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epilepsy update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777799/title-studies-on-drug-switchability-showed-heterogeneity-in-methodological-approaches-a-scoping-review
#1
REVIEW
Valeria Belleudi, Francesco Trotta, Simona Vecchi, Laura Amato, Antonio Addis, Marina Davoli
BACKGROUND: Several drugs share the same therapeutic indication, including those undergoing patent expiration. Concerns on the interchangeability are frequent in clinical practice, challenging the evaluation of switchability through observational research. AIM: To conduct a scoping review of observational studies on drug switchability to identify methodological strategies adopted to deal with bias and confounding. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science (updated 1/31/2017) to identify studies evaluating switchability in terms of effectiveness/safety outcomes or compliance...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764460/benign-and-severe-early-life-seizures-a-round-in-the-first-year-of-life
#2
REVIEW
Piero Pavone, Giovanni Corsello, Martino Ruggieri, Silvia Marino, Simona Marino, Raffaele Falsaperla
At the onset, differentiation between abnormal non-epileptic movements, and epileptic seizures presenting in early life is difficult as is clinical diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of the various seizure disorders presenting at this age. Seizures starting in the first year of life including the neonatal period might have a favorable course, such as in infants presenting with benign familial neonatal epilepsy, febrile seizures simplex or acute symptomatic seizures. However, in some cases, the onset of seizures at birth or in the first months of life have a dramatic evolution with severe cerebral impairment...
May 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747241/stiripentol-add-on-therapy-for-focal-refractory-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane review last published in 2015 (Issue 10). For nearly 30% of people with epilepsy, seizures are not controlled by current treatments. Stiripentol is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) that was developed in France and was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2007 for the treatment of Dravet syndrome as an adjunctive therapy with valproate and clobazam, with promising effects. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of stiripentol as add-on treatment for people with focal refractory epilepsy who are taking AEDs...
May 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685430/the-hla-b-15-02-polymorphism-and-tegretol-%C3%A2-induced-serious-cutaneous-reactions-in-epilepsy-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
M Chouchi, W Kaabachi, K Tizaoui, R Daghfous, S E Aidli, L Hila
Tegretol® [carbamazepine (CBZ)], an aromatic drug approved for epilepsy treatment, can induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after its administration. Several genetic studies of epilepsy have shown that genetic polymorphisms increase the risk of ADRs, and some interactions between CBZ and other treatments can also induce adverse effects. Thus, to avoid such interactions and to provide an overview of the genetic profiles involved in ADRs with CBZ, for the first time, a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on epilepsy was performed, using Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed databases to find studies published between January 1980 and October 2016...
April 20, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620013/the-2017-ilae-classification-of-seizure-types-and-the-epilepsies-what-do-people-with-epilepsy-and-their-caregivers-need-to-know
#5
Martin J Brodie, Sameer M Zuberi, Ingrid E Scheffer, Robert S Fisher
The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) published in the April 2017 edition of Epilepsia three companion articles on the classification of seizures and the epilepsies. These represent a long-awaited update on the original 1981 and 1989 publications and provide a modern descriptive template. The new classification presents three levels of terminology, involving seizure types, epilepsy types, and syndromes. In this fourth paper, we present an interpretation of these new concepts for people with epilepsy and those who care for them, as well as for young medical doctors not specialized in epilepsy and nurses...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615968/epilepsy-an-update-on-disease-mechanisms-the-potential-role-of-micrornas
#6
REVIEW
Michele Simonato
So far, research on epilepsy mechanisms has been designed mainly using animal models and tracking down molecular mechanisms underlying seizures in that model. While this approach is clearly valuable, it can be questioned if it is the best possible. One attractive alternative approach may stem from the consideration of epilepsy as a complex disease of a very complex organ, the brain. This short review summarizes data from analyses of the alterations in expression of microRNAs and their target messenger RNAs in a specific brain subregion, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, in three experimental models of lesional epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605548/scn1a-rs3812718-polymorphism-is-associated-with-epilepsy-an-updated-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Haiyang Zhi, Changan Wu, Ziqing Yang
To clarify the association between SCN1A rs3812718 polymorphism and epilepsy, we performed an updated meta-analysis. PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Springer, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched before January 20, 2018. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of associations. Finally, simply eight studies were included in this meta-analysis and all together recruited 7184 individuals, and they consisted of 3595 cases and 3589 controls. Based on the quality evaluation with the NOS, the overall quality of eight studies was scored from seven to eight which indicated good quality...
March 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556176/conflicting-effects-of-methylglyoxal-and-potential-significance-of-mirnas-for-seizure-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Hua Tao, Xu Zhou, Bin Zhao, Keshen Li
According to an update from the World Health Organization, approximately 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy, and nearly one-third of these individuals are resistant to the currently available antiepileptic drugs, which has resulted in an insistent pursuit of novel strategies for seizure treatment. Recently, methylglyoxal (MG) was demonstrated to serve as a partial agonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor and to play an inhibitory role in epileptic activities. However, MG is also a substrate in the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that function by activating the receptor of AGEs (RAGE)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537059/-update-on-the-adverse-effects-during-therapy-with-a-ketogenic-diet-in-paediatric-refractory-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
M Armeno, C Araujo, B Sotomontesano, R H Caraballo
INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment that has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the management of refractory epilepsy since 1921. It is a diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which is used to treat paediatric refractory epilepsy, and is effective in around 50% of the patients that begin to follow it. It is a nutrition plan that is imbalanced in terms of both macro- and micro-nutrients, which can give rise to nutritional deficits in energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as an excess of lipids...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522948/nationwide-healthcare-utilization-among-children-with-epilepsy-in-the-united-states-2003-2014
#10
Alain Lekoubou, Kinfe G Bishu, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is particularly frequent among children, yet updated and nationwide healthcare utilization estimates are scanty in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To analyze healthcare utilization among children with epilepsy. METHODS: Data on children (≤17-year-old) were extracted from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2003-2014. Epilepsy was identified using the clinical classification code 83. Healthcare utilization (Inpatient admission, outpatient visits, prescription medication including refill, emergency room visits, and home health provider visits) was compared between children with epilepsy and those without epilepsy...
