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epilepsy update

Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Saud M Alfayez, Bandar N Aljafen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the epilepsy services and identify the challenges in hospitals without epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). In addition, comparisons between governmental and private sectors, as well as between regions, are to be performed. METHODS: A cross sectional study conducted using an online questionnaire distributed to the secondary and tertiary hospitals without EMUs throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2015 and regular updates from all respondents were constantly made...
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
A Rosati, R Guerrini, R Cimaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Lupus
P Garzon, L Lemelle, S Auvin
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common pediatric epilepsy syndrome accounting for 10% of all pediatric epilepsies. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of this epilepsy syndrome to pediatricians. Most of the patients can be initially managed in private practice or in general pediatric settings. Absence seizures are the only seizure type observed at the time of diagnosis in these patients. An electroencephalogram recording and a clinical evaluation lead to the diagnosis. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood...
September 24, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Alvaro Lassaletta, Michal Zapotocky, Eric Bouffet, Cynthia Hawkins, Uri Tabori
Hemispheric low-grade gliomas account for the second most common location in pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) after the cerebellum. The pathological spectrum includes gangliogliomas, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs), diffuse astrocytomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs), among others. Clinically, hemispheric PLGGs represent a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy in children and adolescents. With an excellent long-term outcome, surgery remains the cornerstone and patients with gross total resection typically do not need any further therapies...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
René Andrade-Machado, Vanessa Benjumea-Cuartas
Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a remediable epileptic syndrome. About 40% of patients continue to have seizures after standard temporal lobectomy. It has been suggested that some of these patients could actually suffer from a more complex epileptogenic network. Because a few papers have been dedicated to this topic, we decided to write an article updating this theme. Methods: We performed a literature search using the following terminology: "temporal plus epilepsy and networks," "temporal plus epilepsy," "orbito-temporal epilepsy," "temporo-insular epilepsy," "temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) epilepsy," "parieto-temporal epilepsy," "intracortical evoked potential and temporal plus epilepsy," "temporal lobe connectivity and epilepsy," "intracortical evoked potential and epilepsy surgery," "role of extratemporal structures in TLE," "surgical failure after temporal lobectomy," "Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and temporal epilepsy," and "positron emission tomography (PET) in temporal plus lobe epilepsy" in the existing PubMed databases...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Suguru Komenoi
Ten mammalian diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes (α-κ) have been identified to date. Our previous review noted that several DGK isozymes can serve as potential drug targets for cancer, epilepsy, autoimmunity, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and type II diabetes (Sakane et al., 2008). Since then, recent genome-wide association studies have implied several new possible relationships between DGK isozymes and diseases. For example, DGKθ and DGKκ have been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and hypospadias, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Johan Zelano
Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural-metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug-drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Leanne Dibbens, Michael Schwake, Paul Saftig, Guido Rubboli
Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF) is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) associated with renal dysfunction that appears in the second or third decade of life and that is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SCARB2 gene encoding lysosomal integral membrane protein type 2 (LIMP2). Recent reports have documented cases with PME associated with SCARB2 mutations without renal compromise. Additional neurological features can be demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, hearing loss and dementia...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Satya S Sahoo, Priya Ramesh, Elisabeth Welter, Ashley Bukach, Joshua Valdez, Curtis Tatsuoka, Yvan Bamps, Shelley Stoll, Barbara C Jobst, Martha Sajatovic
We present Insight as an integrated database and analysis platform for epilepsy self-management research as part of the national Managing Epilepsy Well Network. Insight is the only available informatics platform for accessing and analyzing integrated data from multiple epilepsy self-management research studies with several new data management features and user-friendly functionalities. The features of Insight include, (1) use of Common Data Elements defined by members of the research community and an epilepsy domain ontology for data integration and querying, (2) visualization tools to support real time exploration of data distribution across research studies, and (3) an interactive visual query interface for provenance-enabled research cohort identification...
October 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
M da Mota Gomes, T Navarro, A Keepanasseril, R Jeffery, R B Haynes
Patient non-adherence to prescribed anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) remains a challenge to successful treatment of patients with epilepsy. However, the literature on epilepsy does not document a comprehensive review of interventions to improve adherence as a means to improve clinical outcomes. This study systematically reviews existing literature on interventions to enhance AED adherence and clinical outcomes, and the measures of adherence included in these studies. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions to enhance adherence with AEDs, which also measured clinical outcomes, with at least 80% follow-up of participants for at least 6 months, from a comprehensive Cochrane review of adherence interventions for medications, complete to January 2013, and updated searches for additional AED studies in multiple bibliographic databases to January 2016...
