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Mast Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451485/-the-roles-of-mast-cells-in-radiation-induced-damage-are-still-an-enigma
#1
Fabien Milliat, Agnès François
Mast cells are immune cells that mature within the host tissue. The acquired phenotype is dictated by the tissue microenvironment, giving rise to diverse tissue-dependent phenotypes and functions. The lack of cellular models reflecting phenotypes found in vivo and important differences between human and rodent mast cells are obstacles to the understanding of their exact role in several pathophysiological processes. Studies published over the past few years showed that mast cells' role lies far beyond their involvement in allergy and anaphylaxis...
February 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449724/angiomyofibroblastoma-of-the-spermatic-cord-a-case-report
#2
L Bouhajja, S A Rammeh, S Sayari, R Zermani, F Farah
Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor with tendency to arise in the lower genital tract of middleaged women, predominately in the vulva. A few cases of AMF in males have been reported involving the scrotum, perineum or spermatic cord. We report a new case of AMF arising in the right inguinal region of a 27-year-old man. The tumor was well-circumscribed, myxoid and measured 30 mm in maximum dimension. On microscopic examination, the tumor was composed of spindle cells without atypia and with less than one mitosis figure per 10 high-power fields...
December 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448016/intestinal-immunity-suppresses-carrying-capacity-of-rats-for-the-model-tapeworm-hymenolepis-diminuta
#3
Tamio Ohno, Takuya Kai, Yuki Miyasaka, Haruhiko Maruyama, Akira Ishih, Hideto Kino
Hymenolepis diminuta is a parasitic tapeworm of the rat small intestine and is recognized as a useful model for the analysis of cestode-host interactions. In this study, we analyzed factors affecting the biomass of the tapeworm through use of rat strains carrying genetic mutations, namely X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (xscid; T, B and NK cells deficiency), nude (rnu; T cell deficiency), and mast cell deficient rats. The worm biomass of F344-xscid rats after infection with 5 cysticercoids was much larger than control F344 rats from 3 to 8 weeks...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447958/serelaxin-as-a-novel-therapeutic-opposing-fibrosis-and-contraction-in-lung-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Maggie Lam, Simon G Royce, Chrishan S Samuel, Jane E Bourke
The most common therapies for asthma and other chronic lung diseases are anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. While these drugs oppose disease symptoms, they do not reverse established structural changes in the airways and their therapeutic efficacy is reduced with increasing disease severity. The peptide hormone, relaxin, is a Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1 (RXFP1) receptor agonist with unique combined effects in the lung that differentiates it from these existing therapies. Relaxin has previously been reported to have cardioprotective effects in acute heart failure as well anti-fibrotic actions in several organs...
February 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446740/role-of-immune-cells-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#5
Xiaoqian Yang, Shan Mou
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is currently the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Traditionally, DKD is considered a disease which has nothing to do with the immune system, and the pathogenesis is mainly characterized to be metabolic disturbance. Recent growing evidence indicates immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms in the development and progression of DKD. This overview of macrophages, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, neutrophils and mast cells is closely involved in the pathologic process of DKD, with more emphasis on the leucocyte accumulation and related molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446730/salvaging-the-ischemic-heart-gi-coupled-receptors-in-mast-cells-activate-a-pkc%C3%AF-aldh2-pathway-providing-anti-ras-cardioprotection
#6
Alice Marino, Roberto Levi
BACKGROUND: Excessive norepinephrine (NE) release in the ischemic heart elicits severe and often lethal arrhythmias. Resident cardiac mast cells synthesize and store active renin, which is released upon degranulation, causing the activation of a local cardiac renin-angiotensin system (RAS) responsible for NE release and consequent arrhythmias. Toxic aldehydes, known to be formed by lipid peroxidation in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), have been shown to degranulate mast cells and activate a local RAS...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444434/b1-cell-ige-impedes-mast-cell-mediated-enhancement-of-parasite-expulsion-through-b2-ige-blockade
#7
Rebecca K Martin, Sheela R Damle, Yolander A Valentine, Matthew P Zellner, Briana N James, Joseph C Lownik, Andrea J Luker, Elijah H Davis, Martha M DeMeules, Laura M Khandjian, Fred D Finkelman, Joseph F Urban, Daniel H Conrad
