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epilepsy update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350182/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-2
#1
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
December 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325791/the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-an-update-from-the-national-academies-of-sciences-engineering-and-medicine-report
#2
REVIEW
Donald I Abrams
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conducted a rapid turn-around comprehensive review of recent medical literature on The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The 16-member committee adopted the key features of a systematic review process, conducting an extensive search of relevant databases and considered 10,000 recent abstracts to determine their relevance. Primacy was given to recently published systematic reviews and primary research that studied one of the committee's 11 prioritized health endpoints- therapeutic effects; cancer incidence; cardiometabolic risk; respiratory disease; immune function; injury and death; prenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes; psychosocial outcomes; mental health; problem Cannabis use; and Cannabis use and abuse of other substances...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324507/determining-when-to-stop-antiepileptic-drug-treatment
#3
Steven C Schachter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients diagnosed with epilepsy continues to rise and the pharmacological and device-based treatment options for epilepsy increase, determining when to stop antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment continues to be an important issue for patient management and counseling. RECENT FINDINGS: This review focuses on outcomes following AED withdrawal in seizure-free adults with epilepsy. Practical considerations are also discussed because, despite the importance of this topic, relatively little progress has been made in the past year regarding the identification of patients whose risk for recurrent seizures after AED withdrawal is no higher than that of the general population...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244028/adaptive-heart-rate-based-epileptic-seizure-detection-using-real-time-user-feedback
#5
Thomas De Cooman, Troels Wesenberg Kjær, Sabine Van Huffel, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sørensen
Automated seizure detection in a home environment has been of increased interest the last couple of decades. Heart rate-based seizure detection is a way to detect temporal lobe epilepsy seizures at home, but patient-independent algorithms showed to be insufficiently accurate due to the high patient-dependency of heart rate features. Therefore a real-time adaptive seizure detection algorithm is proposed here. The algorithm starts as a patient-independent algorithm, but gradually converges towards a patient-specific algorithm while more patient-specific data becomes available on-the-run...
December 15, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229361/a-literature-review-on-maternal-fetal-and-reproductive-disorders-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#6
REVIEW
Shirzad Fallahi, Ali Rostami, Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Hamed Behniafar, Shahrokh Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220742/meta-analyses-of-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-as-adjunct-for-treatment-of-focal-epilepsy-in-children
#7
Nurul-Ain Mohd-Tahir, Shu-Chuen Li
AIM: This study conducted a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (namely, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate, vigabatrin, zonisamide, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, gabapentin, and stiripentol) as add-on for treatment of focal epilepsy in children. METHODS: Articles were retrieved from EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Library from inception to January 2016. Treatment outcomes were analysed based on responder, seizure-free, withdrawal and adverse event rates...
November 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220741/an-update-on-the-prevalence-and-incidence-of-epilepsy-among-older-adults
#8
Queeny Ip, Daniel C Malone, Jenny Chong, Robin B Harris, David M Labiner
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy among beneficiaries of Arizona Medicare aged 65 and over. METHODS: An analysis of Medicare administrative claims data for 2009-2011 for the State of Arizona was conducted. Epilepsy was defined as a beneficiary who had either≥one claim with diagnostic code of 345.xx (epilepsy) or at least two claims with diagnosis code of 780.3x (seizure) ≥30days apart. Stroke-related and psychiatric comorbidities were determined by diagnostic codes...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#9
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197668/the-new-definition-and-classification-of-seizures-and-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Jessica J Falco-Walter, Ingrid E Scheffer, Robert S Fisher
This review discusses the updated classifications of seizures and the epilepsies, which were recently published by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). While it is always a challenge to learn a new classification system, particularly one that has remained essentially unchanged for over three decades, these new classifications allow for the inclusion of some previously unclassifiable seizure types and utilize more intuitive terminology. In this review, we specifically discuss the use of these new classifications for patients, clinicians, and researchers...
November 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153965/information-about-epilepsy-on-the-internet-an-exploratory-study-of-arabic-websites
#11
Jamal M Alkhateeb, Muna S Alhadidi
The aim of this study was to explore information about epilepsy found on Arabic websites. The researchers collected information from the internet between November 2016 and January 2017. Information was obtained using Google and Yahoo search engines. Keywords used were the Arabic equivalent of the following two keywords: epilepsy (Al-saraa) and convulsion (Tashanoj). A total of 144 web pages addressing epilepsy in Arabic were reviewed. The majority of web pages were websites of medical institutions and general health websites, followed by informational and educational websites, others, blogs and websites of individuals, and news and media sites...