March 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499446/ehlers-danlos-syndromes-and-epilepsy-an-updated-review
#11
REVIEW
Francesca Cortini, Chiara Villa
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTDs), characterised by joint hypermobility, hyperextensibility of the skin and tissue fragility that can induce symptoms from multiple organ systems. The latest EDS nosology distinguished thirteen subtypes with an overlap of phenotypic features, making the clinical diagnosis rather difficult and highlighting the importance of molecular diagnostic confirmation. Although the nervous system is not considered a primary target of the underlying molecular defect, recently, increasing attention has been focused on neurological manifestations of EDS...
April 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467570/reference-ranges-for-antiepileptic-drugs-revisited-a-practical-approach-to-establish-national-guidelines
#12
Arne Reimers, Jon Andsnes Berg, Margrete Larsen Burns, Eylert Brodtkorb, Svein I Johannessen, Cecilie Johannessen Landmark
Background and objective: Laboratories sometimes use different reference ranges for the same antiepileptic drug (AED), particularly for new and poorly investigated drugs. This may contribute to misunderstandings, concerns or inappropriate dose changes, which in turn may affect therapeutic effect, drug safety or treatment adherence. Therefore, the Norwegian Association of Clinical Pharmacology wished to update and harmonize the reference ranges for AEDs and establish national guidelines for Norway...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414561/a-modern-epilepsy-surgery-treatment-algorithm-incorporating-traditional-and-emerging-technologies
#13
REVIEW
Dario J Englot
Epilepsy surgery has seen numerous technological advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in recent years. This has increased the number of patients who may be candidates for intervention and potential improvement in quality of life. However, the expansion of the field also necessitates a broader understanding of how to incorporate both traditional and emerging technologies into the care provided at comprehensive epilepsy centers. This review summarizes both old and new surgical procedures in epilepsy using an example algorithm...
March 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405037/osmotic-therapies-added-to-antibiotics-for-acute-bacterial-meningitis
#14
REVIEW
Emma Cb Wall, Katherine Mb Ajdukiewicz, Hanna Bergman, Robert S Heyderman, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults on mortality, deafness and neurological disability...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391079/update-on-minimal-standards-for-electroencephalography-in-canada-a-review-by-the-canadian-society-of-clinical-neurophysiologists
#15
Dianne Dash, Chelsea Dash, Sara Primrose, Lizbeth Hernandez-Ronquillo, Farzad Moien-Afshari, Lady D Ladino, Juan Pablo Appendino, Lindsay Mazepa, Christine Elliott, Seyed M Mirsattari, Paolo Federico, Esther Bui, Gary Hunter, Rajesh RamachandranNair, Rohit Sharma, Paula Melendres, Joanne Nikkel, Dang Khoa Nguyen, Salah Almubarak, Mike Rigby, Jose F Téllez-Zenteno
Surface electroencephalogram (EEG) recording remains the gold standard for noninvasive assessment of electrical brain activity. It is the most efficient way to diagnose and classify epilepsy syndromes as well as define the localization of the epileptogenic zone. The EEG is useful for management decisions and for establishing prognosis in some types of epilepsy. Electroencephalography is an evolving field in which new methods are being introduced. The Canadian Society of Clinical Neurophysiologists convened an expert panel to develop new national minimal guidelines...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385923/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-past-present-and-future-in-neurosurgery
#16
Syed A Quadri, Muhammad Waqas, Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sajid S Suriya, Mudassir Farooqui, Brian Fiani
Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologists, or even neurosurgeons are familiar with it...
February 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359399/review-the-international-consensus-classification-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-a-critical-update-2018
#17
REVIEW
I M Najm, H B Sarnat, I Blümcke
The Diagnostic Methods commission of the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) released a first international consensus classification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) in 2011. Since that time, this FCD classification has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and research (more than 740 papers cited in Pubmed between 1/1/2012 and 7/1/2017). Herein, we review the new data that will inform and revise the FCD classification. Many recent papers described molecular-genetic characteristics in FCD type II including multiple mutations in the mTOR pathway...
February 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355908/losigamone-add-on-therapy-for-focal-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Yousheng Xiao, Man Luo, Jin Wang, Hongye Luo
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide; nearly a third of these people have epilepsy that is not well controlled by a single antiepileptic drug (AED) and they usually require treatment with a combination of two or more AEDs. In recent years, many newer AEDs have been investigated as add-on therapy for focal epilepsy; losigamone is one of these drugs and is the focus of this systematic review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2012 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6) and updated in 2015...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355711/implication-of-the-kallikrein-kinin-system-in-neurological-disorders-quest-for-potential-biomarkers-and-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Amaly Nokkari, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Yehia Mechref, Stefania Mondello, Mark S Kindy, Ayad A Jaffa, Firas Kobeissy
Neurological disorders represent major health concerns in terms of comorbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in our understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression and prevention, the accumulated knowledge so far resulted in relatively moderate translational benefits in terms of therapeutic interventions and enhanced clinical outcomes. Aiming at specific neural molecular pathways, different strategies have been geared to target the development and progression of such disorders...
January 25, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350182/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-2
#20
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
December 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
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