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Skeletal muscle relaxant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912570/a-focus-on-extracellular-ca-2-entry-into-skeletal-muscle
#1
REVIEW
Chung-Hyun Cho, Jin Seok Woo, Claudio F Perez, Eun Hui Lee
The main task of skeletal muscle is contraction and relaxation for body movement and posture maintenance. During contraction and relaxation, Ca(2+) in the cytosol has a critical role in activating and deactivating a series of contractile proteins. In skeletal muscle, the cytosolic Ca(2+) level is mainly determined by Ca(2+) movements between the cytosol and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The importance of Ca(2+) entry from extracellular spaces to the cytosol has gained significant attention over the past decade...
September 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878687/no-sgc-pathway-modulates-ca-2-release-and-muscle-contraction-in-zebrafish-skeletal-muscle
#2
Zhou Xiyuan, Rainer H A Fink, Matias Mosqueira
Vertebrate skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation is a complex process that depends on Ca(2+) ions to promote the interaction of actin and myosin. This process can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO), a gas molecule synthesized endogenously by (nitric oxide synthase) NOS isoforms. At nanomolar concentrations NO activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which in turn activates protein kinase G via conversion of GTP into cyclic GMP. Alternatively, NO post-translationally modifies proteins via S-nitrosylation of the thiol group of cysteine...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871556/lessons-from-a-tarantula-new-insights-into-muscle-thick-filament-and-myosin-interacting-heads-motif-structure-and-function
#3
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alamo, Natalia Koubassova, Antonio Pinto, Richard Gillilan, Andrey Tsaturyan, Raúl Padrón
The tarantula skeletal muscle X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that the myosin heads were helically arranged on the thick filaments. Electron microscopy (EM) of negatively stained relaxed tarantula thick filaments revealed four helices of heads allowing a helical 3D reconstruction. Due to its low resolution (5.0 nm), the unambiguous interpretation of densities of both heads was not possible. A resolution increase up to 2.5 nm, achieved by cryo-EM of frozen-hydrated relaxed thick filaments and an iterative helical real space reconstruction, allowed the resolving of both heads...
September 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826559/magnetic-resonance-monitoring-of-disease-progression-in-mdx-mice-on-different-genetic-backgrounds
#4
Ravneet Vohra, Abhinandan Batra, Sean C Forbes, Krista Vandenborne, Glenn A Walter
Genetic modifiers alter disease progression in both preclinical models and subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, we compared the skeletal and cardiac muscles of two different dystrophic mouse models of DMD, which are on different genetic backgrounds, the C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx (B10-mdx) and D2.B10-Dmdmdx (D2-mdx). The proton transverse relaxation constant (T2) using both MR imaging and spectroscopy revealed significant age-related differences in dystrophic skeletal and cardiac muscles as compared with their age-matched controls...
September 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826478/extensive-alternative-splicing-transitions-during-postnatal-skeletal-muscle-development-are-required-for-calcium-handling-functions
#5
Amy E Brinegar, Zheng Xia, James Anthony Loehr, Wei Li, George Gerald Rodney, Thomas A Cooper
Postnatal development of skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic period of tissue remodeling. Here, we used RNA-seq to identify transcriptome changes from late embryonic to adult mouse muscle and demonstrate that alternative splicing developmental transitions impact muscle physiology. The first 2 weeks after birth are particularly dynamic for differential gene expression and alternative splicing transitions, and calcium-handling functions are significantly enriched among genes that undergo alternative splicing...
August 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801956/evidence-of-er-stress-and-upr-activation-in-patients-with-brody-disease-and-brody-syndrome
#6
V Guglielmi, N C Voermans, A Oosterhof, D Nowis, B G van Engelen, G Tomelleri, G Vattemi
Brody disease (BD, OMIM #601003) is an inherited skeletal muscle disease clinically characterized by exercise-induced impairment of muscle relaxation and stiffness due to the delay in the Ca(2+) re-uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)[1, 2]. The delayed muscle relaxation mainly affects legs, harms, hands and eyelids and usually improves after a few minutes rest [1-3]. Patients frequently report myalgia, painless or mildly painful cramps whereas recurrent rhabdomyolysis have been described in a few cases [2, 3]...
August 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779239/exome-sequencing-in-jewish-and-arab-patients-with-rhabdomyolysis-reveals-single-gene-etiology-in-43-of-cases
#7
Asaf Vivante, Hadas Ityel, Ben Pode-Shakked, Jing Chen, Shirlee Shril, Amelie T van der Ven, Nina Mann, Johanna Magdalena Schmidt, Reeval Segel, Adi Aran, Avraham Zeharia, Orna Staretz-Chacham, Omer Bar-Yosef, Annick Raas-Rothschild, Yuval E Landau, Richard P Lifton, Yair Anikster, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical emergency that may cause acute kidney injury (AKI). It can be acquired or due to monogenic mutations. Around 60 different rare monogenic forms of rhabdomyolysis have been reported to date. In the clinical setting, identifying the underlying molecular diagnosis is challenging due to nonspecific presentation, the high number of causative genes, and current lack of data on the prevalence of monogenic forms. METHODS: We employed whole exome sequencing (WES) to reveal the percentage of rhabdomyolysis cases explained by single-gene (monogenic) mutations in one of 58 candidate genes...
