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Skeletal muscle relaxant

Shiteng Suo, Lan Zhang, Hui Tang, Qihong Ni, Suqin Li, Haimin Mao, Xiangyu Liu, Shengyun He, Jianxun Qu, Qing Lu, Jianrong Xu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques including arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), are capable of measuring tissue perfusion-related parameters. We sought to evaluate and compare these three CMR techniques in characterizing skeletal muscle perfusion in lower extremities and to investigate their abilities to diagnose and assess the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Cynthia M F Monaco, Paula M Miotto, Jason S Huber, Luc J C van Loon, Jeremy A Simpson, Graham P Holloway
Supplementation with dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3 - ) is increasingly recognized to confer cardioprotective effects in both healthy and clinical populations. While the mechanism(s) remain ambiguous, in skeletal muscle, the oral consumption of sodium nitrate has been shown to improve mitochondrial efficiency. Whether sodium nitrate has similar effects on mitochondria within the heart is unknown. Therefore, we comprehensively investigated the effect of sodium nitrate supplementation on in vivo left ventricular (LV) function and mitochondrial bioenergetics...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
David E Moody, Yueqiao Fu, Wenfang B Fang
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle relaxants could inhibit the in vitro metabolism of common co-medications opioids buprenorphine, methadone and oxycodone. The compounds (solubility-limited concentration (μM) studied) were: baclofen (1000), carisoprodol (200), its metabolite meprobamate (1000), chlorzoxazone (200), cyclobenzaprine (1000), metaxalone (50), methocarbamol (1000), orphenadrine (1000) and tizanidine (1000). Compounds were first incubated with human liver microsomes (HLM) ± pre-incubation, screened with pathway-specific cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s (rCYP), and then IC50 values determined using either 8-concentration tests for those where the rCYP screen suggested an IC50 was achievable, or a 3-concentration test with downward extrapolation if screen suggested 50% inhibition was not achievable...
March 5, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
N'Diris Barry, Joshua C Uffman, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVES: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation in surgical procedures. Sugammadex (Bridion) recently received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for reversal of rocuronium and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade thereby providing an alternative to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine. This quality improvement analysis sought to investigate the clinical reasons and common clinical perceptions for choosing sugammadex over neostigmine to reverse NMBAs...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Ibrahim Sahin, Haktan B Erdem, Huseyin Tan, Abdulgani Tatar
Myotonia congenita is an inherited muscle disease present from childhood that is characterized by impaired muscle relaxation after contraction resulting in muscle stiffness; moreover, skeletal striated muscle groups may be involved. Myotonia congenita occurs due to chloride (Cl) channel mutations that reduce the stabilizing Cl conductance, and it is caused by mutations in the CLCN1 gene. This paper describes four patients from two different healthy consanguineous Turkish families with muscle stiffness and easy fatigability...
February 26, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Rabi Tawil
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy with a distinctive pattern of skeletal muscle weakness and a wide spectrum of disease severity. The pathophysiologic consequences of the genetic lesion, the loss of a critical number of macrosatellite repeats (D4Z4) in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q35, remained unexplained for almost two decades. Recent studies demonstrate that contraction in the number of D4Z4 repeats results in chromatin relaxation and transcriptional de-repression of DUX4, a gene normally expressed only in the germline...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Nancy Carnide, Sheilah Hogg-Johnson, Andrea D Furlan, Pierre Côté, Mieke Koehoorn
OBJECTIVE: Compare prescription dispensing before and after a work-related low back injury. METHODS: Descriptive analyses were used to describe opioid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and skeletal muscle relaxant (SMR) dispensing one year pre-and post-injury among 97,124 workers in British Columbia with new workers' compensation low back claims from 1998-2009. RESULTS: Before injury, 19.7%, 21.2%, and 6.3% were dispensed opioids, NSAIDs, and SMRs, respectively, increasing to 39...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Joseph O Primeau, Gareth P Armanious, M'Lynn E Fisher, Howard S Young
The calcium pump (a.k.a. Ca2+ -ATPase or SERCA) is a membrane transport protein ubiquitously found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all eukaryotic cells. As a calcium transporter, SERCA maintains the low cytosolic calcium level that enables a vast array of signaling pathways and physiological processes (e.g. synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, fertilization). In muscle cells, SERCA promotes relaxation by pumping calcium ions from the cytosol into the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the main storage compartment for intracellular calcium...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Gulam Rabbani, Eun Ju Lee, Khurshid Ahmad, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Inho Choi
Tolperisone hydrochloride (TH) has muscle relaxant activity, and has been widely used for several years in clinical practice to treat pathologically high skeletal muscle tone (spasticity) and related pains. The current study was designed to explore the binding efficacy of TH with human serum albumin (HSA) using a multispectroscopic approach, FRET, esterase-like activity, and a molecular docking method. A reduction in fluorescence emission at 340 nm of HSA was attributed to florescence quenching by TH via a static quenching type...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Adrian T Huber, Marine Bravetti, Jérôme Lamy, Tania Bacoyannis, Charles Roux, Alain de Cesare, Aude Rigolet, Olivier Benveniste, Yves Allenbach, Mathieu Kerneis, Philippe Cluzel, Nadjia Kachenoura, Alban Redheuil
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is a group of autoimmune diseases with systemic myositis which may involve the myocardium. Cardiac involvement in IIM, although often subclinical, may mimic clinical manifestations of acute viral myocarditis (AVM). Our aim was to investigate the usefulness of the combined analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 and T2 mapping parameters measured both in the myocardium and in the thoracic skeletal muscles to differentiate AVM from IIM cardiac involvement...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Maya N Hatch, Jason Raad, Katie Suda, Kevin T Stroupe, Alice J Hon, Bridget M Smith
OBJECTIVE: To examine the different sources of medications, the most common drugs classes filled, and the characteristics associated with Medicare Part D pharmacy use in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D). DESIGN: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional observation study. SETTING: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) PARTICIPANTS: Veterans with SCI/D using Medicare or Veteran Affairs Pharmacy benefits. INTERVENTIONS: None MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Characteristics and top 10 most common drug classes were examined in Veterans who (1) used VA pharmacies only, (2) dually used VA and Part D pharmacies, or (3) Part D pharmacies only...
