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Mixed episode

Suzanne Adlof, Gwen Frishkoff, Jennifer Dandy, Charles Perfetti
Word learning can build the high-quality word representations that support skilled reading and language comprehension. According to the partial knowledge hypothesis, words that are partially known, also known as "frontier words" (Durso & Shore, 1991), may be good targets for instruction precisely because they are already familiar. However, studies investigating this question have produced mixed findings, and individual differences in baseline knowledge have complicated results both within and across studies...
March 2016: Reading and Writing
Geoffrey Blondelle, Mathieu Hainselin, Yannick Gounden, Laurent Heurley, Hélène Voisin, Olga Megalakaki, Estelle Bressous, Véronique Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18-30), 16 intermediate adults (40-55), and 25 older adults (65-80)...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
Jane Bleasel, Annette Burgess, Ruth Weeks, Inam Haq
BACKGROUND: The evidence for the positive impact of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) on feedback in medicine is mixed. An ePortfolio for medical long cases in a Graduate Medical Program was developed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of medical students and faculty of the impact of the ePortfolio on the feedback process. METHODS: In total, 130 Year 3 medical students, and six faculty participated in the study. This is a mixed methods study, using a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Viola Bulgari, Laura Iozzino, Clarissa Ferrari, Marco Picchioni, Valentina Candini, Alessandra De Francesco, Paolo Maggi, Beatrice Segalini, Giovanni de Girolamo
The increased risk of violence in schizophrenia has been linked to several environmental, clinical and neuropsychological factors, including executive dysfunction. However, data about the nature of these effects are mixed and controversial. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological factors with violence risk in patients with schizophrenia, taking into account current psychopathology and lifetime alcohol use. We compared a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs) with schizophrenia and a past history of interpersonal violence (vSZ, N=50) to patients with schizophrenia matched on age, gender and alcohol abuse/dependence but with no violence history (nvSZ, N=37)...
October 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
J Soler, P Ferentinos, C Prats, S Miret, M Giralt, V Peralta, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
INTRODUCTION: This study explored schizotypy as a familial liability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) by examining: 1) the aggregation of schizotypy in families with a SSD patient, 2) whether familial resemblance of schizotypy is associated with ridge dissociations (RD), another SSD liability marker, 3) whether schizotypy aggregation patterns influence patients' psychopathology. METHODS: The sample comprised 30 SSD patients and 82 healthy first-degree relatives...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
A E Cullen, L Bowers, M Khondoker, S Pettit, E Achilla, L Koeser, L Moylan, J Baker, A Quirk, F Sethi, D Stewart, P McCrone, A D Tulloch
AIMS: Within acute psychiatric inpatient services, patients exhibiting severely disturbed behaviour can be transferred to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and/or secluded in order to manage the risks posed to the patient and others. However, whether specific patient groups are more likely to be subjected to these coercive measures is unclear. Using robust methodological and statistical techniques, we aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and behavioural predictors of both PICU and seclusion...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Giulio Perugi, Pierpaolo Medd, Pierpaolo Medd, Cristina Toni, Michela Giorgi Mariani, Chiara Socci, Mauro Mauri
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in a large sample of bipolar patients with drug resistant depression, mania, mixed state and catatonic features. METHOD: 522 consecutive patients with DSM-IV-TR BD were evaluated prior to and after the ECT course. Responders and nonresponders were compared in subsamples of depressed and mixed patients. Descriptive analyses were reported for patients with mania and with catatonic features...
October 17, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Kim T Mueser, Min Kim, Jean Addington, Susan R McGurk, Sarah I Pratt, Donald E Addington
The Quality of Life Scale (QLS) is a frequently used semistructured interview for the assessment of functional outcomes in schizophrenia. Despite the use of the QLS for over 30years, the original 4-factor structure of the instrument (Interpersonal Relations, Instrumental Role, Intrapsychic Foundations, and Common Objects and Activities) has not been rigorously examined. Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate the factor structure of the QLS in two independent datasets, including a mixed diagnostic sample of multi-episode participants (N=247), and a sample of individuals with a first episode of psychosis (N=337)...