August 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749398/f-wave-index-a-diagnostic-tool-for-peripheral-neuropathy
#8
G R Sathya, N Krishnamurthy, Susheela Veliath, Jayanthi Arulneyam, J Venkatachalam
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Each skeletal muscle is usually supplied by two or more nerve roots and if one nerve root is affected and the other is spared, the clinically used F wave minimum latency can still be normal. An F wave index was constructed taking into consideration the other parameters of the F wave such as persistence, chronodispersion, latency, arm-length to determine its usefulness in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. This study was undertaken to construct the F wave index in the upper limb for the median nerve in normal healthy adult males and in patients with peripheral neuropathy and to compare the values obtained in both groups...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734932/a-pyridone-derivative-activates-serca2a-by-attenuating-the-inhibitory-effect-of-phospholamban
#9
Manami Kaneko, Hisato Yamamoto, Hiroki Sakai, Yusuke Kamada, Toshiki Tanaka, Shuji Fujiwara, Synsuke Yamamoto, Hiroki Takahagi, Hideyuki Igawa, Shizuo Kasai, Masakuni Noda, Makoto Inui, Tomoyuki Nishimoto
The cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) plays a central role in Ca(2+) handling within cardiomyocytes and is negatively regulated by phospholamban (PLN), a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane protein. The activation of SERCA2a, which has been reported to improve cardiac dysfunction in heart failure, is a potential therapeutic approach for heart failure. Therefore, we developed a novel small molecule, compound A and characterized it both in vitro and in vivo. Compound A activated the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of cardiac SR vesicles but not that of skeletal muscle SR vesicles that lack PLN...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706458/electrophysiological-characteristics-of-r47w-and-a298t-mutations-in-clc-1-of-myotonia-congenita-patients-and-evaluation-of-clinical-features
#10
Hyung Jin Chin, Chan Hyeong Kim, Kotdaji Ha, Jin Hong Shin, Dae-Seong Kim, Insuk So
Myotonia congenita (MC) is a genetic disease that displays impaired relaxation of skeletal muscle and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is mainly caused by mutations of CLCN1 that encodes human skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLC-1). CLC-1 is a voltage gated chloride channel that activates upon depolarizing potentials and play a major role in stabilization of resting membrane potentials in skeletal muscle. In this study, we report 4 unrelated Korean patients diagnosed with myotonia congenita and their clinical features...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683451/sleep-related-electrophysiology-and-behavior-of-tinamous-eudromia-elegans-tinamous-do-not-sleep-like-ostriches
#11
Ryan K Tisdale, Alexei L Vyssotski, John A Lesku, Niels C Rattenborg
The functions of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, distinct sleep substates present in both mammals and birds, remain unresolved. One approach to gaining insight into their function is to trace the evolution of these states through examining sleep in as many taxonomic groups as possible. The mammalian and avian clades are each composed of two extant groups, i.e., the monotremes (echidna and platypus) and therian (marsupial and eutherian [or placental]) mammals, and Palaeognaths (cassowaries, emus, kiwi, ostriches, rheas, and tinamous) and Neognaths (all other birds) among birds...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676556/influence-of-longitudinal-radiation-exposure-from-microcomputed-tomography-scanning-on-skeletal-muscle-function-and-metabolic-activity-in-female-cd-1-mice
#12
John S Mikhaeil, Sandra M Sacco, Caitlin Saint, William Gittings, Jordan Bunda, Cameron R Giles, Val Andrew Fajardo, Rene Vandenboom, Wendy E Ward, Paul J LeBlanc
Microcomputed tomography (μCT) is an imaging technology to assess bone microarchitecture, a determinant of bone strength. When measured in vivo, μCT exposes the skeletal site of interest to a dose of radiation, in addition to nearby skeletal muscles as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of repeated radiation exposure from in vivo μCT on muscle health - specifically, muscle morphometrics, contractile function, and enzyme activity. This study exposed the right hind limb of female mice to either a low (26 cGy) or moderate (46 cGy) dose, at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, while the left hind limb of the same animal was exposed to a single dose at 6 months to serve as a nonirradiated control...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624852/vasoconstrictor-responsiveness-in-contracting-human-muscle-influence-of-contraction-frequency-contractile-work-and-metabolic-rate
#13
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Kenichi Ueda, Darren P Casey
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether independent effects exist between contractile work and metabolic demand (VO2m) on vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., functional sympatholysis) under different contraction durations matched for total contractile work in exercising human skeletal muscle. METHODS: Ten young men performed rhythmic forearm contractions at 10 and 15% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) which consisted of muscle contractions using the same duty cycle but altering the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycles of exercise and included: 1) fast frequency contractions at 10% MVC (FFC10%) using a contraction relaxation cycle at 1:2 s; 2) slow frequency contractions at 10% MVC (SFC10%) at 2:4 s; and 3) SFC at 15% MVC (SFC15%) at 2:4 s...
