, Margarita Gomez Lorenzo, Sandra Sitar, Kevin Carlton, Carolyn Laurencot, Robert T Bailer, Sandeep Narpala, Adrian B McDermott, Aryan M Namboodiri, Janardan P Pandey, Richard M Schwartz, Zonghui Hu, Richard A Koup, Edmund Capparelli, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Julie E Ledgerwood
BACKGROUND: VRC01 is a human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (bnMAb) against the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) that is currently being evaluated in a Phase IIb adult HIV-1 prevention efficacy trial. VRC01LS is a modified version of VRC01, designed for extended serum half-life by increased binding affinity to the neonatal Fc receptor. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This Phase I dose-escalation study of VRC01LS in HIV-negative healthy adults was conducted by the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
Jeroen Hermanides, Mark P Plummer, Mark Finnis, Adam M Deane, Jonathan P Coles, David K Menon
BACKGROUND: Optimal glycaemic targets in traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intensive with conventional glycaemic control in TBI requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to November 2016. Outcomes of interest included ICU and in-hospital mortality, poor neurological outcome, the incidence of hypoglycaemia and infective complications...
January 19, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Xun Jia, Shuyuan Zhang, Raman Sankar, Fang-Cheng Chou, Weihua Wang, K Kempa, E W Plummer, Jiandi Zhang, Xuetao Zhu, Jiandong Guo
Plasmons, the collective excitations of electrons in the bulk or at the surface, play an important role in the properties of materials, and have generated the field of "plasmonics." We report the observation of a highly unusual acoustic plasmon mode on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) Bi_{2}Se_{3}, using momentum resolved inelastic electron scattering. In sharp contrast to ordinary plasmon modes, this mode exhibits almost linear dispersion into the second Brillouin zone and remains prominent with remarkably weak damping not seen in any other systems...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Hillary A Plummer, Federico Pozzi, Lori A Michener
For kinematic studies of the shoulder, electromagnetic sensors are commonly placed on the humerus, scapula, and trunk. The trunk sensor is used to describe humeral and scapular kinematics with respect to the trunk. There are two common trunk sensor placements, the sternum or third thoracic vertebrae (T3). It is currently unclear if placement of the trunk sensor affects kinematics, making it difficult to compare data across studies. The purpose of this study was to compare two trunk sensor placements (T3 and sternum) on trunk and scapular kinematics during arm elevation...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Robert C Lynall, J Troy Blackburn, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Stephen W Marshall, Prudence Plummer, Jason P Mihalik
OBJECTIVE: To compare movement reaction time and joint kinematics between recently concussed and matched control recreational athletes during 3 functional tasks. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty college-aged recreational athletes comprising two groups (15 participants each): 1) Recent concussion group (median time since concussion 126 days, range 28-432 days), and 2) Age- and sex-matched control group with no recent concussions...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jiankai Zhang, Wenshou Tian, Fei Xie, Martyn P Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Seok-Woo Son, N Luke Abraham, Alexander T Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Sandip Dhomse, Yuanyuan Han, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M O'Connor, Giovanni Pitari, David A Plummer, Laura E Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Daniele Visioni, Wuke Wang, Guang Zeng
The Montreal Protocol has succeeded in limiting major ozone-depleting substance emissions, and consequently stratospheric ozone concentrations are expected to recover this century. However, there is a large uncertainty in the rate of regional ozone recovery in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we identify a Eurasia-North America dipole mode in the total column ozone over the Northern Hemisphere, showing negative and positive total column ozone anomaly centres over Eurasia and North America, respectively. The positive trend of this mode explains an enhanced total column ozone decline over the Eurasian continent in the past three decades, which is closely related to the polar vortex shift towards Eurasia...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Feras Sharouf, Asfand Baig Mirza, Vazira Moosajee, Sarah Plummer, Imran M Bhatti, Malik Zaben
In neurosurgery, much emphasis has recently been placed on theatre cancellation and time utilization as a key hospital management performance indicator. We sought to evaluate our unit's theatre throughput efficiency and identify the causes of elective surgery cancellations. We retrospectively audited all scheduled elective neurosurgical procedures over a period of nine months. Mean theatre utilization time was 47.0%. The common causes of cancellations were lack of theatre time (32%), non-availability of beds in recovery room (18...
April 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
Stephanie L Plummer, Frances Corrigan, Emma Thornton, Joshua A Woenig, Robert Vink, Roberto Cappai, Corinna Van Den Heuvel
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neurological damage is ongoing through a complex cascade of primary and secondary injury events in the ensuing minutes, days and weeks. The delayed nature of secondary injury provides a valuable window of opportunity to limit the consequences with a timely treatment. Recently, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its derivative APP96-110 have shown encouraging neuroprotective activity following TBI following an intracerebroventricular administration. Nevertheless, its broader clinical utility would be enhanced by an intravenous (IV) administration...
2018: PloS One
Laura J Black, Bianca da Costa Martins, Caryn E Plummer, Jeffrey R Abbott, Mary K Leissinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Kelvin Robertson, Laurence A G Marshman, Maria Hennessy, Linton Harriss, David Plummer
BACKGROUND: There is currently an absence of high-grade evidence regarding the treatment of chronic sciatica (CS). Whilst gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGB) are both currently used to treat CS, equipoise exists regarding their individual use. In particular, no head-to-head study of GBP and PGB in CS exists. Despite equipoise, most countries' formulary regulatory authorities typically favour one drug for subsidy over the other. This hinders interchange wherever the favoured drug is either ineffective or not tolerated...
January 9, 2018: Trials
Kai Zhang, Xue Bai Pitner, Rui Yang, William D Nix, James D Plummer, Jonathan A Fan
Metal structures on insulators are essential components in advanced electronic and nanooptical systems. Their electronic and optical properties are closely tied to their crystal quality, due to the strong dependence of carrier transport and band structure on defects and grain boundaries. Here we report a method for creating patterned single-crystal metal microstructures on amorphous insulating substrates, using liquid phase epitaxy. In this process, the patterned metal microstructures are encapsulated in an insulating crucible, together with a small seed of a differing material...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Raghavan Sampathkumar, Joel Scott-Herridge, Binhua Liang, Joshua Kimani, Francis A Plummer, Ma Luo
Within the Pumwani sex worker cohort, a subgroup remains seronegative, despite frequent exposure to HIV-1; some of them seroconverted several years later. This study attempts to identify viral variations in 5'LTR-leader sequences (5'LTR-LS) that might contribute to the late seroconversion. The 5'LTR-LS contains sites essential for replication and genome packaging, viz, primer binding site (PBS), major splice donor (SD), and major packaging signal (PS). The 5'LTR-LS of 20 late seroconverters (LSC) and 122 early seroconverters (EC) were amplified, cloned, and sequenced...
December 23, 2017: Viruses
Daniel Lowrie, Robin Ray, David Plummer, Matthew Yau
This narrative review explores the literature regarding the drama of dying from several academic perspectives. Three key themes were identified including "The impact of blurred boundaries on roles and transitions," "The orchestration of death and dying through time," and "Contemporary dying and new machinery of control." This review reveals the manner in which tightly scripted dying roles serve the needs of the living to a greater extent than those of the dying, by ensuring the depiction of both dying and death as phenomena which have been brought under the control of the living, thereby countering death anxiety...
January 1, 2017: Omega
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