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Hein Heidbuchel, Nikolaos Dagres, Matthias Antz, Karl-Heinz Kuck, Patrice Lazure, Suzanne Murray, Céline Carrera, Gerhard Hindricks, Alec Vahanian
Aims: Guideline-adherent treatment is associated with improved prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but is insufficiently implemented in clinical practice. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) performed a multinational educational needs assessment study among cardiologists, general practitioners/family physicians (GPs/FPs), and neurologists in order to evaluate knowledge and skills of physicians and system factors related to AF care delivery. Methods and results: A total of 561 physicians (294 cardiologists, 131 neurologists, and 136 GPs/FPs) from six European countries participated...
March 12, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Judah Cohen, Karl Pfeiffer, Jennifer A Francis
Recent boreal winters have exhibited a large-scale seesaw temperature pattern characterized by an unusually warm Arctic and cold continents. Whether there is any physical link between Arctic variability and Northern Hemisphere (NH) extreme weather is an active area of research. Using a recently developed index of severe winter weather, we show that the occurrence of severe winter weather in the United States is significantly related to anomalies in pan-Arctic geopotential heights and temperatures. As the Arctic transitions from a relatively cold state to a warmer one, the frequency of severe winter weather in mid-latitudes increases through the transition...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Nicole M Bzdyl, Nadezda Urosevic, Ben Payne, Ray Brockenshire, Michael McIntyre, Michael J Leung, Graham Weaire-Buchanan, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Timothy J J Inglis
PURPOSE: In this field trial of rapid blood culture identification (BCID), we aimed to determine whether the improved speed and accuracy of specific BCID predicted in our earlier pilot study could be obtained in regional hospitals by deploying a multiplex PCR FilmArray (Biomerieux, France) capability in their laboratories. METHODS: We trained local hospital laboratory staff to operate the FilmArray equipment and act on the results. To do this, we integrated the multiplex PCR into the standard laboratory blood culture workflow and reporting procedure...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Laura N Nguyen, Jamie Bartley, Kim A Killinger, Priyanka Gupta, John Lavin, Ayad Khourdaji, Jason Gilleran, Natalie Gaines, Judith A Boura, Kenneth M Peters
AIMS: To evaluate whether baseline symptoms and outcomes are influenced by gender in a matched cohort undergoing neuromodulation. METHODS: Patients in our prospective neuromodulation database that had a tined lead placed were reviewed. Those that had implantable pulse generator (IPG) placed were matched on age and urologic diagnosis. History, voiding diaries, satisfaction, Interstitial Cystitis Symptom/Problem Index (ICSIPI), and overactive bladder symptom severity (OABq ss)/health-related quality of life (HRQOL) preimplant and over 3 years were evaluated using descriptive statistics, repeated measures, and matched pair GEE or mixed analyses...
March 13, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Rishi K Wadhera, Karen E Joynt Maddox, Yun Wang, Changyu Shen, Deepak L Bhatt, Robert W Yeh
BACKGROUND: Recent policy efforts have focused on improving the value of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Medicare payment programs, for example, increasingly evaluate hospital performance based on spending, as determined by payments made to institutions and providers, and outcome measures for a longitudinal episode of AMI care. Little is known about the relationship between total 30-day payments-both in the inpatient and immediate postdischarge timeframe-and outcomes after an admission for AMI...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Jonathan Curot, Luc Valton, Marie Denuelle, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Louis Maillard, Jérémie Pariente, Agnès Trébuchon, Fabrice Bartolomei, Emmanuel J Barbeau
BACKGROUND: Epileptic patients sometimes report experiential phenomena related to a previous dream they had during seizures or electrical brain stimulation (EBS). This has been alluded to in the literature as "déjà-rêvé" ("already dreamed"). However, there is no neuroscientific evidence to support its existence and this concept is commonly mixed up with déjà-vu. We hypothesized that déjà-rêvé would be a specific entity, i.e., different from other experiential phenomena reported in epileptic patients, induced by EBS of specific brain areas...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Nobuo Saito, Kazuhiro Komori, Motoi Suzuki, Takayuki Kishikawa, Takahiro Yasaka, Koya Ariyoshi
Introduction: We investigated the negative effects of prior multiple vaccinations on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) and analysed the association of VE with prior vaccine doses. Methods: Patients aged 9-18 years presenting with influenza-like illness at a community hospital on a Japanese remote island during the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons were tested for influenza using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). A test-negative case-control study design was used to estimate the VEs of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Katherine L Campbell, Aleksandra Babiarz, Yan Wang, Nicholas A Tilton, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
OBJECTIVE: To identify home environment factors associated with toddler dietary behaviours using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). DESIGN: Home environment and toddler's diet were assessed by mothers through EMA (random beeps over ≤8 d and a brief survey). Dietary outcomes were fruit/vegetable consumption, eating episode ('snack' v. 'meal') and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Home environment factors included interacting with mother, eating alone/with others, eating in a high chair/chair at the table, watching television and movement/translocation...
