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Skeletal muscle relaxant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518407/nad-a-big-player-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-remodeling-and-aging
#1
REVIEW
Pankaj Chaturvedi, Suresh C Tyagi
In the past decade, NAD+ has gained importance for its beneficial effects as antioxidant and antiaging molecule. A paper in science by Zhang et al (2016) has described that NAD+ when replenished, ameliorates muscle dystrophy in mice by improving mitochondrial function. NAD+ was also demonstrated by the authors to improve the life span of mice. Cox et al (2002) demonstrated the cardiac effects of NAD+ which mitigated chronic heart failure via mitochondrial redox state mechanism. Cox et al (2002) also demonstrated that NAD+ is provided in the drinking water, it improves cardiac relaxation in volume overload model of heart failure...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509762/beetroot-juice-increases-human-muscle-force-without-changing-ca2-handling-proteins
#2
Jamie Whitfield, Daniel Gamu, George J F Heigenhauser, Luc J C van Loon, Lawrence L Spriet, A Russell Tupling, Graham P Holloway
Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation improves skeletal muscle (SkM) contractile efficiency, and while rodent literature has suggested improvements in calcium handling or redox modifications as likely explanations, the direct mechanism-of-action in humans remains unknown. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 7-d of beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on SkM contractile characteristics and function. METHODS: Recreationally active males (n=8) underwent transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the vastus lateralis for evaluation of contractile characteristics before (pre) and after (post) 7-d of BRJ supplementation (280 mL/day, ~26 mmol NO3)...
May 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502541/prolonged-stance-phase-during-walking-in-intermittent-claudication
#3
Lindy N M Gommans, Annemieke T Smid, Marc R M Scheltinga, Ernst Cancrinus, Frans A M Brooijmans, Kenneth Meijer, Joep A W Teijink
BACKGROUND: Patients with intermittent claudication (IC) tend to walk slower and consume approximately 40% more oxygen during walking compared with healthy individuals. An unfavorable locomotion pattern has been suggested to explain this metabolic inefficiency. However, detailed knowledge of gait parameters in IC is lacking. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the gait pattern of newly diagnosed IC patients was compared with that of healthy controls. Spatiotemporal gait parameters such as step length and duration of stance phase were obtained by a photoelectric technique (OptoGait; Microgate, Bolzano, Italy)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497497/simultaneous-measurement-of-macro-and-microvascular-blood-flow-and-oxygen-saturation-for-quantification-of-muscle-oxygen-consumption
#4
Erin K Englund, Zachary B Rodgers, Michael C Langham, Emile R Mohler, Thomas F Floyd, Felix W Wehrli
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between blood flow and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle, a technique called "Velocity and Perfusion, Intravascular Venous Oxygen saturation and T2*" (vPIVOT) is presented. vPIVOT allows the quantification of feeding artery blood flow velocity, perfusion, draining vein oxygen saturation, and muscle T2*, all at 4-s temporal resolution. Together, the measurement of blood flow and oxygen extraction can yield muscle oxygen consumption ( V˙O2) via the Fick principle...
May 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487373/interactions-between-small-ankyrin-1-and-sarcolipin-coordinately-regulate-activity-of-the-sarco-endo-plasmic-reticulum-ca2-atpase-serca1
#5
Patrick F Desmond, Amanda Labuza, Joaquin Muriel, Michele L Markwardt, Allison E Mancini, Mark A Rizzo, Robert J Bloch
SERCA1, the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase of skeletal muscle, is essential for muscle relaxation and maintenance of low resting Ca2+ levels in the myoplasm. We recently reported that small ankyrin 1 (sAnk1) interacts with the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in skeletal muscle (SERCA1) to inhibit its activity (1). We also showed that this interaction is mediated at least in part through sAnk1's transmembrane domain in a manner similar to that of sarcolipin (SLN). Earlier studies have shown that SLN and phospholamban (PLN), the other well-studied small SERCA-regulatory proteins, oligomerize either alone or together...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448781/assessment-of-clinical-pharmacy-interventions-to-reduce-outpatient-use-of-high-risk-medications-in-the-elderly
#6
Sarah C Weddle, A Shaun Rowe, Julie W Jeter, Rachel C Renwick, Shaunta' M Chamberlin, Andrea S Franks
BACKGROUND: Use of high-risk medications in the elderly (HRME) and drug-disease (Rx-DIS) interactions in the elderly, as defined by the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Measures, are significantly associated with mortality, hospital admission, and need for emergency care. No published studies to date evaluate interventions to reduce the use of HEDIS-defined HRME, although many studies have postulated a beneficial effect of such interventions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions on use of HRME and Rx-DIS interactions in the outpatient elderly population...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427807/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-in-patients-with-myotonia-congenita
#7
Valentina Ferradini, Marco Cassone, Sara Nuovo, Ilaria Bagni, Maria Rosaria D'Apice, Annalisa Botta, Giuseppe Novelli, Federica Sangiuolo
INTRODUCTION: Myotonia Congenita (MC) is a nondystrophic skeletal muscle disease characterized by muscle stiffness, weakness, delayed skeletal relaxation and hypertrophic muscle. The disease can be inherited as dominant or recessive. More than 130 mutations in CLCN1 gene have been identified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of the CLCN1 gene in 40 MC patients. Samples already Sanger-sequenced were successively evaluated by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), on Ion Torrent PGM...
