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Enikö Kövari, François R Herrmann, Gabriel Gold, Patrick R Hof, Andreas Charidimou
AIMS: Cortical microinfarcts (CMI) are frequently observed in the ageing brain independent of cognitive decline, but their etiology is not fully elucidated. To examine the potential role of different vessel pathologies, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), arteriolosclerosis-hyalinosis, and thromboembolism in the development of CMI, we examined 80 autopsy cases with more than one CMI on routine neuropathological examination. METHODS: Pial and intracortical vessels around CMI were assessed for their integrity with hematoxylin-eosin staining and antibodies against amyloid-β protein and fibrinogen using a semiquantitative 4-level rating scale (absent to severe) in the hippocampus, and the frontal, temporal, and occipital cortex...
October 26, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Isabel Benavente-Fernandez, Manuel Lubián-Gutierrez, Gema Jimenez-Gomez, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho, Simon P Lubián-López
AIM: Post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation is monitored by conventional two-dimensional ultrasound. The aims of this study were to determine the volume of the lateral ventricles using three-dimensional ultrasound in preterm infants with post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation and evaluate the relationship between volume and linear measurements. METHODS: Serial two-dimensional ultrasounds and three-dimensional ultrasounds were performed on preterm infants with post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Puerta del Mar Hospital, Cádiz, Spain, from January 2013 to December 2014...
October 26, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Alyssa J Kersey, Lauren L Emberson
Although infants begin learning about their environment before they are born, little is known about how the infant brain changes during learning. Here, we take the initial steps in documenting how the neural responses in the brain change as infants learn to associate audio and visual stimuli. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNRIS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex (temporal, occipital, and frontal cortex), we find that across the infant brain, learning is characterized by an increase in activation followed by a decrease...
October 26, 2016: Developmental Science
Fuqing Zhou, Suhua Huang, Lei Gao, Ying Zhuang, Shan Ding, Honghan Gong
INTRODUCTION: Several neuroimaging studies have suggested that patients with chronic primary insomnia (CPI) exhibit anatomical and functional alterations of the brain, but the temporal regularity in spontaneous neuronal activity remains unknown. Here, brain entropy (BEN), a data-driven method used to measure the signal regularity of a time series, was applied for the first time to investigate changes in the entire brain at the voxel level. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were used to investigate insomnia-related BEN alterations and the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) pattern in seed regions with altered BEN in 29 patients with identified and untreated CPI and 29 matched healthy controls...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Qiang Li, Yong Xiao, Yinghui Li, Lei Li, Na Lu, Zhi Xu, Xiaodong Mou, Shenqin Mao, Wei Wang, Yonggui Yuan
INTRODUCTION: Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is an illness that occurs over a long time and results in significant disruption in daily life. Clinically, SSD patients typically express complaints that involve a variety of organ systems. However, the neural mechanism of SSD remains poorly understood. METHODS: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the characteristics of the regional basal brain function during resting state in patients with SSD...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Nagy A Mekhail, Emad Estemalik, Gerges Azer, Kristina Davis, Stuart J Tepper
BACKGROUND: A recent multicenter study presented 52-week safety and efficacy results from an open-label extension of a randomized, sham-controlled trial for patients with chronic migraine (CM) undergoing peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves. We present the data from a single center of 20 patients enrolled at the Cleveland Clinic's Pain Management Department. METHODS: In this single center, 20 patients were implanted with a neurostimulation system, randomized to an active or control group for 12 weeks, and received open-label treatment for an additional 40 weeks...
October 25, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Tian Tian, Linying Guo, Jing Xu, Shun Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Chengxia Liu, Yuanyuan Qin, Wenzhen Zhu
Peripheral nerve damage does not fully explain the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Central nervous system changes can follow trigeminal nerve dysfunction. We hypothesized that brain white matter and functional connectivity changes in TN patients were involved in pain perception, modulation, the cognitive-affective system, and motor function; moreover, changes in functional reorganization were correlated with white matter alterations. Twenty left TN patients and twenty-two healthy controls were studied...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Carsten R Bjarkam, Andreas N Glud, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens Christian H Sørensen, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections...
