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Skeletal muscle relaxant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304997/cellular-biomechanics-in-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#1
Edward W Li, Olivia C McKee-Muir, Penney M Gilbert
Satellite cells, adult stem cells in skeletal muscle tissue, reside within a mechanically dynamic three-dimensional microenvironment. With each contraction-relaxation cycle, a satellite cell is expected to experience tensile, shear, and compressive stresses, and through cell-extracellular matrix interactions, also gauge the stiffness of the niche. Via mechanoreceptors, cells can sense these biophysical parameters of the niche, which serve to physically induce conformational changes that impact biomolecule activity, and thereby alter downstream signal transduction pathways and ultimately cell fate...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262355/regulation-of-contraction-by-the-thick-filaments-in%C3%A2-skeletal-muscle
#2
REVIEW
Malcolm Irving
Contraction of skeletal muscle cells is initiated by a well-known signaling pathway. An action potential in a motor nerve triggers an action potential in a muscle cell membrane, a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration, binding of calcium to troponin in the actin-containing thin filaments, and a structural change in the thin filaments that allows myosin motors from the thick filaments to bind to actin and generate force. This calcium/thin filament mediated pathway provides the "START" signal for contraction, but it is argued that the functional response of the muscle cell, including the speed of its contraction and relaxation, adaptation to the external load, and the metabolic cost of contraction is largely determined by additional mechanisms...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228807/trends-in-carisoprodol-abuse-and-misuse-after-regulatory-scheduling-a-retrospective-review-of-california-poison-control-calls-from-2008-to-2015
#3
Christie Sun, Kathryn A Hollenbach, F L Cantrell
BACKGROUND: In January 2012, carisoprodol was classified as a Schedule IV substance under the controlled substances act from a previously non-controlled, non-scheduled classification. Carisoprodol is marketed as a skeletal muscle relaxant and is commonly cited for its abuse potential. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare volume of calls involving carisoprodol abuse or misuse to a statewide poison control system before and after the scheduling change. METHODS: Data were extracted from poison control calls coded as "misuse/abuse" involving carisoprodol from four years before (2008 to 2011) and four years after (2012 to 2015) the scheduling change...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200912/biphasic-augmentation-of-alpha-adrenergic-contraction-by-plumbagin-in-rat-systemic-arteries
#4
Hae Jin Kim, Hae Young Yoo, Yin Hua Zhang, Woo Kyung Kim, Sung Joon Kim
Plumbagin, a hydroxy 1,4-naphthoquinone compound from plant metabolites, exhibits anticancer, antibacterial, and antifungal activities via modulating various signaling molecules. However, its effects on vascular functions are rarely studied except in pulmonary and coronary arteries where NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition was suggested as a mechanism. Here we investigate the effects of plumbagin on the contractility of skeletal artery (deep femoral artery, DFA), mesenteric artery (MA) and renal artery (RA) in rats...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196133/rapid-negative-inotropic-effect-induced-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-rat-heart-perfused-related-to-pkc-activation
#5
B Jude, S Vetel, M A Giroux-Metges, J P Pennec
Myocardial depression, frequently observed in septic shock, is mediated by circulating molecules such as cytokines. TNF-α appears to be the most important pro-inflammatory cytokine released during the early phase of a septic shock. It was previously shown that TNF-α had a negative inotropic effect on myocardium. Now, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the activation of PKC by TNF-α on heart function, and to determine if this cytokine could induce a decrease of membrane excitability. Isolated rat hearts (n = 6) were perfused with Tyrode solution containing TNF-α at 20 ng/ml during 30 min by using a Langendorff technique...
