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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550285/scale-integrated-network-hubs-of-the-white-matter-structural-network
#1
Hunki Kwon, Yong-Ho Choi, Sang Won Seo, Jong-Min Lee
The 'human connectome' concept has been proposed to significantly increase our understanding of how functional brain states emerge from their underlying structural substrates. Especially, the network hub has been considered one of the most important topological properties to interpret a network as a complex system. However, previous structural brain connectome studies have reported network hub regions based on various nodal resolutions. We hypothesized that brain network hubs should be determined considering various nodal scales in a certain range...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548710/measurement-of-glycine-in-healthy-and-tumorous-brain-by-triple-refocusing-mrs-at-3%C3%A2-t-in-vivo
#2
Vivek Tiwari, Zhongxu An, Sandeep K Ganji, Jeannie Baxter, Toral R Patel, Edward Pan, Bruce E Mickey, Elizabeth A Maher, Marco C Pinho, Changho Choi
Glycine (Gly) has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including malignant brain tumors. The precise measurement of Gly is challenging largely as a result of the spectral overlap with myo-inositol (mI). We report a new triple-refocusing sequence for the reliable co-detection of Gly and mI at 3 T and for the evaluation of Gly in healthy and tumorous brain. The sequence parameters were optimized with density-matrix simulations and phantom validation. With a total TE of 134 ms, the sequence gave complete suppression of the mI signal between 3...
May 26, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547887/quantifying-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-human-cranium-a-preliminary-analysis-of-a-novel-method
#3
Ana M Casado
In forensic anthropology, sexually dimorphic cranial features are traditionally visually assessed and scored using an ordinal scale, which is highly subjective. This study quantifies six cranial features using original three-dimensional coordinate measurements to provide greater accuracy in sex estimation. Cranial features include supraorbital ridges, glabella, external occipital protuberance, nuchal protuberances, mastoid processes, and frontal bosses. Measurements were taken using coordinate calipers from 158 White and Black male and female crania from the Maxwell Documented Collection at University of New Mexico and Tennessee's Bass Collection...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547521/validation-of-the-cingulate-island-sign-with-optimized-ratios-for-discriminating-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-from-alzheimer-s-disease-using-brain-perfusion-spect
#4
Etsuko Imabayashi, Tsutomu Soma, Daichi Sone, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Yukio Kimura, Noriko Sato, Miho Murata, Hiroshi Matsuda
OBJECTIVE: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often cited as the second most common dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is clinically important to distinguish DLB from AD because specific side effects of antipsychotic drugs are limited to DLB. The relative preservation of cingulate glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyri versus that in the precuni, known as the cingulate island sign (CIS), in patients with DLB compared with AD is supposed to be highly specific for diagnosing DLB...
May 25, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545980/altered-brain-function-in-new-onset-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-before-chemotherapy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#5
Zhanqi Hu, Dongfang Zou, Huirong Mai, Xiuli Yuan, Lihong Wang, Yue Li, Jianxiang Liao, Liwei Liu, Guosheng Liu, Hongwu Zeng, Feiqiu Wen
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairments had been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, what caused the impairments needed to be demonstrated, chemotherapy-related or the disease itself. The primary aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if there were changes in brain function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy. METHODS: In this study, we advanced a measure named regional homogeneity to evaluate the resting-state brain activities, intelligence quotient test was performed at same time...
May 22, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545486/depression-in-patients-with-sapho-syndrome-and-its-relationship-with-brain-activity-and-connectivity
#6
Jie Lu, Yanping Duan, Zhentao Zuo, Wenrui Xu, Xuewei Zhang, Chen Li, Rong Xue, Hanzhang Lu, Weihong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare disease and there is no related literature concerning psychiatric symptoms in SAPHO patients. Thus, we believe that this will be the first paper to explore the episode and the neurobiological basis of depression symptoms in SAPHO patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Twenty-eight SAPHO patients and fifteen age- and gender- matched normal controls (NC) were consecutively submitted to psychiatric evaluation and rs-fMRI scanning...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545408/importance-of-correctly-interpreting-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-diagnose-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-hellp-syndrome-a-case-report
#7
Syuichi Tetsuka, Hiroaki Nonaka
BACKGROUND: Severe haemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in pregnancy are possible underlying trigger factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows diffuse signal abnormalities involving the subcortical white matter in the parieto-occipital lobes. Although the diagnosis of RPES was clearly established by the distinctive reversibility of clinical and radiological abnormalities, it is difficult to distinguish from differential diagnosis...
May 25, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544904/decreased-prefrontal-functional-brain-response-during-memory-testing-in-women-with-cushing-s-syndrome-in-remission
#8
Oskar Ragnarsson, Andreas Stomby, Per Dahlqvist, Johan A Evang, Mats Ryberg, Tommy Olsson, Jens Bollerslev, Lars Nyberg, Gudmundur Johannsson
Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks...
