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Skeletal muscle relaxant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288325/trochanteric-hip-fracture-during-cardioversion-therapy-a-case-report
#1
J Gómez, J Albareda, L Ezquerra
INTRODUCTION: Trochanteric hip fractures in elderly patients with osteoporosis are commonly caused by low energy trauma. The cardioversion therapy is an extremely rare cause of this type of fracture. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of a woman with hip fracture after cardioversion. DISCUSSION: We discuss the production mechanism of this injury and the importance of the care of the osteoporotic bone under these therapies. CONCLUSION: The propofol sedation should be complemented with skeletal muscle relaxants in the cardioversion therapy to avoid hip fracture in select patients with osteoporosis...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272142/early-development-identification-of-mode-of-action-and-use-of-dantrolene-sodium-the-role-of-keith-ellis-ph-d
#2
Neil A Pollock, Roslyn G Machon, Henry Rosenberg
Dantrolene-a nitrofurantoin derivative-was developed by Snyder et al. in 1967. After initial discovery of its muscle relaxation potential, investigations in a number of species demonstrated dose-dependent reductions in skeletal muscle tone that were long lasting, relatively nontoxic, and free of adverse effects such as respiratory impairment. Ellis et al. then published a number of papers investigating the means by which dantrolene produced these effects. Using a series of classic physiologic models, Ellis investigated potential sites of action for the new drug, eventually narrowing this down to the intracellular calcium-release mechanism...
March 8, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270443/skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-is-sufficient-to-drive-an-endurance-exercise-phenotype-and-to-counteract-components-of-detraining-in-mice
#3
Samuel Lee, Teresa C Leone, Lisa Rogosa, John Rumsey, Julio Ayala, Paul M Coen, Robert H Fitts, Rick B Vega, Daniel P Kelly
PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) α; ;and β serve as master transcriptional regulators of muscle mitochondrial functional capacity and are capable of enhancing muscle endurance when overexpressed in mice. We sought to determine whether muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of PGC-1β affects the detraining response following endurance training. First, we established and validated a mouse exercise training/detraining protocol. Secondly, we found that overexpression of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle of sedentary mice fully recapitulated the training response using multiple physiological and gene expression endpoints...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246924/jsa-guideline-for-the-management-of-malignant-hyperthermia-crisis-2016
#4
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) can be fatal if the crisis is not appropriately treated. It is an inherited disease usually triggered by the administration of volatile inhalational anesthetics and/or succinylcholine, a muscle relaxant. In a patient with suspected MH, the mechanism of calcium release from storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the skeletal muscle is abnormally accelerated. Unexplained hypercarbia representing >55 mmHg of end-tidal carbon dioxide, tachycardia, and muscle rigidity (including masseter muscle rigidity) are early signs of the initiation of MH, because the metabolism is accelerated...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223172/a-simple-model-of-cardiac-muscle-for-multiscale-simulation-passive-mechanics-crossbridge-kinetics-and-calcium-regulation
#5
Fyodor A Syomin, Andrey K Tsaturyan
A simple model of cardiac muscle was designed for multiscale simulation of heart mechanics. Relaxed cardiac muscle was described as a transversally isotropic hyperelastic material. Active tension caused by actin-myosin crossbridges depends on the ensemble averaged strain of myosin heads bound to actin. Calcium activation was modeled by Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C. To account for the dependence of troponin affinity for Ca(2+) on myosin heads strongly bound to actin, the kinetics of troponin binding to Ca(2+) in the overlap zone of the thin and thick filaments and outside it were separated...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195849/detection-and-alterations-of-acetylcarnitine-in-human-skeletal-muscles-by-1h-mrs-at-7-t
#6
Radka Klepochová, Ladislav Valkovič, Martin Gajdošík, Thomas Hochwartner, Harald Tschan, Michael Krebs, Siegfried Trattnig, Martin Krššák
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to detect the acetylcarnitine resonance line at 2.13 ppm in the human vastus lateralis and soleus muscles, assess T1 and T2 relaxation times, and investigate the diurnal and exercise-related changes in absolute concentration noninvasively, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All measurements were performed on a 7 T whole-body Magnetom MR system with a 28-channel knee coil. Five healthy, moderately trained volunteers participated in the assessment of the detectability, repeatability, and relaxation times of acetylcarnitine...
