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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737426/posterior-cranial-base-natural-growth-and-development-a-systematic-review
#1
Kris Currie, Dena Sawchuk, Humam Saltaji, Heesoo Oh, Carlos Flores-Mir, Manuel Lagravere
OBJECTIVE: To provide a synthesis of the published studies evaluating the natural growth and development of the human posterior cranial base (S-Ba). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and all EBM Reviews electronic databases. In addition, reference lists of the included studies were hand-searched. Articles were included if they analyzed posterior cranial-base growth in humans specifically. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate...
July 24, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736888/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-in-nonmedicated-premature-ejaculation-patients-a-morphometric-mri-study
#2
Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ming Gao, Lin Liu, Ning-Bo Fei, Wei Qin, Chen Li, Long-Biao Cui, Fei Yan, Lei Yu, Jian-Lin Yuan, Hong Yin
PURPOSE: Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure related to PE. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of nonmedicated PE patients in terms of brain morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted with 32 medication-naïve adult men with clinical diagnosed PE and matched 31 healthy controls. All participants received diagnostic interviews and 3...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736519/isolating-discriminant-neural-activity-in-the-presence-of-eye-movements-and-concurrent-task-demands
#3
Jon Touryan, Vernon J Lawhern, Patrick M Connolly, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Anthony J Ries
A growing number of studies use the combination of eye-tracking and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures to explore the neural processes that underlie visual perception. In these studies, fixation-related potentials (FRPs) are commonly used to quantify early and late stages of visual processing that follow the onset of each fixation. However, FRPs reflect a mixture of bottom-up (sensory-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) processes, in addition to eye movement artifacts and unrelated neural activity. At present there is little consensus on how to separate this evoked response into its constituent elements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736348/pathological-progression-possible-origin-and-management-of-multiple-primary-intracranial-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-a-case-report
#4
Jingwei Cao, Wenzhe Xu, Zhenhui Du, Bin Sun, Feng Li, Yuguang Liu
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are extremely rare malignant tumors with no previous reports of multiple ones in the literatures. CASE DESCRIPTION: The clinical presentation, preoperative and reexamined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, as well as the histopathological studies of a 56-year-old female subject with multiple intracranial NECs mimicking multiple intracranial meningiomas, who underwent three operations with left parietal craniotomy, right occipital parietal craniotomy, and left frontal craniotomy, separately and chronologically are presented in this article...
July 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735641/risk-and-resilience-brain-networks-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#5
Eleni P Ganella, Caio Seguin, Cali F Bartholomeusz, Sarah Whittle, Chad Bousman, Cassandra M J Wannan, Maria A Di Biase, Christina Phassouliotis, Ian Everall, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
BACKGROUND: Genes, molecules and neural circuits that are associated with, or confer risk to developing schizophrenia have been studied and mapped. It is hypothesized that certain neural systems may counterbalance familial risk of schizophrenia, and thus confer resilience to developing the disorder. This study sought to identify resting-state functional brain connectivity (rs-FC) representing putative risk or resilience endophenotypes in schizophrenia. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was performed in 42 individuals with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 16 unaffected first-degree family members (UFM) and 42 healthy controls...
July 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735125/management-of-arteriovenous-malformations-associated-with-developmental-venous-anomalies-a-literature-review-and-report-of-two-cases
#6
Michael Zhang, Ian D Connolly, Mario K Teo, George Yang, Robert Dodd, Michael Marks, Mario Zuccarello, Gary K Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular malformation classification has revealed intermediary lesions that warrant further review due to their unusual presentation and management. We present two cases of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) associated with a developmental venous anomaly (DVA), and discuss the efficacy of previously published management strategies. METHODS: Two cases of AVMs associated with DVA were identified and a literature search for published cases between 1980 and 2016 was conducted...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734692/respiratory-arrest-at-the-onset-of-idiopathic-childhood-occipital-epilepsy-of-gastaut
#7
Keiko Funata, Tatsuhiko Shike, Toshiki Takenouchi, Yukio Yamashita, Takao Takahashi
Occipital lobe epilepsy of childhood includes two entities: Panayiotopoulos syndrome in pre-school children, and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOEG) in school-age children. The typical initial manifestation of the former is vomiting, and that of the latter is visual hallucinations. Ictal cardiopulmonary arrest at initial presentation has been reported for Panayiotopoulos syndrome, but not for ICOEG. We document a 7-year-old previously healthy girl who experienced an acute elemental visual hallucination of seeing insects, followed by a new-onset generalized seizure...