October 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Min Xiao, Haitao Ge, Budhachandra S Khundrakpam, Junhai Xu, Gleb Bezgin, Yuan Leng, Lu Zhao, Yuchun Tang, Xinting Ge, Seun Jeon, Wenjian Xu, Alan C Evans, Shuwei Liu
Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of separate brain areas in three distinct attention systems: alerting, orienting, and executive control (EC). However, the structural correlates underlying attention remains unexplored. Here, we utilized graph theory to examine the neuroanatomical substrates of the three attention systems measured by attention network test (ANT) in 65 healthy subjects. White matter connectivity, assessed with diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography was modeled as a structural network comprising 90 nodes defined by the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) template...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Han Lv, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Rui Li, Ling Zhang, Peng Wang, Fei Yan, Liheng Liu, Guopeng Wang, Rong Zeng, Ting Li, Cheng Dong, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies demonstrated altered regional neural activations in several brain areas in patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT), especially indicating an important role of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). However, few studies focused on the degree of functional connectivity (FC) of this area in PT patients. In this study, we will compare the FC of PCC in patients affected with this condition and normal controls by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Cutter A Lindbergh, Catherine M Mewborn, Billy R Hammond, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Joanne M Curran-Celentano, L Stephen Miller
OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) improve eye health and an accumulating evidence base suggests cognitive benefits as well. The present study investigated underlying neural mechanisms using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). It was hypothesized that lower L and Z concentrations would be associated with neurobiological inefficiency (i.e., increased activation) during cognitive performance. METHODS: Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (mean age=72 years; 58% female; 100% Caucasian) were asked to learn and recall pairs of unrelated words in an fMRI-adapted paradigm...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Naeim Bahrami, Dev Sharma, Scott Rosenthal, Elizabeth M Davenport, Jillian E Urban, Benjamin Wagner, Youngkyoo Jung, Christopher G Vaughan, Gerard A Gioia, Joel D Stitzel, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian
Purpose To examine the effects of subconcussive impacts resulting from a single season of youth (age range, 8-13 years) football on changes in specific white matter (WM) tracts as detected with diffusion-tensor imaging in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussions. Materials and Methods Head impact data were recorded by using the Head Impact Telemetry system and quantified as the combined-probability risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWECP). Twenty-five male participants were evaluated for seasonal fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in specific WM tracts: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
Hyeonseok S Jeong, Eun Kyoung Choi, In-Uk Song, Yong-An Chung, Jong-Sik Park, Jin Kyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: In preparation for I-131 ablation, temporary withdrawal of thyroid hormone is commonly used in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy. The current study aimed to investigate brain glucose metabolism and its relationships with mood or cognitive function in these patients using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). METHOD: A total of 40 consecutive adult patients with thyroid carcinoma who had undergone total thyroidectomy were recruited for this cross-sectional study...
October 22, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Gang Chen, Thomas E Nichols, Peter A Bandettini
Here we report an exploratory within-subject variance decomposition analysis conducted on a task-based fMRI dataset with an unusually large number of repeated measures (i.e., 500 trials in each of three different subjects) distributed across 100 functional scans and 9 to 10 different sessions. Within-subject variance was segregated into four primary components: variance across-sessions, variance across-runs within a session, variance across-blocks within a run, and residual measurement/modeling error. Our results reveal inhomogeneous and distinct spatial distributions of these variance components across significantly active voxels in grey matter...
October 20, 2016: NeuroImage
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Visual fixation (VF) of a target is a possible, although atypical, feature of the Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS). Whether VF may indicate residual awareness in these patients is debatable, since it may simply subtend a series of reflex processes. Objective tools should therefore be used to identify aware VF, which depends on the integrity of visuomotor networks encompassing frontal-parietal-occipital areas. The aim of our study was to detect residual visuomotor network functionality potentially sustaining aware VF...
October 20, 2016: Brain Research
Alasdair I Ross, Thomas Schenk, Jutta Billino, Mary J Macleod, Constanze Hesse
Previous research found that a patient with cortical blindness (homonymous hemianopia) was able to successfully avoid an obstacle placed in his blind field, despite reporting no conscious awareness of it [Striemer, C. L., Chapman, C. S., & Goodale, M. A., 2009, PNAS, 106(37), 15996-16001]. This finding led to the suggestion that dorsal stream areas, that are assumed to mediate obstacle avoidance behaviour, may obtain their visual input primarily from subcortical pathways. Hence, it was suggested that normal obstacle avoidance behaviour can proceed without input from the primary visual cortex...
October 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Yuichi Hayashi, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Akira Takekoshi, Megumi Yamada, Takahiko Asano, Akio Kimura, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Takashi Inuzuka
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with a causative point mutation of valine to isoleucine at codon 180 (V180I) is one of the major types of genetic CJD (gCJD) in Japan. V180I gCJD is rarely accompanied by a family history, and its clinical characteristics include late-onset, long disease duration, and edematous cortical hyperintensity in diffusion, fluid attenuate inversion and T2-weighted MRI. We performed serial imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and MRI in three V180I gCJD cases over long-term observation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Maria Ljungberg, Marie K L Nilsson, Karin Melin, Lars Jönsson, Arvid Carlsson, Åsa Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Tord Ivarsson, Maria Carlsson, Göran Starck
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Danielle Douglas, Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Zahraa Chorghay, Edward B O'Neil, Morgan D Barense, Andy C H Lee
Surprisingly little is known about how the brain combines spatial elements to form a coherent percept. Regions that may underlie this process include the hippocampus (HC) and parahippocampal place area (PPA), regions central to spatial perception but whose role in spatial coherency has not been explored. Participants were scanned with functional MRI while they judged whether Escher-like scenes were possible or impossible. Univariate analyses revealed differential HC and PPA involvement, with greater HC activity during spatial incoherency detection and more PPA activity during spatial coherency detection...
October 22, 2016: Hippocampus
Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Neural discrimination of auditory intensity is one of the fundamental questions in human auditory perception. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated specific neural activations during intensity discrimination tasks. The detailed functional anatomy, however, remains elusive. Most of the existing studies examined the entire auditory cortex as a whole, neglecting the potential functional differentiation within the auditory cortex. Moreover, these previous results based on controlled auditory stimuli might not necessarily extend to the neural mechanism of natural auditory processing...
October 21, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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