Helminth infection is known for generating large amounts of poly-specific IgE. Here we demonstrate that innate-like B1 cells are responsible for this IgE production during infection with the nematode parasites Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. In vitro analysis of B1 cell immunoglobulin class switch recombination to IgE demonstrated a requirement for anti-CD40 and IL-4 that was further enhanced when IL-5 was added or when the B1 source was helminth infected mice. An IL-25-induced upregulation of IgE in B1 cells was also demonstrated...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439183/the-kit-and-pdgfra-switch-control-inhibitor-dcc-2618-blocks-growth-and-survival-of-multiple-neoplastic-cell-types-in-advanced-mastocytosis
#8
Mathias Schneeweiss, Barbara Peter, Siham Bibi, Gregor Eisenwort, Dubravka Smiljkovic, Katharina Blatt, Mohamad Jawhar, Daniela Berger, Gabriele Stefanzl, Susanne Herndlhofer, Georg Greiner, Gregor Hoermann, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Karoline V Gleixner, Peter Bettelheim, Klaus Geissler, Wolfgang R Sperr, Andreas Reiter, Michel Arock, Peter Valent
Systemic mastocytosis is a complex disease defined by abnormal growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells in various organs. Most patients exhibit a D816V-mutated variant of KIT, which confers resistance against imatinib. Clinical problems in systemic mastocytosis arise from mediator-related symptoms and/or organ destruction caused by malignant expansion of neoplastic mast cells and/or other myeloid cells in various organ systems. DCC-2618 is a spectrum-selective pan KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor which blocks KIT D816V and multiple other kinase-targets relevant to systemic mastocytosis...
February 8, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436586/amelioration-of-inflammatory-responses-by-socheongryong-tang-a-traditional-herbal-medicine-in-raw-264-7%C3%A2-cells-and-rats
#9
Sang Mi Park, Tae Hoon Lee, Rongjie Zhao, Youn Sook Kim, Ji Yun Jung, Chung A Park, Kyung Hwan Jegal, Sae Kwang Ku, Jae Kwang Kim, Chul Won Lee, Young Woo Kim, Il Je Cho, Won G An, Sang Chan Kim
Socheongryong-Tang (SCRT) is a natural medicine prescription that has been mainly used in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including asthma and allergic rhinitis. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of SCRT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and in a rat model of carrageenan (CA)-induced paw edema. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the culture supernatant were quantified and nitric oxide (NO) production was monitored...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435387/systemic-mastocytosis-the-difficult-patient-with-a-rare-disease-case-presentation-and-brief-review
#10
Daniel H Desmond, Mark G Carmichael
Mastocytosis is a rare process involving the activation and accumulation of clonal mast cells categorized by cutaneous or systemic involvement. Although the diagnosis of cutaneous disease can be straightforward and confirmed via skin biopsy, systemic disease mimics more common disease processes making diagnosis a challenge. The widespread physiologic distribution of mast cells causes a variety of symptoms with aberrant expression including fatigue, headache, depression, dyspnea, dyspepsia, nausea, and abdominal pain...
February 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434653/shuganyin-decoction-improves-the-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-rat-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-induced-by-water-avoidance-stress
#11
Lu Lu, Liang Yan, Jianye Yuan, Qing Ye, Jiang Lin
Background: To determine the effect of Shuganyin decoction (SGD) on the intestinal barrier function in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model induced by water-avoidance stress. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control, water-avoidance stress (WAS) group, WAS plus Shuganyin decoction (SGD) group and WAS plus dicetel (Dicetel) group. IBS was induced in rats by subjecting them to water-avoidance stress for 7 days. On day 4 of the WAS protocol, the rats were treated for 7 consecutive days (days 4-11) with SGD, dicetel or a negative control (saline)...
2018: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434182/corilagin-attenuates-allergy-and-anaphylactic-reaction-by-inhibiting-degranulation-of-mast-cells
#12
Jie Zhou, Ci'an Zhang, Yuanyuan Sun, Li Wang, Jian Zhang, Fulun Li, Weian Mao
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the anti-allergic activity of corilagin and also postulates the possible mechanism of its action. MATERIAL AND METHODS Corilagin was given orally at dose of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day. All the animals (guinea pigs, rats, and mice) were sensitized for allergy such as eosinophilia and leukocytosis induced by milk; degranulation of mast cell by compound 48/80; and passive and active anaphylaxis. Moreover, the antagonistic effect was determined by estimating the effect of corilagin on contraction of guinea pig tracheal chain and ileum induced by Ach and histamine, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432864/intestinal-granular-cells-of-a-cartilaginous-fish-thornback-ray-raja-clavata-morphological-characterization-and-expression-of-different-molecules
#13
B Sayyaf Dezfuli, M Manera, G Bosi, P Merella, J A DePasquale, L Giari
This investigation aims to fill gaps in our understanding of the intestinal immune cells of elasmobranchs. Whole digestive tracts of fifteen thornback ray Raja clavata were provided by a trawl fleet from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations were conducted on the spiral intestine. Three types of granular cells were identified; type I in epithelium, types II and III in lamina propria-submucosa, with each of them containing cytoplasmic granules with different ultrastructural characteristics...
