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Occipital nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428093/migraine-prevention-using-different-frequencies-of-transcutaneous-occipital-nerve-stimulation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yinglu Liu, Zhao Dong, Rongfei Wang, Ran Ao, Xun Han, Wenjing Tang, Shengyuan Yu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of transcutaneous occipital nerve stimulation (tONS) in patients with migraine, and to explore whether different tONS frequencies influenced treatment effectiveness. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled trial of tONS for prevention of migraine. Patients were randomized to one of five therapeutic groups prior to treatment for 1 month. Groups A-C received tONS at different frequencies (2 Hz, 100 Hz, and 2/100 Hz), group D underwent sham tONS intervention, and group E received topiramate orally...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424953/treatment-update-of-chronic-migraine
#2
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Cho, Tae-Jin Song, Min Kyung Chu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although chronic migraine (CM) is a common disorder that severely impacts patient functioning and quality of life, it is usually underdiagnosed, and treatment responses often remain poor even after diagnosis. In addition, effective treatment options are limited due to the rarity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with CM. In the present review, we discuss updated pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and neurostimulation treatment options for CM...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413721/aspects-of-gorgonopsian-paleobiology-and-evolution-insights-from-the-basicranium-occiput-osseous-labyrinth-vasculature-and-neuroanatomy
#3
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Michael J Polcyn, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations throughout the past 270 Ma, eventually leading to the evolution of the mammalian bauplan. However, the anatomy of some therapsid groups remains obscure. Gorgonopsian braincase anatomy is poorly known and many anatomical aspects of the brain, cranial nerves, vasculature, and osseous labyrinth, remain unclear...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409074/c2-and-greater-occipital-nerve-the-anatomic-and-functional-implications-in-spinal-surgery
#4
M Burhan Janjua, Peter L Zhou, Jeffrey P Greenfield, Ali A Baaj, Anthony Frempong-Boadu
INTRODUCTION: Posterior C1-C2 fusion is a highly successful treatment for atlantoaxial instability and other pathologies of the cervical spine, with fusion rates approaching 95%-100%. However, poor visualization of the lateral masses of C1 secondary to the course of the C2 nerve root along with blood loss from the venous plexus and compression of the C2 nerve from lateral mass screws are technical obstacles that can arise during surgery. Thus, sacrifice of the C2 nerve root has long since been debated in fusions involving the C1 and C2 vertebral bodies...
March 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403437/postretinal-structure-and-function-in-severe-congenital-photoreceptor-blindness-caused-by-mutations-in-the-gucy2d-gene
#5
Geoffrey K Aguirre, Omar H Butt, Ritobrato Datta, Alejandro J Roman, Alexander Sumaroka, Sharon B Schwartz, Artur V Cideciyan, Samuel G Jacobson
Purpose: To examine how severe congenital blindness resulting from mutations of the GUCY2D gene alters brain structure and function, and to relate these findings to the notable preservation of retinal architecture in this form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Methods: Six GUCY2D-LCA patients (ages 20-46) were studied with optical coherence tomography of the retina and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Measurements from this group were compared to those obtained from populations of normally sighted controls and people with congenital blindness of a variety of causes...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402559/occipital-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-neuronal-firing-response-to-mechanical-stimuli-in-the-ventral-posteromedial-thalamus-of-a-rodent-model-of-chronic-migraine
#6
Ian Walling, Heather Smith, Lucy E Gee, Brian Kaszuba, Arun Chockalingam, Andrei Barborica, Cristian Donos, Damian S Shin, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Chronic migraine (CM) is a highly debilitating disease, and many patients remain refractory to medicinal therapy. Given the convergent nature of neuronal networks in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) and the evidence of sensitization of pain circuitry in this disease, we hypothesize CM rats will have increased VPM neuronal firing, which can be attenuated using occipital nerve stimulation (ONS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VPM firing frequency differs between CM and sham rats, and whether ONS significantly alters firing rates during the application of mechanical stimuli...