April 17, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385103/effect-of-orthognathic-surgery-on-masticatory-performance-and-muscle-activity-in-skeletal-class-iii-patients
#8
Deniz Celakil, Fulya Ozdemir, Feyza Eraydin, Tamer Celakil
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of double jaw orthognathic surgery (OGS) on masticatory performance and electromyographic activity of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles in skeletal Class III patients. METHODS: Individuals were instructed to chew standardized round tablets of silicone impression material. The cumulative weight percentage was calculated using sieve analysis. The bilateral surface electromyographic activity of the muscles was evaluated. Following the orthodontic treatment, a stabilization splint was fabricated...
April 7, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376941/systematic-evaluation-of-skeletal-fractures-caused-by-induction-of-electroconvulsive-seizures-in-rat-state-a-need-for-attention-and-refinement-of-the-procedure
#9
Maria Ekemohn, Marie Kjær Nielsen, Matilda Grahm, Anders Tingström, Birgitte Kousholt, Gregers Wegener, Cecilie Bay-Richter
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for major depression. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), the animal model of ECT, is widely used to study both mechanisms of action and adverse effects of ECT. As the treatment itself serves as an instant anaesthetic and anaesthetic agents may affect memory functions and behaviour, ECS is traditionally administered without muscle relaxation and anaesthesia. A major problem of unmodified ECS, which has only been addressed peripherally in the literature, is that some animals sustain spinal fractures and subsequent hind leg paralysis (paraplegia)...
April 5, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371514/bi-layer-silk-fibroin-grafts-support-functional-esophageal-repair-in-a-rodent-model-of-caustic-injury
#10
Khalid Algarrahi, Debra Franck, Alyssa Savarino, Vivian Cristofaro, Xuehui Yang, Saif Affas, Frank-Mattias Schäfer, Maryrose P Sullivan, Carlos R Estrada, Joshua R Mauney
Surgical repair of caustic esophageal injuries with autologous gastrointestinal segments is often associated with dysmotility, dysphagia, and donor site morbidity and therefore alternative graft options are needed. Bi-layer silk fibroin (BLSF) scaffolds were assessed for their ability to support functional restoration of damaged esophageal tissues in a rat model of onlay esophagoplasty. Transient exposure of isolated esophageal segments with 40% NaOH led to corrosive esophagitis and a 91% reduction in the luminal cross-sectional area of damaged sites...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352940/cytochrome-p450-epoxygenase-derived-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acids-contribute-to-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice-and-in-humans
#11
Mahesha H Gangadhariah, Blake W Dieckmann, Louise Lantier, Li Kang, David H Wasserman, Manuel Chiusa, Charles F Caskey, Jaime Dickerson, Pengcheng Luo, Jorge L Gamboa, Jorge H Capdevila, John D Imig, Chang Yu, Ambra Pozzi, James M Luther
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin resistance is frequently associated with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) arachidonic acid epoxygenases (CYP2C, CYP2J) and their epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) products lower blood pressure and may also improve glucose homeostasis. However, the direct contribution of endogenous EET production on insulin sensitivity has not been previously investigated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous CYP2C-derived EETs alter insulin sensitivity by analysing mice lacking CYP2C44, a major EET producing enzyme, and by testing the association of plasma EETs with insulin sensitivity in humans...
June 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349262/%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-improves-in-vivo-fresh-and-fatigued-skeletal-muscle-relaxation-speed
#12
Rebecca Louise Jones, Cleveland Thomas Barnett, Joel Davidson, Billy Maritza, William D Fraser, Roger Harris, Craig Sale
PURPOSE: In fresh muscle, supplementation with the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, β-alanine (BA), results in a decline in muscle half-relaxation time (HRT) potentially via alterations to calcium (Ca(2+)) handling. Accumulation of hydrogen cation (H(+)) has been shown to impact Ca(2+) signalling during muscular contraction, carnosine has the potential to serve as a cytoplasmic regulator of Ca(2+) and H(+) coupling, since it binds to both ions. The present study examined the effect of BA supplementation on intrinsic in-vivo isometric knee extensor force production and muscle contractility in both fresh and fatigued human skeletal muscle assessed during voluntary and electrically evoked (nerve and superficial muscle stimulation) contractions...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340259/sedative-prescriptions-are-common-at-opioid-initiation-an-observational-study-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#13
Hilary J Mosher, Kelly K Richardson, Brian C Lund
Background.:  Concurrent use of sedatives, especially anxiolytics, and opioids is associated with increased risk of medication-related harms. To the extent that multiple prescribers are involved, approaches to influence patterns of coprescribing will differ from those to influence prescribing within a single drug class. Objectives.:  Describe the proportion of new opioid recipients with concurrent sedative medications at opioid initiation and determine whether these medications were prescribed by the same prescriber...