August 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614178/patterns-of-opioid-use-and-risk-of-opioid-overdose-death-among-medicaid-patients
#14
Renu K Garg, Deborah Fulton-Kehoe, Gary M Franklin
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recognizes Medicaid as a high-risk population for fatal opioid overdose. Further research is needed to identify factors that put Medicaid patients at increased risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patterns of opioid use are associated with risk of opioid-related mortality among opioid users. DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS: In total, 150,821 noncancer pain patients aged 18-64 years with ≥1 opioid prescription, April 2006 to December 2010, Washington Medicaid...
July 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607071/ca-2-induced-movement-of-tropomyosin-on-native-cardiac-thin-filaments-revealed-by-cryoelectron-microscopy
#15
Cristina Risi, Jamie Eisner, Betty Belknap, David H Heeley, Howard D White, Gunnar F Schröder, Vitold E Galkin
Muscle contraction relies on the interaction of myosin motors with F-actin, which is regulated through a translocation of tropomyosin by the troponin complex in response to Ca(2+) The current model of muscle regulation holds that at relaxing (low-Ca(2+)) conditions tropomyosin blocks myosin binding sites on F-actin, whereas at activating (high-Ca(2+)) conditions tropomyosin translocation only partially exposes myosin binding sites on F-actin so that binding of rigor myosin is required to fully activate the thin filament (TF)...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598099/-emulsified-sevoflurane-selectively-blocking-spinal-cord-and-brain-in-rabbit-model
#16
Peng Zhang, Ping-Liang Yang, Xin-Xin Sun, Tao Zhu, Ling Ye
OBJECTIVES: To establish the rabbits model of selectively anesthetized brain and spinal cord and to explore the skeletal muscle relaxation sites of sevoflurane. METHODS: Sixteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to the experiment. The upper torso systemic circulation and the lower torso bypass circulation were independently established by the ligation of thoracic aorta at T12-L1 level. Sevoflurane was administered to the upper or lower torso through lungs or oxygenator to selectively anesthetized brain or spinal cord (mainly lumbar and sacro-coccygeal region)...
September 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591954/-the-effect-of-emulsified-sevofluran-on-muscular-relaxation-through-selective-blockage-of-peripheral-nerves
#17
Ling Ye, Xin-Xin Sun, Tao Zhu, Ping-Liang Yang
OBJECTIVES: To identify the site that emulsified sevoflurane influences in the nerve system. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly and equally divided into low concentration emulsified sevoflurane group [4 mL/(kg·h)], medium concentration [6 mL/(kg·h)]group, high concentration group[10 mL/(kg·h)]and intralipid control group. Emulsified sevoflurane was infused through arterial to selectively block peripheral nerves, neuro-muscular junctions and muscle fibers...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587334/effect-of-acute-peritonitis-on-rocuronium-induced-intraperitoneal-pressure-reduction-and-the-uptake-function-of-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum
#18
Jian-You Zhang, Yuan Gong, Mei-Rong Yang, Jin Wu, Shi-Tong Li
Previous studies have reported the incomplete relaxation effect of neuromuscular blockers on skeletal muscles in acute peritonitis (AP) and other inflammatory processes; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect have not yet been satisfactorily identified. The impaired removal of cytosolic Ca(2+) through sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and defects in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) uptake are the major contributing factors to diastolic dysfunction. Previous studies on the effects of neuromuscular blockers have primarily focused on neuromuscular transmission...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580087/successful-early-application-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-to-support-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-for-a-patient-suffering-from-severe-malignant-hyperthermia-and-cardiac-arrest-a-case-report
#19
Hyub Huh, Jae Seung Jung, Sang Jae Park, Min Kyung Park, Choon Hak Lim, Seung Zhoo Yoon
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) may lead to metabolic crisis of skeletal muscle in susceptible individuals following exposure to triggering agents such as volatile anesthetics or depolarizing muscle relaxants. MH is a rare and a potentially lethal disease, which can lead to cardiac arrest. We report a case of severe MH, in which the rapidly evolving signs of hypermetabolism eventually resulted in cardiac arrest. Despite conventional treatments following cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient's vital signs did not improve...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576821/contraction-induced-enhancement-of-relaxation-during-high-force-contractions-of-mouse-lumbrical-muscle-at-37%C3%A2-c
#20
Ian C Smith, Rene Vandenboom, A Russell Tupling
Repeated stimulation of unfatigued rodent fast-twitch skeletal muscle accelerates the kinetics of tension relaxation through an unknown mechanism. This effect varies with muscle type and stimulation parameters, and has been observed at physiological temperatures for submaximal but not maximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare relaxation kinetics of C57BL/6 mouse lumbrical muscles ex vivo from maximal isometric force (500 Hz for 20 ms) when evoked before (pre) and after (post) an intervening tetanic contraction at 37°C...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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