May 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540995/cortical-thickness-and-white-matter-integrity-are-associated-with-ctg-expansion-size-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-i
#9
Woo Kyoung Yoo, Yoon Ghil Park, Young Chul Choi, Sun Mi Kim
PURPOSE: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is characterized by progressive muscular weakness with symptoms caused by involvement of the brain. The aim of this study was to delineate global changes in cortical thickness and white matter integrity in patients with DM1, compared to age-matched healthy controls, and in brain areas highly correlated with CTG repeat size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cortical thickness and white matter integrity were compared in nine adult DM1 patients and age matched healthy controls using T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540253/craniocervical-junction-abnormalities-with-atlantoaxial-subluxation-caused-by-ventral-subluxation-of-c2-in-a-dog
#10
Harumichi Itoh, Kazuhito Itamoto, Shotaro Eto, Tomoya Haraguchi, Shimpei Nishikawa, Kenji Tani, Yoshiki Itoh, Masato Hiyama, Toshie Iseri, Munekazu Nakaichi, Yasuho Taura
Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539636/effect-of-kidney-dysfunction-on-cerebral-cortical-thinning-in-elderly-population
#11
Chih-Hao Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ping-Huan Tsai, Jen-Hau Chen, Chung-Jen Yen, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Yen-Ching Chen
Chronic kidney disease has been linked to cognitive impairment and morphological brain change. However, less is known about the impact of kidney functions on cerebral cortical thickness. This study investigated the relationship between kidney functions and global or lobar cerebral cortical thickness (CTh) in 259 non-demented elderly persons. Forty-three participants (16.7%) had kidney dysfunction, which was defined as either a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of proteinuria...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538577/in-depth-review-of-symptoms-triggers-and-treatment-of-occipital-migraine-headaches-site-iv
#12
Mona Ascha, David E Kurlander, Abdus Sattar, James Gatherwright, Bahman Guyuron
BACKGROUND: This study reports the surgical technique and efficacy of deactivation of occipital-triggered migraine headaches. In addition, it reports the effect of surgical deactivation of occipital-triggered migraine headaches on migraine triggers and associated symptoms other than pain. METHODS: One hundred ninety-five patients undergoing surgery for occipital-triggered migraine headaches performed by a single surgeon, and followed for at least 1 year, were analyzed...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538575/the-management-of-trigonoscaphocephaly-as-a-result-of-combined-metopic-and-sagittal-synostosis
#13
Thomas D Dobbs, Omer Salahuddin, Jayaratnam Jayamohan, Peter Richards, Shailendra Magdum, Steven A Wall, David Johnson
BACKGROUND: The combination of sagittal and metopic synostosis is rare, resulting in a scaphocephalic shape, but with an absence of frontal bossing and therefore varying degrees of trigonocephaly and occipital prominence. Treatment is primarily surgical, with a combination of procedures to address both the scaphocephaly and trigonocephaly required involving multiple operations. The authors discuss their experience of treating combined trigonoscaphocephaly in a single-stage procedure and propose a management strategy based on the severity of the presenting deformity...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538074/cauliflower-like-shaped-osteoma
#14
Tetsuya Okaneya, Akihiro Ogino, Miho Nakamichi, Kiyoshi Onishi
Skull osteoma is a benign tumor that slowly and continuously enlarges. It is frequently observed in routine medical practice and many patients show an arc shape. The authors encountered a patient with osteoma with a rare morphology that developed in the occipital region. The patient was a 66-year-old male who had been aware of the presence of a mass in the occipital region for about 50 years, but its uncomfortable feeling had recently increased, and it was resected. The excised tumor showed a pedunculated cauliflower-like shape continuous to the skull...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536546/only-three-fingers-write-but-the-whole-brain-works-a-high-density-eeg-study-showing-advantages-of-drawing-over-typing-for-learning
#15
Audrey L H van der Meer, F R Ruud van der Weel
Are different parts of the brain active when we type on a keyboard as opposed to when we draw visual images on a tablet? Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were typing or describing in words visually presented Pictionary(TM) words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing pictures of the same words on a tablet using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536237/occipital-spur-understanding-a-normal-yet-symptomatic-variant-from-orthodontic-diagnostic-lateral-cephalogram
#16
Eby Varghese, Renu Sarah Samson, Sumanth Nagraj Kumbargere, Minoo Pothen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535912/effect-of-induced-high-myopia-on-functional-mri-signal-changes
#17
Ali Mirzajani, Mohammad Ghorbani, Behrouz Rasuli, Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh
PURPOSE: The current study evaluated the effect of lens-induced high myopia (IHM) on the activity of the occipital visual cortex during two visual stimuli presentations to the subjects. This was done by measuring the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal using functional MRI (fMRI). METHODS: BOLD contrast fMRI was performed with a 1.5T MRI scanner on 12 emmetropic subjects (refractive error <±0.25Diopter) with no history of neurologic disorder. IHM conditions were applied to subjects by three convex lenses of +5D, +7D and +10D...
May 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535638/-application-of-long-term-video-electroencephalogram-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-detection-of-cognition-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#18
X X Yan, Q Yu, Y T Gao, L T Li, D H Yu, Y Chen, X J Yao, W D Yang, Z J Chen, J Z Yin, Y An, K Tan
Objective: To study the relationship between the changes of brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) by using long term video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technology. Methods: Eleven patients with right-handed were recruited (from April 2015 to September 2016) from epilepsy specialist outpatients and functional department of neurosurgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534294/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-aging-testing-the-accelerated-aging-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia
#19
REVIEW
Farhana Islam, Benoit H Mulsant, Aristotle N Voineskos, Tarek K Rajji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533746/intraoperative-frontal-alpha-band-power-correlates-with-preoperative-neurocognitive-function-in-older-adults
#20
Charles M Giattino, Jacob E Gardner, Faris M Sbahi, Kenneth C Roberts, Mary Cooter, Eugene Moretti, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Joseph P Mathew, Marty G Woldorff, Miles Berger
Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to withstand this stress will be at increased risk for developing postoperative delirium and POCD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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