July 19, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733941/assessment-of-gray-and-white-matter-structural-alterations-in-migraineurs-without-aura
#8
Jilei Zhang, Yi-Lan Wu, Jingjing Su, Qian Yao, Mengxing Wang, Ge-Fei Li, Rong Zhao, Yan-Hui Shi, Ying Zhao, Qiting Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Shuai Xu, Zhaoxia Qin, Guo-Hong Cui, Jianqi Li, Jian-Ren Liu, Xiaoxia Du
BACKGROUND: Migraine constitute a disorder characterized by recurrent headaches, and have a high prevalence, a high socio-economic burden and severe effects on quality of life. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that some brain regions are functional alterations in migraineurs. As the function of the human brain is related to its structure, we further investigated white and gray matter structural alterations in migraineurs. METHODS: In current study, we used surface-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses to detect structural alterations of the white matter and gray matter in 32 migraineurs without aura compared with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733679/increased-overall-cortical-connectivity-with-syndrome-specific-local-decreases-suggested-by-atypical-sleep-eeg-synchronization-in-williams-syndrome
#9
Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs, Ilona Kovács
Williams syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) is characterized by specific alterations in neurocognitive architecture and functioning, as well as disordered sleep. Here we analyze the region, sleep state and frequency-specific EEG synchronization of whole night sleep recordings of 21 Williams syndrome and 21 typically developing age- and gender-matched subjects by calculating weighted phase lag indexes. We found broadband increases in inter- and intrahemispheric neural connectivity for both NREM and REM sleep EEG of Williams syndrome subjects...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733247/effective-connectivity-during-successful-and-unsuccessful-recollection-in-young-and-old-adults
#10
Selene Cansino, Patricia Trejo-Morales, Cinthya Estrada-Manilla, Erick Humberto Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Perla Salgado-Lujambio, Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz
Aging effects on regional brain activation have been studied extensively to explain the gradual recollection failure that occurs with advancing age. However, little is known about the consequence of aging on the interaction among brain regions that support recollection. The purpose of this study was to examine effective connectivity at encoding and retrieval during successful and unsuccessful recollection in young and old adults. In particular, we analyzed a recollection network that is characterized by its susceptibility to aging effects by middle age or later, which is comprised of the occipital cortex, hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732352/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-remitted-early-and-late-onset-depression-patients
#11
Wenxiang Liao, Ze Wang, Xiangrong Zhang, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reportedly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We have investigated CBF changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD), and their impact on cognitive function. Thirty-two remitted EOD patients, 32 remitted LOD patients, and 43 age-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the pulsed arterial spin labeling data were scanned under 3.0T MRI and processed through voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. Compared to healthy controls, LOD patients had decreased normalized CBF in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, right fronto-cingulate-striatal areas, and right temporal, occipital and parietal lobes, but increased normalized CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortices and the cingulate gyrus...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732269/gyral-net-a-new-representation-of-cortical-folding-organization
#12
Hanbo Chen, Yujie Li, Fangfei Ge, Gang Li, Dinggang Shen, Tianming Liu
One distinct feature of the cerebral cortex is its convex (gyri) and concave (sulci) folding patterns. Due to the remarkable complexity and variability of gyral/sulcal shapes, it has been challenging to quantitatively model their organization patterns. Inspired by the observation that the lines of gyral crests can form a connected graph on each brain hemisphere, we propose a new representation of cortical gyri/sulci organization pattern - gyral net, which models cortical architecture from a graph perspective, starting with nodes and edges obtained from the reconstructed cortical surfaces...