October 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Daisuke Nonaka, Moritoshi Iwagami, Masami Nakatsu, Panom Phongmany, Futoshi Nishimoto, Jun Kobayashi, Bouasy Hongvanthon, Paul T Brey, Kazuhiko Moji, Toshihiro Mita, Shigeyuki Kano
BACKGROUND: In the Lao PDR, malaria morbidity and mortality have remarkably decreased over the past decade. However, asymptomatic infections in rural villages contribute to the on-going local transmission. The primary objective of this study was to explore the characteristics of infections in a malaria-endemic district of the Lao PDR. The specific objectives were to investigate the prevalence and species of malaria parasites using molecular methods and to assess individual and household parasite levels and the characteristics associated with malaria infection...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Terence A Ketter, Suresh Durgam, Ronald Landbloom, Mary Mackle, Xiao Wu, Maju Mathews
BACKGROUND: Asenapine (ASN) is approved in the United States as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy (to lithium or valproate) in adults with bipolar mania, and as monotherapy in pediatric patients with bipolar mania. This is the first long-term study evaluating safety and tolerability of ASN fixed doses in this population. METHODS: After completing a 3-week, randomized, placebo (PBO)-controlled acute trial, patients could enroll in this 26-week, fixed-dose (5 or 10mg twice daily), double-blind extension study...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Prawin Kumar, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Vishnu S Mishra, Mojahidul Islam, Shivani Randev, Aparna Mukherjee, Rama Chaudhry, Arti Kapil, Kana Ram Jat, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. OBJECTIVE: To document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A birth cohort was followed for the first year of life; for each episode of ARI, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected to identify the causative respiratory virus/es using multiplex real time PCR assay...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Debra A Fleischman, Sue Leurgans, Jingyun Yang, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, Zoe Arvanitakis, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and rate of decline in multiple cognitive systems in community-based older persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 354) were older persons initially free of cognitive impairment from two ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic studies of aging. All underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of WMH and gray matter volumes and detailed annual clinical evaluations including 17 cognitive tests...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Siddharth Ramanan, Maxime Bertoux, Emma Flanagan, Muireann Irish, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Michael Hornberger
OBJECTIVES: With comparable baseline performance on executive functions (EF) and memory between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), it is currently unclear if both diseases can be distinguished longitudinally on these measures reliably. METHODS: A total of 111 participants (33 AD, 31 bvFTD, and 47 controls) were followed-up annually over a 4-year period and tested on measures of EF, memory, and orientation. Linear mixed-effect models were constructed using disease severity as a nuisance variable to examine profiles of neuropsychological performance decline...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Yuka Morita, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Shuji Izumi, Yamato Kubota, Shinsuke Ohshima, Arata Horii
OBJECTIVE: Otitis media (OM) with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (OMAAV) is a novel concept of ear disease that is characterized by progressive mixed or sensorineural hearing loss with occasional systemic involvement. Considering the accumulating knowledge about the characteristics of and treatment for auditory dysfunction in OMAAV, the objective of this study was to investigate the vestibular function and symptoms of patients with OMAAV. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review...
September 30, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Keisuke Yoshihara, Minh Nhat Le, Koo Nagasawa, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Hien Anh Nguyen, Michiko Toizumi, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Masahiro Hashizume, Koya Ariyoshi, Duc Anh Dang, Hirokazu Kimura, Lay-Myint Yoshida
We performed molecular evolutionary analyses of the G gene C-terminal 3rd hypervariable region of RSV-A genotypes NA1 and ON1 strains from the paediatric acute respiratory infection patients in central Vietnam during the 2010-2012 study period. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and pairwise distances (p-distances) were calculated. Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) was constructed to analyze the time-trend relative genetic diversity of central Vietnam RSV-A strains...
October 14, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Amélie M Achim, Arthur Kaladjian, Chrystel Besche-Richard
BACKGROUND: One of the main features of bipolar disorder (BD), besides mood dysregulation, is an alteration of the structure of language. Bipolar patients present changes in semantic contents, impaired verbal associations, abnormal prosody and abnormal speed of language highlighted with various experimental tasks. Verbal fluency tasks are widely used to assess the abilities of bipolar patients to retrieve and produce verbal material from the lexico-semantic memory. Studies using these tasks have however yielded discrepant results...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Timothy J Hohman, Logan Dumitrescu, Nancy J Cox, Angela L Jefferson
Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid deposition in the absence of overt clinical impairment. There is substantial heterogeneity in the long-term clinical outcomes among amyloid positive individuals, yet limited work has focused on identifying molecular factors driving resilience from amyloid-related cognitive impairment. We apply a recently developed predicted gene expression analysis (PrediXcan) to identify genes that modify the association between baseline amyloid deposition and longitudinal cognitive changes...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Qing Ye, Fan Su, Hao Shu, Liang Gong, Chunming Xie, Zhijun Zhang, Feng Bai
Previous cross-sectional studies that investigated the effects of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status on hippocampal networks have shown inconsistent results. Aging is a well-known risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could strongly interact with ApoE-related vulnerabilities to affect AD risk. However, no longitudinal data have been published regarding the interaction of the ApoE genotype and aging on hippocampal networks. Fifty-one patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 64 matched cognitively normal elderly subjects underwent resting-state fMRI scans and neuropsychological tests at baseline and at a 35-month follow-up...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Cali F Bartholomeusz, Vanessa L Cropley, Cassandra Wannan, Maria Di Biase, Patrick D McGorry, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: This review critically examines the structural neuroimaging evidence in psychotic illness, with a focus on longitudinal imaging across the first-episode psychosis and ultra-high-risk of psychosis illness stages. METHODS: A thorough search of the literature involving specifically longitudinal neuroimaging in early illness stages of psychosis was conducted. The evidence supporting abnormalities in brain morphology and altered neurodevelopmental trajectories is discussed in the context of a clinical staging model...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Hanna Thuné, Marc Recasens, Peter J Uhlhaas
Importance: The neurobiological mechanisms underlying circuit dysfunctions in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. The 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been suggested as a potential biomarker for schizophrenia. Objectives: To provide a meta-analytical insight into the presence of 40-Hz ASSR impairments in patients with schizophrenia and to examine the effects of the participant group, stimulus parameters, and analysis and recording techniques. Data Sources: Searches were conducted in PubMed and reference lists of appropriate publications to identify relevant studies published from November 1999 to March 2016...
October 12, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
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