November 29, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186390/direct-activation-of-the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptors-enhances-muscle-microvascular-perfusion-oxygenation-and-insulin-delivery-in-male-rats
#6
Fei Yan, Zhaoshun Yuan, Nasui Wang, Robert M Carey, Kevin W Aylor, Li Chen, Xinmin Zhou, Zhenqi Liu
Angiotensin II receptors regulate muscle microvascular recruitment and the delivery of nutrients, oxygen and insulin to muscle. While the angiotensin type-1 receptor antagonism increases muscle microvascular perfusion and insulin action, angiotensin type-2 receptor blockade markedly restricts muscle microvascular blood volume and decreases muscle delivery of insulin. To examine the effects of direct type-2 receptor stimulation using Compound 21 (C21) on microvascular perfusion, insulin delivery and action, and tissue oxygenation in muscle, overnight fasted adult male rats were infused with C21 systemically...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162933/deep-characterization-of-a-common-d4z4-variant-identifies-biallelic-dux4-expression-as-a-modifier-for-disease-penetrance-in-fshd2
#7
Richard Jlf Lemmers, Patrick J van der Vliet, Judit Balog, Jelle J Goeman, Wibowo Arindrarto, Yvonne D Krom, Kirsten R Straasheijm, Rashmie D Debipersad, Gizem Özel, Janet Sowden, Lauren Snider, Karlien Mul, Sabrina Sacconi, Baziel van Engelen, Stephen J Tapscott, Rabi Tawil, Silvère M van der Maarel
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is caused by incomplete repression of the transcription factor DUX4 in skeletal muscle as a consequence of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat contraction in chromosome 4q35 (FSHD1) or variants in genes encoding D4Z4 chromatin repressors (FSHD2). A clinical hallmark of FSHD is variability in onset and progression suggesting the presence of disease modifiers. A well-known cis modifier is the polymorphic DUX4 polyadenylation signal (PAS) that defines FSHD permissive alleles: D4Z4 chromatin relaxation on non-permissive alleles which lack the DUX4-PAS cannot cause disease in the absence of stable DUX4 mRNA...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143566/electromyographic-evaluation-in-children-orthodontically-treated-for-skeletal-class-ii-malocclusion-comparison-of-two-treatment-techniques
#8
Eleonora Ortu, Davide Pietropaoli, Fray Adib, Chiara Masci, Mario Giannoni, Annalisa Monaco
Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of two techniques for fabricating a Bimler device by assessing the patient's surface electromyography (sEMG) activity at rest before treatment and six months after treatment. Methods Twenty-four patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study; 12 formed the test group and wore a Bimler device fabricated with a Myoprint impression using neuromuscular orthodontic technique and 12 formed the control group and were treated by traditional orthodontic technique with a wax bite in protrusion...
November 16, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106420/a-small-graphene-oxide-sheet-polyvinylidene-fluoride-bilayer-actuator-with-large-and-rapid-responses-to-multiple-stimuli
#9
Guochuang Xu, Miao Zhang, Qinqin Zhou, Hongwu Chen, Tiantian Gao, Chun Li, Gaoquan Shi
A high-performance actuator should be able to deliver large-shape deformations, fast actuations and sensitive responses to multiple stimuli. Here, we report such an actuator constructed from one layer of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and another layer of small sheets of graphene oxide (SGO) with a negative CTE. The opposite deformations of both actuation layers make the SGO/PVDF bilayer actuator highly sensitive to the temperature stimulus with a large bending sensitivity of 1...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099684/skeletal-muscle-relaxants-340
#10
Brittany Hardek, Jennifer Pruskowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096122/effect-of-cryopreservation-at-80%C3%A2-c-on-visco-hyperelastic-properties-of-skeletal-muscle-tissue
#11
Naïm Jalal, Mustapha Zidi
This paper investigated the effect of cryopreservation at -80°C on mechanical visco-hyperelastic properties of skeletal muscle. For that, both tensile and compression relaxation tests were performed on porcine tissues samples in fibre and cross-fibre directions. Material parameters were identified by using first order Ogden's strain energy function coupled with second order Maxwell's model. The results revealed that the cryopreservation conditions at -80°C with conservative and cryoprotectant solution significantly affected the mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081402/conformational-memory-in-the-association-of-the-transmembrane-protein-phospholamban-with-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-pump-serca
#12
Serena Smeazzetto, Gareth P Armanious, Marai Rosa Moncelli, Jessi J Bak, M Joanne Lemieux, Howard S Young, Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni
The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase SERCA promotes muscle relaxation by pumping calcium ions from the cytoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. SERCA activity is regulated by a variety of small transmembrane peptides, most notably by phospholamban in cardiac muscle and sarcolipin in skeletal muscle. However, how phospholamban and sarcolipin regulate SERCA is not fully understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of phospholamban and sarcolipin on calcium translocation and ATP hydrolysis by SERCA under conditions that mimic environments in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074883/bi-component-t1%C3%AF-and-t2-relaxation-mapping-of-skeletal-muscle-in-vivo
#13
Azadeh Sharafi, Gregory Chang, Ravinder R Regatte
The goal of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of bi-component T1ρ and T2 relaxation mapping of human skeletal muscle at 3 T in clinically feasible scan times. T1ρ- and T2-weighted images of calf muscle were acquired using a modified 3D-SPGR sequence on a standard 3 T clinical MRI scanner. The mono- and biexponential models were fitted pixel-wise to the series of T1ρ and T2 weighted images. The biexponential decay of T1ρ and T2 relaxations was detected in ~30% and ~40% of the pixels across all volunteers, respectively...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051191/role-of-thyroid-hormone-in-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#14
