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Thomas Jursa, Cheryl R Stein, Donald R Smith
Biomarkers of environmental metal exposure in children are important for elucidating exposure and health risk. While exposure biomarkers for As, Cd, and Pb are relatively well defined, there are not yet well-validated biomarkers of Mn exposure. Here, we measured hair Mn, Pb, Cd, and As levels in children from the Mid-Ohio Valley to determine within and between-subject predictors of hair metal levels. Occipital scalp hair was collected in 2009-2010 from 222 children aged 6-12 years (169 female, 53 male) participating in a study of chemical exposure and neurodevelopment in an industrial region of the Mid-Ohio Valley...
March 22, 2018: Toxics
Viktória Varga, János Németh, Orsolya Oláh, Valéria Tóth-Szűki, Viktória Kovács, Gábor Remzső, Ferenc Domoki
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has an established role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In this study we sought to determine whether COX-2 was induced by asphyxia in newborn pigs, and whether neuronal COX-2 levels were affected by H2 treatment. Piglets were subjected to either 8 min of asphyxia or a more severe 20 min of asphyxia followed by H2 treatment (inhaling room air containing 2.1% H2 for 4 h). COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed on brain samples from surviving piglets 24 h after asphyxia...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Chaoyang Zhou, Ping Wei, Lihua Chen, Xuntao Yin, Jiuquan Zhang, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects a vast population and is closely associated with cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms of cognitive impairment in T2DM patients have not been unraveled. Research on the basic units (nodes or hubs and edges) of the brain functional network on the basis of neuroimaging may advance our understanding of the network change pattern in T2DM patients. This study investigated the change patterns of brain functional hubs using degree centrality (DC) analysis and the connectivity among these hubs using functional connectivity and Granger causality analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zhi Gang Lan, Seidu A Richard, Jin Li, Chaohua Yang
Introduction: Nonprojectile penetrating skull base injuries as a result of falls have rarely been confronted in normal neurosurgery although a few nonmissile injuries have been reported. These kinds of injuries represent a life-threatening emergency. Case presentation: We present an unusual case of a 25-year-old male construction worker who suffered an accidental penetrating skull base injury when he fell on a metal rod while he was walking on a 2-meter-high platform...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Ahmad Khatoun, Jolien Breukers, Sara Op de Beeck, Ioana Gabriela Nica, Jean-Marie Aerts, Laura Seynaeve, Tom Haeck, Boateng Asamoah, Myles Mc Laughlin
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation method that can entrain physiological tremor in healthy volunteers. We conducted two experiments to investigate the effectiveness of high-amplitude and focused tACS montages at entraining physiological tremor. Experiment 1 used saline-soaked sponge electrodes with an extra-cephalic return electrode and compared the effects of a motor (MC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) electrode location. Average peak-amplitude was 1.925 mA...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gaurang S Shah
BACKGROUND Streptococcus acidominimus, which belongs to the viridans streptococci group, is rarely considered pathogenic in humans. However, over the past 10 years, this bacterium has been reported to cause serious infections in humans, particularly among the critically ill. This article is the first case report of pyogenic ventriculitis (PV) and meningitis caused by S. acidominimus in North America. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old Asian male presented to the emergency department with complaints of a headache, fever greater than 37...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Julio A Chalela
BACKGROUND: Headaches among military personnel are very common and headgear wear is a frequently identified culprit. Helmet wear may cause migrainous headaches, external compression headache, other primary cranial neuralgias, and occipital neuralgia. The clinical features and the response to treatment allow distinction between the different types of headaches. Headaches among aviators are particularly concerning as they may act as distractors while flying and the treatment options are often incompatible with flying status...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Jinming Li, Yuan Yang, Yuankai Zhu, Liqiang Zhou, Yunfeng Han, Tao Yin, Zhaoting Cheng, Guopeng Zhang, Yanxia Shen, Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder worldwide, but now there is a lack of clinically effective assessment and management of MDD. In this study, we used technetium-99 m ethylcysteinate dimer ([99m Tc]ECD) SPECT/CT to characterize the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) status of MDD patients, and to explore an objective image assessment model of MDD which is non- or minimally-invasive, convenient and accurate in a clinical setting. METHODS: The severity of MDD was assessed by three trained psychiatrists, based on scores obtained from HAMD and HAMA...
March 21, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Shigeki Hirano, Hitoshi Shinotoh, Hitoshi Shimada, Tsuneyoshi Ota, Koichi Sato, Noriko Tanaka, Ming-Rong Zhang, Makoto Higuchi, Kiyoshi Fukushi, Toshiaki Irie, Satoshi Kuwabara, Tetsuya Suhara
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by chronic progressive cognitive decline and displays underlying brain cholinergic dysfunction, providing a rationale for treatment with cholinomimetic medication. The clinical presentations and courses of AD patients may differ by age of onset. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to illustrate the regional differences of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as quantified by N-[11C]methylpiperidinyl-4-acetate ([11C]MP4A) and PET using parametric whole brain analysis and clarify those differences as a function of age...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jianhua Tang, Yuqing Zhen, Ling Yu, Cui Lv, Juan Zheng, Hui Liang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuropsychological characteristics and changes in CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-7, and NSE in serum. METHOD: Sixty-six (66) patients treated in our hospital as CCCI group were chosen for our study, and 90 patients with depression were selected as the depression group. The patients in both groups were examined with CT perfusion, depression, anxiety and cognition evaluation. Their serum CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-70 and NSE levels were detected. Neuropsychological and serum markers characteristics were compared...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Massimo Galli, Andrea Papini, Barbara Buffoli, Marco Ferrari, Mauro Labanca, Rita Rezzani, Mario Migliario, Alberta Greco Lucchina, Luigi F Rodella
The cranial portion of the vertebral segment together with the atlanto-occipital joint represents a very complex area. Since this system could be influenced by different atlas and mandibular position, the aim of this work was to assess atlanto-axial and mandibular rotation. Scanora 3-dimensional cone bean computed tomography images from 205 patients without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorder were evaluated. Using a digitalized images analyzer, the axial rotations of atlas and mandible rotation were calculated, measuring the angle with respect to the frontal plane...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Caitlin S Brown, Wesley R Zemrak, Kaitlin J Dyer, Stephen Rolfe
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become an important advancement for patients with end-stage heart failure. Left ventricular assist devices come with the risk of stroke and pump thrombosis, and to mitigate these risks, anticoagulation is given to these patients. With anticoagulation comes increased bleeding risk, and urgent reversal may be necessary. Reports have shown that the risk of thrombosis with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) does exist, especially in patients with baseline risk factors for thrombosis...