July 15, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732257/epileptiform-discharges-in-eeg-and-seizure-risk-in-adolescent-children-of-women-with-epilepsy
#13
Joseph Samuel, Manna Jose, V S Nandini, Sanjeev V Thomas
We aimed to study the epileptiform discharges (ED) and seizure risk in EEG of 12-18-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). Children of WWE who were prospectively followed up in the Kerala registry of epilepsy and pregnancy (KREP), aged 12-16years (n=92; males 48, females 44) underwent clinical evaluation and a 30-min digital 18-channel EEG. The EEG showed epileptiform discharges in 13 children (5 males and 8 females). The EDs were generalized in 9 and focal in 4 (occipital 2, frontal 1, and centroparietal 1)...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731453/topological-alterations-and-symptom-relevant-modules-in-the-whole-brain-structural-network-in-semantic-dementia
#14
Junhua Ding, Keliang Chen, Weibin Zhang, Ming Li, Yan Chen, Qing Yang, Yingru Lv, Qihao Guo, Zaizhu Han
BACKGROUND: Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a selective decline in semantic processing. Although the neuropsychological pattern of this disease has been identified, its topological global alterations and symptom-relevant modules in the whole-brain anatomical network have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the topological alteration of anatomical network in SD and reveal the modules associated with semantic deficits in this disease...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729926/coherence-of-bold-signal-and-electrical-activity-in-the-human-brain-during-deep-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#15
Daniel Golkowski, Andreas Ranft, Tobias Kiel, Valentin Riedl, Philipp Kohl, Guido Rohrer, Joachim Pientka, Sebastian Berger, Christine Preibisch, Claus Zimmer, George A Mashour, Gerhard Schneider, Eberhard F Kochs, Rüdiger Ilg, Denis Jordan
INTRODUCTION: Changes in neural activity induce changes in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Commonly, increases in BOLD signal are ascribed to cellular excitation. OBJECTIVE: The relationship between electrical activity and BOLD signal in the human brain was probed on the basis of burst suppression EEG. This condition includes two distinct states of high and low electrical activity. METHODS: Resting-state simultaneous EEG and BOLD measurements were acquired during deep sevoflurane anesthesia with burst suppression EEG in nineteen healthy volunteers...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729918/white-matter-sexual-dimorphism-of-the-adult-human-brain
#16
Ali K Bourisly, Grace Gejo, Abrar A Hayat, Lamya Alsarraf, Fatima M Dashti, Margherita Di Paola
Sex-biased psychophysiology, behavior, brain function, and conditions are extensive, yet underlying structural brain mechanisms remain unclear. There is contradicting evidence regarding sexual dimorphism when it comes to brain structure, and there is still no consensus on whether or not there exists such a dimorphism for brain white matter. Therefore, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis along with global volume analysis for white matter across sex. We analyzed 384 T1-weighted MRI brain images (192 male, 192 female) to investigate any differences in white matter (WM) between males and females...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729077/white-matter-microstructure-degenerates-in-patients-with-postherpetic-neuralgia
#17
Fuxiang Chen, Fuyong Chen, Zhanfang Shang, Yuan Shui, Guorong Wu, Chen Liu, Zhangya Lin, Yuanxiang Lin, Lianghong Yu, Dezhi Kang, Wei Tao, Yongjie Li
OBJECTIVE: The central mechanisms underlying postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) pain remain unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to identify microstructural white matter changes closely related to the PHN pain by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. METHODS: DTI data of the brains were obtained from 8 PHN patients and 8 healthy controls (HC) that were matched in age, gender, and educational level. DTI metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were separately compared between the two groups using TBSS analysis to detect subtle microstructural changes...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729063/eeg-source-reconstruction-evidence-for-the-noun-verb-neural-dissociation-along-semantic-dimensions
#18
Bin Zhao, Jianwu Dang, Gaoyan Zhang
One of the long-standing issues in neurolinguistic research is about the neural basis of word representation, concerning whether grammatical classification or semantic difference causes neural dissociation of the brain activity patterns when processing different word categories, especially nouns and verbs. To disentangle the puzzle, four orthogonalized word categories in Chinese: unambiguous nouns (UN), unambiguous verbs (UV), ambiguous words with noun-biased semantics (AN), and ambiguous words with verb-biased semantics (AV) were applied in auditory tasks for recording electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from 128 electrodes on the scalps of twenty-two subjects...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728330/hair-diameter-variation-in-different-vertical-regions-of-the-occipital-safe-donor-area
#19
Seon Sik Yun, Jae Hyun Park, Young Cheon Na
BACKGROUND: Little is known concerning hair diameter variation within the safe donor area for hair transplantation surgery. Thicker or thinner hair may be needed, depending on the recipient area, hairline design, and the purpose of surgery. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients (7 men and 20 women; mean age, 28 years; range, 20-47 years) were included in this study. The midoccipital point was used as the reference point on the horizontal plane at the upper border of the helical rim...
July 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728320/temple-and-postauricular-dissection-in-face-and-neck-lift-surgery
#20
Joo Heon Lee, Tae Suk Oh, Sung Wan Park, Jae Hoon Kim, Tanvaa Tansatit
Periauricular paresthesia may afflict patients for a significant amount of time after facelift surgery. When performing face and neck lift surgery, temple and posterior auricular flap dissection is undertaken directly over the auriculotemporal, great auricular, and lesser occipital nerve territory, leading to potential damage to the nerve. The auriculotemporal nerve remains under the thin outer superficial fascia just below the subfollicular level in the prehelical area. To prevent damage to the auriculotemporal nerve and to protect the temporal hair follicle, the dissection plane should be kept just above the thin fascia covering the auriculotemporal nerve...
July 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
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