March 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Seiya Kato, Daisuke Ekuni, Shigehisa Kawakami, Acing Habibie Mude, Manabu Morita, Shogo Minagi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate whether the masseter muscle activity shows any specific pattern in relation to the severity of periodontitis. DESIGN: Sixteen subjects with no or mild periodontitis (NMP group) and 15 subjects with moderate or severe periodontitis (MSP group) were enrolled. Plasma IgG antibody titer was examined using Porphyromonas gingivalis as a bacterial antigen. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the masseter muscles was continuously recorded using an ambulatory surface EMG recording device while patients were awake and asleep...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Jessica L Markham, Matt Hall, James C Gay, Jessica L Bettenhausen, Jay G Berry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Readmissions burden the health care system. Despite increasing attention to readmission rates, little is known about the duration and cost of readmissions. The objective of this study was to assess, nationally, the length of stay (LOS) and costs for 30-day readmissions in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 30-day readmissions by using the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database. We used generalized linear mixed effects models adjusted for important clinical and demographic factors to assess LOS and cost for index admissions, readmissions, and the episode of care (index admission plus readmission)...
March 9, 2018: Pediatrics
Peter J Watkinson, Vicki S Barber, J Duncan Young
BACKGROUND: Observational and interventional studies in patients with both acute medical conditions and long-standing diabetes have shown that improved blood glucose control confers a survival advantage or reduces complication rates. Policies of "tight" glycaemic control were rapidly adopted by many general intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide in the mid 00's, even though the results of the studies were not generalizable to mixed medical/surgical ICUs with different intravenous feeding policies...
March 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Francisco E Rodríguez Castellanos, Francisco Domínguez Quintana, Virgilia Soto Abraham, Eduardo Mancilla Urrea
INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is considered the ideal treatment for end-stage renal disease. Acute rejection can influence graft survival. The aim of this study was to propose a classification system for acute rejection based on factor analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from kidney transplant recipients with acute rejection diagnosis based on standard histological variables, the presence of peritubular eosinophils, and immunolabeling for lysozyme and myeloperoxidase in kidney tissue...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Sean Agbor-Enoh, Annette M Jackson, Ilker Tunc, Gerald J Berry, Adam Cochrane, David Grimm, Andrew Davis, Pali Shah, Anne W Brown, Yan Wang, Irina Timofte, Palak Shah, Sasha Gorham, Jennifer Wylie, Natalie Goodwin, Moon Kyoo Jang, Argit Marishta, Kenneth Bhatti, Ulgen Fideli, Yanqin Yang, Helen Luikart, Zeling Cao, Mehdi Pirooznia, Jun Zhu, Charles Marboe, Aldo Iacono, Steven D Nathan, Jonathan Orens, Hannah A Valantine, Kiran Khush
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) often progresses to poor health outcomes in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). This, combined with the relatively insensitive clinical tools used for its diagnosis (spirometry, histopathology) led us to determine whether clinical AMR is diagnosed significantly later than its pathologic onset. In this study, we leveraged the high sensitivity of donor-derived cell-free DNA (ddcfDNA), a novel genomic tool, to detect early graft injury after lung transplantation...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Yahya Shehabi, Rinaldo Bellomo, Suhaini Kadiman, Lian Kah Ti, Belinda Howe, Michael C Reade, Tien Meng Khoo, Anita Alias, Yu-Lin Wong, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Colin McArthur, Ian Seppelt, Steven A Webb, Maja Green, Michael J Bailey
OBJECTIVES: In the absence of a universal definition of light or deep sedation, the level of sedation that conveys favorable outcomes is unknown. We quantified the relationship between escalating intensity of sedation in the first 48 hours of mechanical ventilation and 180-day survival, time to extubation, and delirium. DESIGN: Harmonized data from prospective multicenter international longitudinal cohort studies SETTING:: Diverse mix of ICUs. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients expected to be ventilated for longer than 24 hours...
