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Milk phosphate

N Pujato, C M Camussone, M S Renna, M S Perrig, B Morein, L F Calvinho, I S Marcipar
Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that causes mastitis in dairy herds. Shortcomings in control programs have encouraged the development of vaccines against this pathogen. This study evaluated the vaccine candidate VacR, which included recombinant S. aureus protein clumping factor A (rClf), fibronectin binding protein A (rFnBP) and hemolysin beta (rBt), formulated with a novel immune-stimulating complex. Comparisons were made between healthy pregnant heifers that received either VacR (n=8; VacR group) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) plus adjuvant (control group) SC in the supramammary lymph node area on days 45 and 15 before the expected calving date...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
B Ingham, A Smialowska, N M Kirby, C Wang, A J Carr
The casein micelle is a flexible construct, with its key structural components being casein proteins and colloidal calcium phosphate nanoclusters. According to literature, milk from different species exhibits differences in composition and physicochemical properties. X-ray scattering techniques were used to investigate and compare the nanoscale structure of casein micelles present in cow, goat and sheep milk. Although there were differences in the size and density of larger scale protein structures, at an atomic level the protein structures were similar...
April 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Ganga Sahay Meena, Ashish Kumar Singh, Vijay Kumar Gupta, Sanket Borad, Sumit Arora, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
Poor solubility is the major limiting factor in commercial applications of milk protein concentrates (MPC) powders. Retentate treatments such as pH adjustment using disodium phosphate (Na2 HPO4 ), also responsible for calcium chelation with homogenization and; its diafiltration with 150 mM NaCl solution were hypothesized to improve the functional properties of treated MPC70 powders. These treatments significantly improved the solubility, heat stability, water binding, dispersibility, bulk density, flowability, buffer index, foaming and emulsifying capacity of treated powders over control...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Seiichiro Aoe
Milk contains approximately 110mg of calcium per 100mL of milk, a good source of dietary calcium. The calcium in milk comprises of calcium caseinate, micellar calcium phosphate and soluble calcium. It is also reported that the calcium in milk has an excellent bioavailability. Intervention studies of Japanese women have shown that the absorption rate of calcium in milk was greater than that found in small fish and vegetables. Factors taken into account as contributing to higher absorption rates of calcium in milk were:1)the types of calcium present(caseinate, micellar, soluble), 2)the presence of lactose which promotes calcium absorption, and 3)the presence of casein-phosphopeptide which increases soluble calcium fraction...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Mary Ellen Gilder, Warunee Hanpithakphong, Richard M Hoglund, Joel Tarning, Htun Htun Win, Naw Hilda, Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, Verena I Carrara, Pratap Singhasivanon, Nicholas J White, François Nosten, Rose McGready
Background: Primaquine is the only drug providing radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. It is not recommended for breastfeeding women as it causes hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals, and breast milk excretion and thus infant exposure are not known. Methods: Healthy G6PD normal breastfeeding women with previous P.vivax infection and their healthy G6PD normal infants between 28 days and 2 years old were enrolled. Mothers took primaquine 0...
March 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
André C Garcia, Martina Vavrusova, Leif H Skibsted
Dissolution of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in aqueous citrate at varying pH has been studied with perspective of increasing availability of calcium from sidestreams of whey protein, lactose and/or cheese production or on development of new functional foods. ACP formed as an initial precipitate in 0.10 mol L-1 equimolar aqueous calcium chloride, sodium citrate, and sodium hydrogenphosphate was used as model for mineral residues formed during milk processing. Upon acidification of the ACP suspension by hydrochloric acid decreasing pH from 6...
May 2018: Food Research International
Takamichi Kamigaki, Yosiko Ito, Yuri Nishino, Atsuo Miyazawa
Casein micelles are present in bovine milk as colloidal particles with diameters of 20-600 nm, which are complex macromolecular assemblies composed of four distinct types of casein and colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP). Multiple structural models of casein micelles have been proposed based on their biochemical or physical properties and observed using electron microscopy. However, the CCP distribution and crosslinking structure between CCP and casein remain unclear. Therefore, the internal structure of casein micelles in raw milk was observed using cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) with high precision at high resolution...
March 2, 2018: Microscopy
Natalia Stozhko, Maria Bukharinova, Leonid Galperin, Khiena Brainina
The paper discusses the mechanism of uric acid (UA) electrooxidation occurring on the surface of gold nanoparticles. It has been shown that the electrode process is purely electrochemical, uncomplicated with catalytic stages. The nanoeffects observed as the reduction of overvoltage and increased current of UA oxidation have been described. These nanoeffects are determined by the size of particles and do not depend on the method of particle preparation (citrate and "green" synthesis). The findings of these studies have been used to select a modifier for carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE)...
March 6, 2018: Biosensors
John A Carver, Heath Ecroyd, Roger J W Truscott, David C Thorn, Carl Holt
Molecular chaperone proteins perform a diversity of roles inside and outside the cell. One of the most important is the stabilization of misfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation, a process that is potentially detrimental to cell viability. Diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and cataract are characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates. In vivo, many proteins are metastable and therefore under mild destabilizing conditions have an inherent tendency to misfold, aggregate, and hence lose functionality...
March 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jie Luo, Chen Xiao, Hao Zhang, Fazheng Ren, Xingen Lei, Zibiao Yang, Zhengquan Yu
The herbaceous plant Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid. is widely used as a milk coagulant to make a Chinese traditional milk product, milk cake. However, the milk-clotting compounds and their mechanism remain unclear. In this study, crude proteases were extracted from the dried leaves of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid. using citric acid-phosphate buffer and then partially purified by weak anion exchange chromatography. Two proteases, QA and QC, with molecular weights of 14 and 27 kDa, respectively, were shown to exhibit milk-clotting activity...