Flavia F Bloise, Aline Cordeiro, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho
Thyroid hormones (TH) are crucial for development, growth, differentiation, metabolism and thermogenesis. Skeletal muscle (SM) contractile function, myogenesis and bioenergetic metabolism are influenced by TH. These effects depend on the presence of the TH transporters MCT8 and MCT10 in the plasma membrane, the expression of TH receptors (THRA or THRB) and hormone availability, which is determined either by the activation of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinases (D2) or by the inactivation of T4 into reverse T3 by deiodinases type 3 (D3)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040646/statins-affect-skeletal-muscle-performance-evidence-for-disturbances-in-energy-metabolism
#15
Neeltje A E Allard, Tom J J Schirris, Rebecca J Verheggen, Frans G M Russel, Richard J Rodenburg, Jan A M Smeitink, Paul D Thompson, Maria T E Hopman, Silvie Timmers
Context: Statin myopathy is linked to disturbances in mitochondrial function and exercise intolerance. Objectives: To determine whether differences exist in exercise performance, muscle function and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and content between symptomatic and asymptomatic statin users, and non-statin using controls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Physiology of the Radboud University Medical Center...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027725/severity-of-ineffective-esophageal-motility-is-associated-with-utilization-of-skeletal-muscle-relaxant-medications
#16
V Rangan, N S George, F Khan, Z Geng, S Gabbard, A Kichler, H Gittleman, R Fass
BACKGROUND: Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is the most common finding on high-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM). The underlying mechanisms for IEM remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine if utilization of skeletal muscle relaxants is associated with IEM, and with more severe subtypes of the disorder. METHODS: Patients with diagnosis of IEM were gender and age matched to patients with normal HREM. Demographic information, symptoms, endoscopic findings, medication usage and medical comorbidities were recorded...
October 13, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022202/clove-oil-induces-anaesthesia-and-blunts-muscle-contraction-power-in-three-amazon-fish-species
#17
Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto, Débora Martins Pereira, Jessica Cristina Souza Silva, Laís Cássia Araújo de Oliveira, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki Inoue, Moisés Hamoy, Vanessa Jóia de Mello, Marcelo Ferreira Torres, Luis André Luz Barbas
Clove oil is used as an anaesthetic for many species of fish worldwide; however, relatively few studies have assessed its effectiveness on Amazon fish species and no compelling evidence has ever been reported on the relaxant properties of this oil for skeletal muscle of fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the latencies to deep anaesthesia and recovery, along with the myorelaxant effect of clove oil on three Amazon fish species: cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, banded cichlid, Heros severus and angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, submitted to short-term anaesthetic baths...
October 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985857/cyclooxygenase-2-contributes-to-bradykinin-induced-microvascular-responses-in%C3%A2-peripheral-arterioles-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#18
Jun Feng, Kelsey Anderson, Yuhong Liu, Arun K Singh, Afshin Ehsan, Frank W Sellke
BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients are associated with impaired peripheral microvascular function after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that upregulation of the inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) contributes to altered microvascular reactivity of peripheral arterioles in diabetic patients undergoing CPB and cardiac surgery. METHODS: Skeletal muscle samples of nondiabetic (ND) patients and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM; n = 8 per group) undergoing cardiac surgery were harvested before and after CPB...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970784/tonically-active-%C3%AE-5gabaa-receptors-reduce-motoneuron-excitability-and-decrease-the-monosynaptic-reflex
#19
Martha Canto-Bustos, Emanuel Loeza-Alcocer, Carlos A Cuellar, Paulina Osuna, David Elias-Viñas, Vinicio Granados-Soto, Elías Manjarrez, Ricardo Felix, Rodolfo Delgado-Lezama
Motoneurons, the final common path of the Central Nervous System (CNS), are under a complex control of its excitability in order to precisely translate the interneuronal pattern of activity into skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation. To fulfill this relevant function, motoneurons are provided with a vast repertoire of receptors and channels, including the extrasynaptic GABAA receptors which have been poorly investigated. Here, we confirmed that extrasynaptic α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors localize with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) positive cells, suggesting that these receptors are expressed in turtle motoneurons as previously reported in rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938418/androgens-support-male-acrobatic-courtship-behavior-by-enhancing-muscle-speed-and-easing-the-severity-of-its-tradeoff-with-force
#20
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Franz Goller, John Petersen, Julia Yancey
Steroid hormone action in the brain regulates many animals' elaborate social displays used for courtship and competition, but it is increasingly recognized that the periphery may also be a site for potent steroidal modulation of complex behavior. However, the mechanisms of such "bottom-up" regulation of behavioral outflow are largely unclear. To study this problem, we examined how androgenic sex hormones act through the skeletal muscular system to mediate elaborate courtship acrobatics in a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
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