March 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338578/spinal-cord-is-the-primary-site-of-action-for-skeletal-muscle-relaxation-by-sevoflurane
#14
Peng Zhang, Pingliang Yang, Ling Ye, Tao Zhu
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, in vivo study was performed to explore the skeletal muscle relaxation action site of sevoflurane. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxation action of sevoflurane by a modified selective anesthetics delivery rabbit model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The action site and mechanisms of skeletal muscle relaxation caused by sevoflurane was unclear. So a modified selective anesthetics delivery model was used...
March 23, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332039/combined-quantification-of-fatty-infiltration-t-1-relaxation-times-and-t-2-relaxation-times-in-normal-appearing-skeletal-muscle-of-controls-and-dystrophic-patients
#15
Benjamin Leporq, Arnaud Le Troter, Yann Le Fur, Emmanuelle Salort-Campana, Maxime Guye, Olivier Beuf, Shahram Attarian, David Bendahan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the combination of a fat-water separation method with an automated segmentation algorithm to quantify the intermuscular fatty-infiltrated fraction, the relaxation times, and the microscopic fatty infiltration in the normal-appearing muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR acquisitions were performed at 1.5T in seven patients with facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy and eight controls. Disease severity was assessed using commonly used scales for the upper and lower limbs...
March 22, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326563/early-structural-and-functional-signature-of-3-day-human-skeletal-muscle-disuse-using-the-dry-immersion-model
#16
Rémi Demangel, Loïc Treffel, Guillaume Py, Thomas Brioche, Allan F Pagano, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Arnaud Beck, Laurence Pessemesse, Robin Candau, Claude Gharib, Angèle Chopard, Catherine Millet
KEY POINTS: Our study contributes to the characterization of muscle loss and weakness processes induced by a sedentary life style, chronic hypoactivity, clinical bed rest, immobilization and microgravity. This study, by bringing together integrated and cellular evaluation of muscle structure and function, identifies the early functional markers and biomarkers of muscle deconditioning. Three days of muscle disuse in healthy adult subjects is sufficient to significantly decrease muscle mass, tone and force, and to induce changes in function relating to a weakness in aerobic metabolism and muscle fibre denervation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325152/synthesis-computational-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-n-2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl-2-4-substituted-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl-acetamides-as-cns-agents
#17
Shweta Verma, Surendra Kumar, Sushil Kumar
A series of new N-(2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-(substituted phenyl) piperazin-1-yl) acetamides (3a-j) have been synthesized by the chloroacetylation of 2-amino-5-chlorbenzophenone which was further reacted with substituted phenylpiperazine. The chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed on the basis of their TLC, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and by elemental analysis. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drug diazepam was assessed by calculating from a set of physicochemical properties using software programs...
March 21, 2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321637/the-time-course-of-short-term-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-eccentric-muscle-damage
#18
Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota, Ryan N DeFranco, Katherine A Grue, A Unique Jacobo, Eunhee Chung, Jordan R Moon, Jason M DeFreitas, Travis W Beck
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the increase in skeletal muscle mass observed during the initial weeks of initiating a resistance training program is concomitant with eccentric muscle damage and edema. PURPOSE: We examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy during 4 weeks of concentric-only resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen untrained men performed unilateral concentric-only dumbbell curls and shoulder presses twice per week for 4 weeks...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288325/trochanteric-hip-fracture-during-cardioversion-therapy-a-case-report
#19
J Gómez, J Albareda, L Ezquerra
INTRODUCTION: Trochanteric hip fractures in elderly patients with osteoporosis are commonly caused by low energy trauma. The cardioversion therapy is an extremely rare cause of this type of fracture. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of a woman with hip fracture after cardioversion. DISCUSSION: We discuss the production mechanism of this injury and the importance of the care of the osteoporotic bone under these therapies. CONCLUSION: The propofol sedation should be complemented with skeletal muscle relaxants in the cardioversion therapy to avoid hip fracture in select patients with osteoporosis...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272142/early-development-identification-of-mode-of-action-and-use-of-dantrolene-sodium-the-role-of-keith-ellis-ph-d
#20
Neil A Pollock, Roslyn G Machon, Henry Rosenberg
Dantrolene-a nitrofurantoin derivative-was developed by Snyder et al. in 1967. After initial discovery of its muscle relaxation potential, investigations in a number of species demonstrated dose-dependent reductions in skeletal muscle tone that were long lasting, relatively nontoxic, and free of adverse effects such as respiratory impairment. Ellis et al. then published a number of papers investigating the means by which dantrolene produced these effects. Using a series of classic physiologic models, Ellis investigated potential sites of action for the new drug, eventually narrowing this down to the intracellular calcium-release mechanism...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
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