March 20, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Talia Brandman, Marius V Peelen
We internally represent the structure of our surroundings even when there is little layout information available in the visual image, such as when walking through fog or darkness. One way in which we disambiguate such scenes is through object cues; for example, seeing a boat supports the inference that the foggy scene is a lake. Recent studies have investigated the neural mechanisms by which object and scene processing interact to support object perception. The current study examines the reverse interaction by which objects facilitate the neural representation of scene layout...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrew D Engell, Na Yeon Kim, Gregory McCarthy
Perception of faces has been shown to engage a domain-specific set of brain regions, including the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is commonly held that the OFA is responsible for the detection of faces in the environment, whereas the FFA is responsible for processing the identity of the face. However, an alternative model posits that the FFA is responsible for face detection and subsequently recruits the OFA to analyze the face parts in the service of identification. An essential prediction of the former model is that the OFA is not sensitive to the arrangement of internal face parts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Mina Ansari, Sahand Adib Moradi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Abozar Hedayatnia, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
OBJECTIVE: Research on psychobiological markers of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a hot topic. Non-motor symptoms such as depression and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) each attribute to a particular neurodegenerative cluster in PD, and might enlighten the way for early prediction/detection of PD. The neuropathology of mood disturbances remains unclear. In fact, a few studies have investigated depression using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI). METHOD: Diffusion MRI of PD patients without comorbid RBD was used to assess whether microstructural abnormalities are detectable in the brain of 40 PD patients with depression compared to 19 patients without depression...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Yan Wang, Zi-Nan Guo, Zhen Yang, Shun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with neural mobilization (NM) in the treatment of occipital neuralgia. METHODS: A total of 62 occipital neuralgia patients were randomized into EA group (19 cases), NM group (22 cases) and EA+NM group (21 cases). EA was applied at acupoint-pairs as Yuzhen (BL 9)- Tianzhu (BL 10), Fengchi (GB 20)- Wangu (GB 12), etc. NM intervention consisted of occipital muscle group mobilization, C2 spinous process mobilization, cervical joint passive movement management mobilization, etc...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Dong Lin, Xiao-Zhen Huang, Wan-Yu Zhuang, Yun-Ying Yu, Qiang Wu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of superficial needling on electroencephalogram (EEG) in patients with insomnia by using nonlinear kinetics measure. METHODS: Six patients (3 male and 3 female) suffering from insomnia for more than a month were recruited in the present study. EEG data before and during superficial acupuncture stimulation of Shangen point (the midpoint between the bilateral inner canthus) was recorded using an electroencephalograph for analyzing the correlation dimensionality (D 2) and approximate entropy (ApEn) of different cerebral regions...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Youngsin Jung, Lennon G Jordan, Val J Lowe, Kejal Kantarci, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Melissa E Murray, Ross R Reichard, Tanis J Ferman, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Rodolfo Savica, Mary M Machulda, Julie A Fields, Laura A Allen, Daniel A Drubach, Erik K St Louis, Michael H Silber, Clifford R Jack, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Bradley F Boeve
The relationship between clinicopathologic diagnosis and123 I-FP-CIT SPECT in 18 patients with dementia (12 with Lewy body disease) from one center in the United States was assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of abnormal123 I-FP-CIT SPECT with reduced striatal uptake on visual inspection for predicting Lewy body disease were 91.7% and 83.3%, respectively. The mean calculated putamen to occipital ratio (mPOR) based on regions of interest was significantly reduced in Lewy body disease compared to non-Lewy body disease cases ( P = 0...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Michael James Eastwood, And Ajith Paulose George
Intraoperative identification of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is key in reducing nerve injury. This study aims to explore the surgical anatomy of the SAN and 2 landmarks for its identification-the sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital artery (SBOA) and superior sternocleidomastoid tendon (SST)-to propose a novel method of identifying the SAN during surgical neck dissections. Twelve cadavers underwent bilateral level II-V neck dissection identifying the SAN, SBOA, and SST. Variation was documented and distance between landmarks and the SAN measured...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Omar Viswanath, Roxanna Rasekhi, Rekhaben Suthar, Mark R Jones, Jacquelin Peck, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headaches encompass a broad-based category of a symptom of pain in the region of the head or neck. For those patients who unfortunately do not obtain relief from conservative treatment, interventional techniques have been developed and are continuing to be refined in an attempt to treat this subset of patients with the goal of return of daily activities. This investigation reviews various categories of headaches, their pathophysiology, and types of interventional treatments currently available...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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