February 10, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194519/electromechanical-delays-during-a-fatiguing-exercise-and-recovery-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#7
Fabio Esposito, Emiliano Cè, Susanna Rampichini, Elena Monti, Eloisa Limonta, Barbara Fossati, Giovanni Meola
PURPOSE: The partitioning of the electromechanical delay by an electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG) and force combined approach can provide further insight into the electrochemical and mechanical processes involved with skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation. The aim of the study was to monitor by this combined approach the changes in delays' electrochemical and mechanical components throughout a fatiguing task and during recovery in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), who present at the skeletal muscle level fibres rearrangement, muscle weakness and myotonia, especially in the distal muscles...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192790/systemic-pharmacologic-therapies-for-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review-for-an-american-college-of-physicians-clinical-practice-guideline
#8
Roger Chou, Richard Deyo, Janna Friedly, Andrea Skelly, Melissa Weimer, Rochelle Fu, Tracy Dana, Paul Kraegel, Jessica Griffin, Sara Grusing
Background: A 2007 American College of Physicians guideline addressed pharmacologic options for low back pain. New evidence and medications have now become available. Purpose: To review the current evidence on systemic pharmacologic therapies for acute or chronic nonradicular or radicular low back pain. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE (January 2008 through November 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and reference lists...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192789/noninvasive-treatments-for-acute-subacute-and-chronic-low-back-pain-a-clinical-practice-guideline-from-the-american-college-of-physicians
#9
Amir Qaseem, Timothy J Wilt, Robert M McLean, Mary Ann Forciea
Description: The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations on noninvasive treatment of low back pain. Methods: Using the ACP grading system, the committee based these recommendations on a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews published through April 2015 on noninvasive pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments for low back pain. Updated searches were performed through November 2016...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168695/forensic-considerations-in-cases-of-myotonic-dystrophy-at-autopsy
#10
Kimberley J Omond, Roger W Byard
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a chronic, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant disorder with delayed muscle relaxation after contraction, distal skeletal muscle weakness, and atrophy. It has a reduced life expectancy due predominantly to respiratory failure or sudden cardiac death. The mortality rate is approximately 7.3 times greater than the general population with a mean age at death of 53 years. Degeneration of the cardiac conduction system causes atrioventricular block, arrhythmias, and ventricular failure...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167971/glucose-metabolic-changes-in-the-brain-and-muscles-of-patients-with-nonspecific-neck-pain-treated-by-spinal-manipulation-therapy-a-18-f-fdg-pet-study
#11
Akie Inami, Takeshi Ogura, Shoichi Watanuki, Md Mehedi Masud, Katsuhiko Shibuya, Masayasu Miyake, Rin Matsuda, Kotaro Hiraoka, Masatoshi Itoh, Arlan W Fuhr, Kazuhiko Yanai, Manabu Tashiro
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in brain and muscle glucose metabolism that are not yet known, using positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG PET). Methods. Twenty-one male volunteers were recruited for the present study. [(18)F]FDG PET scanning was performed twice on each subject: once after the spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) intervention (treatment condition) and once after resting (control condition). We performed the SMT intervention using an adjustment device...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164457/isometric-thermogenesis-at-rest-and-during-movement-a-neglected-variable-in-energy-expenditure-and-obesity-predisposition
#12
REVIEW
A G Dulloo, J L Miles-Chan, J-P Montani, Y Schutz
Isometric thermogenesis as applied to human energy expenditure refers to heat production resulting from increased muscle tension. While most physical activities consist of both dynamic and static (isometric) muscle actions, the isometric component is very often essential for the optimal performance of dynamic work given its role in coordinating posture during standing, walking and most physical activities of everyday life. Over the past 75 years, there has been sporadic interest into the relevance of isometric work to thermoregulatory thermogenesis and to adaptive thermogenesis pertaining to body-weight regulation...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161413/relaxed-and-active-thin-filament-structures-a-new-structural-basis-for-the-regulatory-mechanism
#13
Danielle M Paul, John M Squire, Edward P Morris
The structures of muscle thin filaments reconstituted using skeletal actin and cardiac troponin and tropomyosin have been determined with and without bound Ca(2+) using electron microscopy and reference-free single particle analysis. The resulting density maps have been fitted with atomic models of actin, tropomyosin and troponin showing that: (i) the polarity of the troponin complex is consistent with our 2009 findings, with large shape changes in troponin between the two states; (ii) without Ca(2+) the tropomyosin pseudo-repeats all lie at almost equivalent positions in the 'blocked' position on actin (over subdomains 1 and 2); (iii) in the active state the tropomyosin pseudo-repeats are all displaced towards subdomains 3 and 4 of actin, but the extent of displacement varies within the regulatory unit depending upon the axial location of the pseudo-repeats with respect to troponin...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141810/validation-of-blood-volume-fraction-quantification-with-3d-gradient-echo-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-porcine-skeletal-muscle
#14
Stefan Hindel, Anika Söhner, Marc Maaß, Wolfgang Sauerwein, Dorothe Möllmann, Hideo Andreas Baba, Martin Kramer, Lutz Lüdemann
The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of fractional blood volume (vb) estimates in low-perfused and low-vascularized tissue using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The results of different MRI methods were compared with histology to evaluate the accuracy of these methods under clinical conditions. vb was estimated by DCE-MRI using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space undersampling in five muscle groups in the hind leg of 9 female pigs. Two gadolinium-based contrast agents (CA) were used: a rapidly extravasating, extracellular, gadolinium-based, low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA, gadoterate meglumine) and an extracellular, gadolinium-based, albumin-binding, slowly extravasating blood pool contrast agent (BPCA, gadofosveset trisodium)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122223/the-relaxation-properties-of-myofibrils-are-compromised-by-amino-acids-that-stabilize-%C3%AE-tropomyosin
#15
Beatrice Scellini, Nicoletta Piroddi, Alexander M Matyushenko, Dmitrii I Levitsky, Corrado Poggesi, Sherwin S Lehrer, Chiara Tesi
We investigated the functional impact of α-tropomyosin (Tm) substituted with one (D137L) or two (D137L/G126R) stabilizing amino acid substitutions on the mechanical behavior of rabbit psoas skeletal myofibrils by replacing endogenous Tm and troponin (Tn) with recombinant Tm mutants and purified skeletal Tn. Force recordings from myofibrils (15°C) at saturating [Ca(2+)] showed that Tm-stabilizing substitutions did not significantly affect the maximal isometric tension and the rates of force activation (kACT) and redevelopment (kTR)...