February 6, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jiao Liu, Matthias Schwartzkopf, Anders Arner
Effects of rigor cross-bridge attachment on water holding in PSE-like conditions were investigated. A new model using permeabilised/skinned porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle fibres was established to study effects of varied pH, temperature and the presence of rigor bonds on the muscle fibre structure. Preparations were exposed during 30min to different temperatures (22 and 38°C) and pH (7.0 and 5.5) in relaxed and rigor states, followed by evaluation of active force and filament lattice spacing (using small angle X-ray scattering) at standard pH (7...
February 2, 2018: Meat Science
Li Yin, Ruigang Lu, Wen Cao, Lingling Zhang, Wenjing Li, Hong Sun, Ruijun Guo
OBJECTIVES: Two-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography (SWE) can measure the elasticity of skeletal muscle, tendons, and ligaments. Three-dimensional (3D) SWE has been used to detect breast cancer but has not been applied to the musculoskeletal system. This study aimed to investigate whether 3D SWE could be used in skeletal muscles in vivo. METHODS: The study enrolled 20 healthy volunteers at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from August to October 2016. Two-dimensional and 3D SWE scans were used to measure the Young modulus of the flexor carpi radialis in the relaxed state...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Natsuko Nakano, Fumiya Kinoshita, Hiroki Takada, Meiho Nakayama
Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Kaio F Vitzel, Marco A Fortes, Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Maria V M Scervino, Carlos H Pinheiro, Leonardo R Silveira, Rui Curi
Skeletal muscle electrical stimulation is commonly used for clinical purposes, assisting recovery, preservation, or even improvement of muscle mass and function in healthy and pathological conditions. Additionally, it is a useful research tool for evaluation of skeletal muscle contractile function. It may be applied in vitro, using cell culture or isolated fibers/muscles, and in vivo, using human subjects or animal models (neuromuscular electrical stimulation - NMES). This chapter focuses on the electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve as a research method for evaluation of the contractile properties of murine hind limb muscles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Douglas Oyler, Andrew C Bernard, Jeremy D VanHoose, Sara E Parli, C Scott Ellis, David Li, Levi D Procter, Phillip K Chang
PURPOSE: Results of an initiative at an academic medical center to reduce prescription opioid use in patients with acute traumatic injuries are reported. METHODS: In 2014, the University of Kentucky Hospital trauma service implemented a pain management strategy consisting of patient and provider education emphasizing the use of nonopioid analgesics to minimize opioid use without compromising analgesia effectiveness. To assess the impact of the initiative, a retrospective analysis of data on cohorts of patients admitted with acute trauma before ( n = 489) and after ( n = 424) project implementation was conducted...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Karin Alev, Arved Vain, Maire Aru, Ando Pehme, Priit Purge, Priit Kaasik, Teet Seene
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the state of tension (tone) and the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle in aging rats during the administration of different doses of dexamethasone and to find the relationships among the state of muscle atrophy, muscle strength, and the abovementioned muscle properties. METHODS: Muscle state of tension, biomechanical (elasticity, dynamic stiffness) and viscoelastic (mechanical stress relaxation time, Deborah number) properties (using MyotonPRO, Myoton Ltd, Tallinn, Estonia), lean body mass (BM), and hind limb grip strength were measured before and after the administration of a 10-day treatment with dexamethasone 100 μg/100 g BM (young and old group) and 50 μg/100 g BM (old group)...
January 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Edward W Li, Olivia C McKee-Muir, Penney M Gilbert
Satellite cells, adult stem cells in skeletal muscle tissue, reside within a mechanically dynamic three-dimensional microenvironment. With each contraction-relaxation cycle, a satellite cell is expected to experience tensile, shear, and compressive stresses, and through cell-extracellular matrix interactions, also gauge the stiffness of the niche. Via mechanoreceptors, cells can sense these biophysical parameters of the niche, which serve to physically induce conformational changes that impact biomolecule activity, and thereby alter downstream signal transduction pathways and ultimately cell fate...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Malcolm Irving
Contraction of skeletal muscle cells is initiated by a well-known signaling pathway. An action potential in a motor nerve triggers an action potential in a muscle cell membrane, a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration, binding of calcium to troponin in the actin-containing thin filaments, and a structural change in the thin filaments that allows myosin motors from the thick filaments to bind to actin and generate force. This calcium/thin filament mediated pathway provides the "START" signal for contraction, but it is argued that the functional response of the muscle cell, including the speed of its contraction and relaxation, adaptation to the external load, and the metabolic cost of contraction is largely determined by additional mechanisms...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Christie Sun, Kathryn A Hollenbach, F L Cantrell
BACKGROUND: In January 2012, carisoprodol was classified as a Schedule IV substance under the controlled substances act from a previously non-controlled, non-scheduled classification. Carisoprodol is marketed as a skeletal muscle relaxant and is commonly cited for its abuse potential. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare volume of calls involving carisoprodol abuse or misuse to a statewide poison control system before and after the scheduling change. METHODS: Data were extracted from poison control calls coded as "misuse/abuse" involving carisoprodol from four years before (2008 to 2011) and four years after (2012 to 2015) the scheduling change...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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