March 1, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Melissa C Morgan, Harriet Nambuya, Peter Waiswa, Cally Tann, Diana Elbourne, Janet Seeley, Elizabeth Allen, Joy E Lawn
Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " [12]. However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Morris Ogero, Philip Ayieko, Boniface Makone, Thomas Julius, Lucas Malla, Jacquie Oliwa, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Background: Measurement and correct interpretation of vital signs is part of routine clinical care. Repeated measurement enhances early recognition of deterioration, may help prevent morbidity and mortality and is a standard of care in most countries. Objective: To examine documentation of vital signs by clinicians for admissions to paediatric wards in Kenyan hospitals, to describe monitoring frequency by nurses and explore factors influencing frequency. Methods: Vital signs information (temperature, respiratory and pulse rate) for the first 48 hours of admission was collected from case records of children admitted with non-surgical conditions to 13 Kenyan county hospitals between September 2013 and April 2016...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Caroline A Figueroa, Roel J T Mocking, Gelera A Mahmoud, Maarten W Koeter, Claudi L Bockting, Willem van der Does, Eric H G Ruhe, Aart H Schene
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reactivity (CR) to sad mood is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). CR is usually measured by assessing change on the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS-change) after sad mood-induction. It has, however, been suggested that the versions of the DAS (A/B) are not interchangeable, impacting the reliability and validity of the change score. The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised (LEIDS-R) is an alternative self-report measure of CR. Studies examining the relationship between LEIDS-R and DAS-change have shown mixed results...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Ludwig Kraus, Nicki-Nils Seitz, Daniela Piontek, Sabrina Molinaro, Valeria Siciliano, Ulf Guttormsson, Sharon Arpa, Karin Monshouwer, Håkan Leifman, Julian Vicente, Paul Griffiths, Luke Clancy, Fernanda Feijão, Silvia Florescu, Patrick Lambrecht, Alojz Nociar, Kirsimarja Raitasalo, Stanislas Spilka, Konstantin Vyshinskiy, Björn Hibell
AIMS: To estimate temporal trends in adolescents' current cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use in Europe by gender and region, test for regional differences, and evaluate regional convergence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) from 28 countries between 1999 and 2015. Countries were grouped into five regions (Northern (NE), Southern (SE), Western (WE), Eastern Europe (EE), the Balkans (BK)). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 223,814 male and 211,712 female 15- to 16-year old students...
February 26, 2018: Addiction
Cindy L Amundsen, Yuko M Komesu, Christopher Chermansky, W Thomas Gregory, Deborah L Myers, Emily F Honeycutt, Sandip P Vasavada, John N Nguyen, Tracey S Wilson, Heidi S Harvie, Dennis Wallace
BACKGROUND: Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a chronic condition for which sacral neuromodulation (SNM) (InterStim/Medtronic) and onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX) (BotoxA/Allergan) are utilized. These therapies have not been compared over extended time. OBJECTIVE: To compare UUI episodes (UUIE) over 24 mo following SNM or BTX. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter, open-label, randomized, extension trial (February 2012-July 2016) at nine US medical centers involving 386 women with ≥6 UUIE over 3 d inadequately managed by medications...
February 23, 2018: European Urology
Lawson R Wulsin, Thomas J Blom, Michelle Durling, Jeffrey A Welge, Melissa P DelBello, Caleb M Adler, Robert K McNamara, Stephen M Strakowski
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to characterize cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of bipolar disorder patients with limited exposure to psychotropic medications, and to evaluate their associations with mood symptoms and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) blood levels. METHODS: Cardiometabolic risk assessments were compared in individuals with bipolar I disorder experiencing a first manic or mixed episode or an early depressive episode (n=117) and healthy subjects (n=56)...
February 26, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
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