April 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Yang, G D Zhang, J T Yang, D Sun, P C Wen, W B Zhang
The dissociation of yak casein (CN) micelles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, particle size, fluorescence properties, and soluble mineral and CN molecule content at pH 4.6 to 8.2. The results showed that the size of CN micelles remained constant with decreasing pH from 8.2 to 5.8 but sharply increased at pH ≤5.4. Casein micelles began to aggregate at pH 5.4, and the serum magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese levels had their minimum values at this pH level. During acidification, colloidal calcium phosphate dramatically disassociated from yak CN micelles, but the soluble CN monomer content decreased slightly...
April 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Giulia Poma, Carlos Sales, Bram Bruyland, Christina Christia, Séverine Goscinny, Joris Van Loco, Adrian Covaci
The occurrence of 14 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) was investigated in 165 composite food samples purchased from the Belgian market and divided into 14 food categories, including fish, crustaceans, mussels, meat, milk, cheese, dessert, food for infants, fats and oils, grains, eggs, potatoes and derived products, other food (stocks), and vegetables. Seven PFRs [namely, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP)] were detected at concentrations above quantification limits...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
L Loffredo, F Baratta, P Ludovica, S Battaglia, R Carnevale, C Nocella, M Novo, G Pannitteri, F Ceci, F Angelico, F Violi, M Del Ben
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in inducing endothelial dysfunction and progression from simple fatty liver steatosis (FLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Polyphenols could reduce oxidative stress and restore endothelial function by inhibiting the nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate (NADPH) oxidase isoform Nox2. The aim of this study was to assess endothelial function and oxidative stress in a population affected by simple FLD and NASH. Furthermore, we analysed the effect of high vs low content of cocoa polyphenols on endothelial function and oxidative stress in patients with NASH...
February 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Rohollah Lak, Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Majid Davari, Mojtaba Nouhi, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Classical galactosaemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. This is a rare and potentially lethal condition that classically presents in the first week of life once milk feeds have commenced. Affected babies may present with any or all of the following: cataracts; fulminant liver failure; prolonged jaundice; or Escherichia coli sepsis. Once the diagnosis is suspected, feeds containing galactose must be stopped immediately and replaced with a soya-based formula...
December 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Harald Seeger, Andrea Kaelin, Pietro M Ferraro, Damian Weber, Philippe Jaeger, Patrice Ambuehl, William G Robertson, Robert Unwin, Carsten A Wagner, Nilufar Mohebbi
BACKGROUND: Kidney stone disease is common in industrialized countries. Recently, it has attracted growing attention, because of its significant association with adverse renal outcomes, including end stage renal disease. Calcium-containing kidney stones are frequent with high recurrence rates. While hypercalciuria is a well-known risk factor, restricted intake of animal protein and sodium, combined with normal dietary calcium, has been shown to be more effective in stone prevention compared with a low-calcium diet...
December 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
H Eshpari, R Jimenez-Flores, P S Tong, M Corredig
Milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders are increasingly utilized in manufacturing of protein fortified beverages. Thermal stability of the protein dispersions is of significant importance in such applications. It is known that a decrease in pH can induce partial dissociation of casein micelles and modify the natural equilibrium of calcium and phosphate between the micelles and the serum phase. The presence of soluble casein may improve the rehydration properties of MPC powders, and may impact their thermal stability...
December 2017: Food Research International
Yan Zhang, Yuan Li, Pengjie Wang, Yanbao Tian, Qi Liang, Fazheng Ren
It is essential for yak cheese processing to understand the rennet-induced coagulation properties of gel formation from casein micelles. We have previously discovered that yak milk requires a longer incubation time but forms stronger gels compared with cow milk. In this study, we are aiming to understand the rennet-induced coagulation properties of yak casein micelles comparing with cow casein micelles. Rheological analyses revealed that the gelling times of yak and cow casein micelles were 11.6±0.5 and 8...
December 2017: Food Research International
Chang He, Leisa-Maree L Toms, Phong Thai, Nele Van den Eede, Xianyu Wang, Yan Li, Christine Baduel, Fiona A Harden, Amy L Heffernan, Peter Hobson, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F Mueller
There is growing concern around the use of organophosphate esters (OPEs) due to their suspected reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, and neurotoxicity. OPEs are used as flame retardants and plasticizers, and due to their extensive application in consumer products, are found globally in the indoor environment. Early life exposure to OPEs is an important risk factor for children's health, but poorly understood. To study age and sex trends of OPE exposures in infants and young children, we collected, pooled, and analysed urine samples from children aged 0-5years from Queensland, Australia for 9 parent OPEs and 11 metabolites...
February 2018: Environment International
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
Xiaohua He, Stephanie Patfield, Luisa W Cheng, Larry H Stanker, Reuven Rasooly, Thomas A McKeon, Yuzhu Zhang, David L Brandon
Abrin, a member of the ribosome-inactivating protein family, is produced by the Abrus precatorius plant. Having the potential to pose a severe threat to both human and animal health, abrin is classified as a Select Agent by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. However, an immunoassay that is specific for intact abrin holotoxin has not yet been reported. In this study, seven new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), designated as Abrin-1 through Abrin-7 have been developed. Isotyping analyses indicate these mAbs have IgG1, IgG2a, or IgG2b heavy-chains and kappa light-chains...
November 28, 2017: Toxins
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