January 24, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097712/force-generation-by-titin-folding
#16
Zsolt Mártonfalvi, Pasquale Bianco, Katalin Naftz, György G Ferenczy, Miklós Kellermayer
Titin is a giant protein that provides elasticity to muscle. As the sarcomere is stretched, titin extends hierarchically according to the mechanics of its segments. Whether titin's globular domains unfold during this process and how such unfolded domains might contribute to muscle contractility are strongly debated. To explore the force-dependent folding mechanisms, here we manipulated skeletal-muscle titin molecules with high-resolution optical tweezers. In force-clamp mode, after quenching the force (<10 pN), extension fluctuated without resolvable discrete events...
January 18, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097532/medication-overuse-in-chronic-pain
#17
REVIEW
Eric S Hsu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic pain is usually managed by various pharmacotherapies after exhausting the conservative modalities such as over-the-counter choices. The goal of this review is to investigate current state of opioids and non-opioid medication overuse that includes NSAIDs, skeletal muscle relaxants, antidepressants, membrane stabilization agents, and benzodiazepine. How to minimize medication overuse and achieve better outcome in chronic pain management? RECENT FINDINGS: Although antidepressants and membrane stabilization agents contribute to the crucial components for neuromodulation, opioids were frequently designated as a rescue remedy in chronic pain since adjunct analgesics usually do not provide instantaneous relief...
January 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097207/upper-arm-and-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Lasya Gaur, Alexander Hanna, W Patricia Bandettini, Kenneth H Fischbeck, Andrew E Arai, Ami Mankodi
We analyzed quantitative maps of T1 and T2 relaxation times and muscle fat fraction measurements in magnetic resonance imaging of the upper arm skeletal muscles and heart in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and age-range-matched healthy volunteer boys. The cardiac-optimized sequences detected fatty infiltration and edema in the upper arm skeletal muscles but not the myocardium in these Duchenne muscular dystrophy boys who had normal ejection fraction. Imaging the heart and skeletal muscle using the same magnetic resonance imaging methods during a single scan may be useful in assessing relative disease status and therapeutic response in clinical trials of Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091624/paracrine-cross-talk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-macrophages-in-exercise-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-controlled-bnp
#19
Regula Furrer, Petra S Eisele, Alexander Schmidt, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
Activation of resident and infiltrating immune cells is a central event in training adaptation and other contexts of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. A precise orchestration of inflammatory events in muscle fibers and immune cells is required after recurrent contraction-relaxation cycles. However, the mechanistic aspects of this important regulation remain largely unknown. We now demonstrate that besides a dominant role in controlling cellular metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) also has a profound effect on cytokine expression in muscle tissue...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067669/targeting-deregulated-ampk-mtorc1-pathways-improves-muscle-function-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-i
#20
Marielle Brockhoff, Nathalie Rion, Kathrin Chojnowska, Tatiana Wiktorowicz, Christopher Eickhorst, Beat Erne, Stephan Frank, Corrado Angelini, Denis Furling, Markus A Rüegg, Michael Sinnreich, Perrine Castets
Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is a disabling multisystemic disease that predominantly affects skeletal muscle. It is caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3'-UTR of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. RNA hairpins formed by elongated DMPK transcripts sequester RNA-binding proteins, leading to mis-splicing of numerous pre-mRNAs. Here, we have investigated whether DM1-associated muscle pathology is related to deregulation of central metabolic pathways, which may identify potential therapeutic targets for the disease...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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