April 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367282/intraoperative-monitoring-of-flash-visual-evoked-potential-under-general-anesthesia
#7
Hironobu Hayashi, Masahiko Kawaguchi
In neurosurgical procedures that may cause visual impairment in the intraoperative period, the monitoring of flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is clinically used to evaluate visual function. Patients are unconscious during surgery under general anesthesia, making flash VEP monitoring useful as it can objectively evaluate visual function. The flash stimulus input to the retina is transmitted to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation (geniculocalcarine tract), and visual cortical area, and the VEP waveform is recorded from the occipital region...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331643/hemifacial-pain-and-hemisensory-disturbance-referred-from-occipital-neuralgia-caused-by-pathological-vascular-contact-of-the-greater-occipital-nerve
#8
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi
Here we report a unique case of chronic occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact of the left greater occipital nerve. After 12 months of left-sided, unremitting occipital neuralgia, a hypesthesia and facial pain developed in the left hemiface. The decompression of the left greater occipital nerve from pathological contacts with the occipital artery resulted in immediate relief for hemifacial sensory change and facial pain, as well as chronic occipital neuralgia. Although referral of pain from the stimulation of occipital and cervical structures innervated by upper cervical nerves to the frontal head of V1 trigeminal distribution has been reported, the development of hemifacial sensory change associated with referred trigeminal pain from chronic occipital neuralgia is extremely rare...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321566/differential-effects-of-bifrontal-and-occipital-nerve-stimulation-on-pain-and-fatigue-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#9
Wing Ting To, Evan James, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain frequently accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue. Moderate improvement from pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have proposed non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the occipital nerve (more specifically the C2 area) or to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as potential treatments. We aimed to explore the effectiveness of repeated sessions of tDCS (eight sessions) targeting the C2 area and DLPFC in reducing fibromyalgia symptoms, more specifically pain and fatigue...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295242/an-update-on-non-pharmacological-neuromodulation-for-the-acute-and-preventive-treatment-of-migraine
#10
REVIEW
Francesca Puledda, Peter J Goadsby
OBJECTIVE: To review current neuromodulation treatments available for migraine therapy, both in the acute and preventive setting. METHODS: The published literature was reviewed for studies reporting the effects of different neuromodulation strategies in migraine with and without aura. The use of non-invasive: single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation, supraorbital nerve stimulation, and transcranial direct current stimulation, as well as invasive methods such as occipital nerve stimulation and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, are assessed...
April 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284967/etiology-and-treatment-modalities-of-occipital-artery-aneurysms
#11
Nauman S Chaudhry, Brandon G Gaynor, Shahrose Hussain, Paul D Dernbach, Mohammad A Aziz-Sultan
BACKGROUND: Aneurysms of the external carotid artery represent approximately 2% of cervical carotid aneurysms, with the majority being traumatic pseudoaneurysms. Given the paucity of literature available for guidance, the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of such lesions are completely individualized. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report an 83-year-old woman with an 8-week history of headache in the occipital region, transient episode of gait disturbance, and pulsatile tinnitus on the right...
March 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280911/-physiology-of-the-scalp
#12
REVIEW
R Rukwied
BACKGROUND: Human scalp reveals a remarkable difference to hairy skin of other body regions. The structure of the scalp offers effective protection against water loss and contributes to thermoregulation due to significant vascularization. The scalp is innervated by the trigeminus nerve. OBJECTIVES: The majority of the population complain about "sensitive" scalp. However, sensory, regional, ethnic or pathologic parameters contributing to "sensitive" scalp are largely unknown...
March 9, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274277/the-efficacy-of-resection-of-an-intradural-extramedullary-foramen-magnum-cavernous-malformation-presenting-with-repeated-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#13
Tomoya Oishi, Naoto Sakai, Tetsuro Sameshima, Hiroshi Kawaji, Hiroki Namba
BACKGROUND: Intradural extramedullary cavernous angiomas of the central nervous system are a rare type of cavernous angioma, but they can cause fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The efficacy of resection for this type of cavernous malformations remains uncertain. This is the first report to recommend surgical resection of these types of lesions regardless of the fatal condition. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 70-year-old Japanese man who experienced a sudden onset of an occipital headache, followed by bilateral abducens nerve palsy...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271335/central-and-peripheral-neural-targets-for-neurostimulation-of-chronic-headaches
#14
REVIEW
Massimo Leone, Alberto Proietti Cecchini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic headache sufferers are estimated to be around 3% of the population. These patients have a high disease burden. When prophylactic treatments have low efficacy and tolerability, patients are in need of alternative therapeutic strategies and options. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, a number of neuromodulation procedures have been introduced as treatment of chronic intractable headache patients when pharmacological treatments fail or are not well tolerated...