November 16, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077582/neuroimaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#12
Philip Sparks, Tim Lawrence, Stephan Hinze
OBJECTIVE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repeated subconcussive and concussive head injury. Clinical features include cognitive, behavioral, mood, and motor impairments. Definitive diagnosis is only possible at postmortem. Here, the utility of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of CTE is evaluated by systematically reviewing recent evidence for changes in neuroimaging biomarkers in suspected cases of CTE compared with controls. DATA SOURCES: Providing an update on a previous systematic review of articles published until December 2014, we searched for articles published between December 2014 and July 2016...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067682/eslicarbazepine-acetate-add-on-for-drug-resistant-partial-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Xian-Chao Chang, Hai Yuan, Yi Wang, Hui-Qin Xu, Wen-Ke Hong, Rong-Yuan Zheng
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review published in the Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12.The majority of people with epilepsy have a good prognosis, but up to 30% of people continue to have seizures despite several regimens of antiepileptic drugs. In this review, we summarized the current evidence regarding eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) when used as an add-on treatment for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ESL when used as an add-on treatment for people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy...
October 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056246/diagnostic-yield-from-339-epilepsy-patients-screened-on-a-clinical-gene-panel
#14
Kameryn M Butler, Cristina da Silva, John J Alexander, Madhuri Hegde, Andrew Escayg
BACKGROUND: The contribution of genetic factors to epilepsy has long been recognized and has been estimated to play a role in 70% to 80% of cases. Identification of a pathogenic variant can help families to better cope with the disorder, allows for genetic counseling to determine recurrence risk, and in some cases, can directly influence treatment options. In this study, we determined the diagnostic yield of a clinical gene panel applied to an unselected cohort of epilepsy patients. METHODS: Variant reports from 339 clinically referred epilepsy patients screened using a 110-gene panel were retrospectively reviewed...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042752/spotlight-on-perampanel-in-the-management-of-seizures-design-development-and-an-update-on-place-in-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Michele A Faulkner
PURPOSE: Perampanel is a first-in-class antiepileptic medication approved for the treatment of partial (focal) seizures, and as adjunctive treatment for primarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The pharmacology, efficacy data, adverse-effect profile, pharmacokinetics and place in therapy are reviewed. SUMMARY: Perampanel is indicated for use in patients with epilepsy who are 12 years of age or older. It is the first medication designed specifically to be a non-competitive antagonist at post-synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037745/genetics-update-monogenetics-polygene-disorders-and-the-quest-for-modifying-genes
#16
REVIEW
Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi
The genetic channelopathies are a broad collection of diseases. Many ion channel genes demonstrate wide phenotypic pleiotropy, but nonetheless concerted efforts have been made to characterise genotype-phenotype relationships. In this review we give an overview of the factors that influence genotype-phenotype relationships across this group of diseases as a whole, using specific individual channelopathies as examples. We suggest reasons for the limitations observed in these relationships. We discuss the role of ion channel variation in polygenic disease and highlight research that has contributed to unravelling the complex aetiological nature of these conditions...
October 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986982/eeg-for-children-with-complex-febrile-seizures
#17
REVIEW
Pankaj B Shah, Saji James, S Elayaraja
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures can be classified as simple or complex. Complex febrile seizures are associated with fever that lasts longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once within 24 hours, and are confined to one side of the child's body. It is common in some countries for doctors to recommend an electroencephalograph (EEG) for children with complex febrile seizures. A limited evidence base is available to support the use of EEG and its timing after complex febrile seizures among children...
October 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984246/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-1
#18
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
October 6, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982217/yoga-for-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Kalpana Sridharan, Sridharan Ramaratnam
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 5, 2015.Yoga may induce relaxation and stress reduction, and influence the electroencephalogram and the autonomic nervous system, thereby controlling seizures. Yoga would be an attractive therapeutic option for epilepsy if proved effective. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether people with epilepsy treated with yoga:(a) have a greater probability of becoming seizure free;(b) have a significant reduction in the frequency or duration of seizures, or both; and(c) have a better quality of life...
October 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981957/the-role-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-epilepsy-surgery-planning
#20
REVIEW
David Gloss, Sarah J Nevitt, Richard Staba
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a serious brain disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Approximately two-thirds of seizures can be controlled with antiepileptic medications (Kwan 2000). For some of the others, surgery can completely eliminate or significantly reduce the occurrence of disabling seizures. Localization of epileptogenic areas for resective surgery is far from perfect, and new tools are being investigated to more accurately localize the epileptogenic zone (the zone of the brain where the seizures begin) and improve the likelihood of freedom from postsurgical seizures...
October 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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