August 29, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Anouk Van de Vel, Kris Cuppens, Bert Bonroy, Milica Milosevic, Katrien Jansen, Sabine Van Huffel, Bart Vanrumste, Patrick Cras, Lieven Lagae, Berten Ceulemans
PURPOSE: Detection of, and alarming for epileptic seizures is increasingly demanded and researched. Our previous review article provided an overview of non-invasive, non-EEG (electro-encephalography) body signals that can be measured, along with corresponding methods, state of the art research, and commercially available systems. Three years later, many more studies and devices have emerged. Moreover, the boom of smart phones and tablets created a new market for seizure detection applications...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Rolla Shbarou, Mohamad A Mikati
Pediatric epileptic encephalopathies represent a clinically challenging and often devastating group of disorders that affect children at different stages of infancy and childhood. With the advances in genetic testing and neuroimaging, the etiologies of these epileptic syndromes are now better defined. The various encephalopathies that are reviewed in this article include the following: early infantile epileptic encephalopathy or Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, West syndrome, severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (Dravet syndrome), Landau-Kleffner syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Yogeswaran Lokanathan, Norazzila Omar, Nur Nabilah Ahmad Puzi, Aminuddin Saim, Ruszymah Hj Idrus
Centella asiatica, locally well known in Malaysia as pegaga, is a traditional herb that has been used widely in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and in the traditional medicine of other Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia. Although consumption of the plant is indicated for various illnesses, its potential neuroprotective properties have been well studied and documented. In addition to past studies, recent studies also discovered and/or reconfirmed that C. asiatica acts as an antioxidant, reducing the effect of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Alessandra Del Felice
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 6, 2012.Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Despite the plethora of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) currently available, 30% of people continue having seizures. This group of people requires a more aggressive treatment, since monotherapy, the first choice scheme, fails to control seizures. Nevertheless, polytherapy often results in a number of unwanted effects, including neurological disturbances (somnolence, ataxia, dizziness), psychiatric and behavioural symptoms, and metabolic alteration (osteoporosis, inducement or inhibition of hepatic enzymes, etc...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Deb K Pal, Colin Ferrie, Laura Addis, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Giuseppe Capovilla, Roberto Caraballo, Anne de Saint-Martin, Natalio Fejerman, Renzo Guerrini, Khalid Hamandi, Ingo Helbig, Andreas A Ioannides, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Dennis Lal, Gaetan Lesca, Hiltrud Muhle, Bernd A Neubauer, Tiziana Pisano, Gabrielle Rudolf, Caroline Seegmuller, Takashi Shibata, Anna Smith, Pasquale Striano, Lisa J Strug, Pierre Szepetowski, Thalia Valeta, Harumi Yoshinaga, Michalis Koutroumanidis
The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Inuka Kishara Gooneratne, Sunil Wimalaratna
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, prevalent in about 1% of the population. Almost half of the patients with epilepsy are women. Epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs can affect each aspect of the female human life cycle which includes menstrual cycle, contraception, fertility, conception, pregnancy and menopause. The interplay of the female hormonal state and epilepsy is complex and has to be taken in to consideration when managing their epilepsy. This review focuses on the management of women with epilepsy related to their role in reproduction...
September 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Ming-Che Kuo, Tun Jao, Horng-Huei Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Marom Bikson, Pnina Grossman, Chris Thomas, Adantchede Louis Zannou, Jimmy Jiang, Tatheer Adnan, Antonios P Mourdoukoutas, Greg Kronberg, Dennis Truong, Paulo Boggio, André R Brunoni, Leigh Charvet, Felipe Fregni, Brita Fritsch, Bernadette Gillick, Roy H Hamilton, Benjamin M Hampstead, Ryan Jankord, Adam Kirton, Helena Knotkova, David Liebetanz, Anli Liu, Colleen Loo, Michael A Nitsche, Janine Reis, Jessica D Richardson, Alexander Rotenberg, Peter E Turkeltaub, Adam J Woods
This review updates and consolidates evidence on the safety of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Safety is here operationally defined by, and limited to, the absence of evidence for a Serious Adverse Effect, the criteria for which are rigorously defined. This review adopts an evidence-based approach, based on an aggregation of experience from human trials, taking care not to confuse speculation on potential hazards or lack of data to refute such speculation with evidence for risk. Safety data from animal tests for tissue damage are reviewed with systematic consideration of translation to humans...
September 2016: Brain Stimulation
Sridharan Ramaratnam, Mariangela Panebianco, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1.Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, affecting almost 0.5% to 1% of the population. For nearly 30% of these people, their epilepsy is refractory to currently available drugs. Pharmacological treatment remains the first choice to control epilepsy. Lamotrigine is one of the newer antiepileptic drugs and is the topic of this review. Lamotrigine in combination with other antiepileptic drugs (add-on) can reduce seizures, but with some adverse effects...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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