February 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432021/computation-of-a-theoretical-membrane-phase-diagram-and-the-role-of-phase-in-lipid-raft-mediated-protein-organization
#14
Eshan D Mitra, Samuel C Whitehead, David A Holowka, Barbara A Baird, James P Sethna
Lipid phase heterogeneity in the plasma membrane is thought to be crucial for many aspects of cell signaling, but the physical basis of participating membrane domains such as "lipid rafts" remains controversial. Here we consider a lattice model yielding a phase diagram that includes several states proposed to be relevant for the cell membrane, including microemulsion - which can be related to membrane curvature - and Ising critical behavior. Using a neural network-based machine learning approach, we compute the full phase diagram of this lattice model...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431885/important-and-specific-role-for-basophils-in-acute-allergic-reactions
#15
Peter Korošec, Bernhard F Gibbs, Matija Rijavec PhD, Adnan Custovic, Paul J Turner
IgE-mediated allergic reactions involve the activation of effector cells, predominantly through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils. Although the mast cell is considered the major effector cell during acute allergic reactions, more recent studies indicate a potentially important and specific role for basophils and their migration which occurs rapidly upon allergen challenge in humans undergoing anaphylaxis. We review the evidence for a role of basophils in contributing to clinical symptoms of anaphylaxis, and discuss the possibility that basophil trafficking during anaphylaxis might be a pathogenic (to target organs) or protective (preventing degranulation in circulation) response...
February 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431218/the-controversial-role-of-mast-cells-in-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Peter Bradding, Gunnar Pejler
Fibrosis is a medical condition characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix compounds such as collagen in tissues. Fibrotic lesions are present in many diseases and can affect all organs. The excessive extracellular matrix accumulation in these conditions can often have serious consequences and in many cases be life-threatening. A typical event seen in many fibrotic conditions is a profound accumulation of mast cells (MCs), suggesting that these cells can contribute to the pathology. Indeed, there is now substantialv evidence pointing to an important role of MCs in fibrotic disease...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431217/the-role-of-mast-cells-in-autoinflammation
#17
REVIEW
Hanna Bonnekoh, Jörg Scheffel, Naotomo Kambe, Karoline Krause
The concept of autoinflammation was proposed to define a new class of immune disorders categorized by self-directed inflammation that is driven via activation of innate immune pathways. Within innate immunity, inflammasomes serve as intracellular signaling platforms to endogenous danger molecules and pathogens. Their key function is the cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) into its active form to promote inflammation and programmed cell death. A growing number of inflammasome sensors were described, among which NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) is the best-studied sensor...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431216/mast-cell-neural-interactions-contribute-to-pain-and-itch
#18
REVIEW
Kalpna Gupta, Ilkka T Harvima
Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431215/human-eosinophils-and-mast-cells-birds-of-a-feather-flock-together
#19
REVIEW
Piper A Robida, Pier Giorgio Puzzovio, Hadas Pahima, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Bruce S Bochner
While the origin of the phrase "birds of a feather flock together" is unclear, it has been in use for centuries and is typically employed to describe the phenomenon that people with similar tastes or interests tend to seek each other out and congregate together. In this review, we have co-opted this phrase to compare innate immune cells of related origin, the eosinophil and mast cell, because they very often accumulate together in tissue sites under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. To highlight overlapping yet distinct features, their hematopoietic development, cell surface phenotype, mediator release profiles and roles in diseases have been compared and contrasted...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431214/human-mast-cells-and-basophils-how-are-they-similar-how-are-they-different
#20
REVIEW
Gilda Varricchi, Ulrike Raap, Felice Rivellese, Gianni Marone, Bernhard F Gibbs
Mast cells and basophils are key contributors to allergies and other inflammatory diseases since they are the most prominent source of histamine as well as numerous additional inflammatory mediators which drive inflammatory responses. However, a closer understanding of their precise roles in allergies and other pathological conditions has been marred by the considerable heterogeneity that these cells display, not only between mast cells and basophils themselves but also across different tissue locations and species...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
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