March 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271333/non-invasive-neuromodulation-in-primary-headaches
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Miller, Manjit Matharu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing interest in neuromodulation for primary headache conditions. Invasive modalities such as occipital nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are reserved for the most severe and intractable patients. Non-invasive options such as vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS), supraorbital nerve stimulation (nSONS) and transcranial magnetic nerve stimulation (TMS) have all emerged as potentially useful headache treatments. This review examines the evidence base for non-invasive neuromodulation in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and migraine...
March 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253512/neonatal-hypoglycaemia-and-visual-development-a-review
#16
Nabin Paudel, Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Jo E Hegarty, Jane E Harding, Benjamin Thompson
BACKGROUND: Many newborn babies experience low blood glucose concentrations, a condition referred to as neonatal hypoglycaemia (NH). The effect of NH on visual development in infancy and childhood is of interest because the occipital lobes, which include the primary visual cortex and a number of extrastriate visual areas, may be particularly susceptible to NH-induced injury. In addition, a number of case series have suggested that NH can affect eye and optic nerve development. OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature concerning the effect of NH on the visual system...
March 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247118/do-bilateral-and-unilateral-greater-occipital-nerve-block-effectiveness-differ-in-chronic-migraine-patients
#17
Hanzade Aybüke Ünal-Artık, Levent Ertuğrul İnan, Ceyla Ataç-Uçar, Tahir Kurtuluş Yoldaş
We aimed to compare the effectiveness of bilateral and unilateral block application in chronic migraine patients and whether there were differences in their effectiveness retrospectively. In chronic migraine patients undergoing Greater occipital nerve (GON) block, mean number of days with pain per month before and after block, mean duration of pain in attacks (in hours), and mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in attack and pain severity were recorded from files. The patients underwent one block a week for the first 1 month, thereafter one block a month according to GON block protocol used by our institute...
February 28, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246594/botulinum-toxin-injection-site-selection-for-a-smooth-shoulder-line-an-anatomical-study
#18
Je Hun Lee, Key Youn Lee, Ji Young Kim, Woo Hyeon Son, Ji Heun Jeong, Young Gil Jeong, Seongoh Kwon, Seung Ho Han
Introduction. This study aimed to improve the accuracy of manual needle placement into the trapezius (TM) for smooth shoulder line. Methods. For macroscopic study 12 TMs and for microscopic study 4 cadavers were detached and then sampled, 1⁎1 cm at the four points from the origin to insertion site (0% at the most lateral point of external occipital protuberance and 100% at the most lateral point of acromion). Results. Most of the nerve endings observed during macroscopic investigations were concentrated in the 60-80% region, and the second most distributed region was the 40-60% region...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229400/trans-synaptic-retrograde-degeneration-in-the-human-visual-system-slow-silent-and-real
#19
REVIEW
Marc Dinkin
Degeneration of neuron and axons following injury to cells with which they synapse is termed trans-synaptic degeneration. This phenomenon may be seen in postsynaptic neurons (anterograde) or in presynaptic neurons (retrograde). Retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) of the retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fiber layer following injury to the occipital lobe has been well documented histologically in animal studies, but its occurrence in the human retina was, for many years, felt to be limited to cases of neonatal injury during a critical period of neuronal development...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220607/neurological-and-spinal-manifestations-of-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#20
Fraser C Henderson, Claudiu Austin, Edward Benzel, Paolo Bolognese, Richard Ellenbogen, Clair A Francomano, Candace Ireton, Petra Klinge, Myles Koby, Donlin Long, Sunil Patel, Eric L Singman, Nicol C Voermans
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, skin extensibility, and tissue fragility. This communication briefly reports upon the neurological manifestations that arise including the weakness of the ligaments of the craniocervical junction and spine, early disc degeneration, and the weakness of the epineurium and perineurium surrounding peripheral nerves. Entrapment, deformation, and biophysical deformative stresses exerted upon the nervous system may alter gene expression, neuronal function and phenotypic expression...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
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