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Mast Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236033/mast-cells-interact-with-endothelial-cells-to-accelerate-in-vitro-angiogenesis
#1
Devandir Antonio de Souza Junior, Vivian Marino Mazucato, Ana Carolina Santana, Constance Oliver, Maria Celia Jamur
Angiogenesis is a complex process that involves interactions between endothelial cells and various other cell types as well as the tissue microenvironment. Several previous studies have demonstrated that mast cells accumulate at angiogenic sites. In spite of the evidence suggesting a relationship between mast cells and angiogenesis, the association of mast cells and endothelial cells remains poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between mast cells and endothelial cells during in vitro angiogenesis...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235261/interferon-%C3%AE-2-and-interferon-%C3%AE-induce-the-degranulation-independent-production-of-vegf-a-and-il-1-receptor-antagonist-and-other-mediators-from-human-mast-cells
#2
Sharon A Oldford, Suzanne P Salsman, Liliana Portales-Cervantes, Raidan Alyazidi, Robert Anderson, Ian D Haidl, Jean S Marshall
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are resident immune effector cells, often studied in the context of allergic disease. Found in substantial numbers at sites of potential infection they are increased at sites of angiogenesis and can be pivotal for the sensing and clearance of a variety of pathogens. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical for host defence against intracellular pathogens. Increased levels of IFNs are observed during viral infection and in autoimmune diseases. IFNs are also widely used therapeutically and have been examined in the therapy of severe asthma...
December 13, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233606/staphylococcus-aureus-and-atopic-dermatitis-a-complex-and-evolving-relationship
#3
REVIEW
Joan A Geoghegan, Alan D Irvine, Timothy J Foster
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated from the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients during flares. The normal microbiota is disrupted and the diversity of the microorganisms on the skin is reduced. Many species that produce inhibitors of S. aureus growth decline. Strains from S. aureus clonal complex 1 are enriched among AD sufferers whereas the CC30 strains most frequently isolated from nasal carriers in the normal population are much rarer in AD. S. aureus expresses several molecules that contribute to the intensity of symptoms, including δ-toxin which stimulates mast cells, α-toxin which damages keratinocytes, phenol-soluble modulins which stimulate cytokine release by keratinocytes, protein A which triggers inflammatory responses from keratinocytes, superantigens which trigger B cell expansion and cytokine release, and proinflammatory lipoproteins...
December 9, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233467/aspergillus-fumigatus-sensitive-ige-is-associated-with-bronchial-hypersensitivity-in-a-murine-model-of-neutrophilic-airway-inflammation
#4
G Morán, B Uberti, A Ortloff, H Folch
Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells that infiltrate airways during acute exacerbation of asthma. The importance of A. fumigatus sensitization, and IgE response in the airways in patients with acute asthma is unclear. Rockefeller (RK) mice were sensitized with A. fumigatus extract protein. The animals were subsequently challenged with different degrees of A. fumigatus contamination in the cage bedding. All groups of mice were euthanized to obtain bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for cytological and Elisa assays, and lung tissue for histological analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232822/microglia-m2a-polarization-as-potential-link-between-food-allergy-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Hans O Kalkman, Dominik Feuerbach
Atopic diseases are frequently co-morbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Allergic responses are associated with an activation of mast cells, innate lymphoid cells, and Th2 cells. These cells produce type-2 cytokines (IL4 and IL13), which stimulate microglia and macrophages to adopt a phenotype referred to as 'alternative activation' or 'M2A'. M2A-polarized macrophages and microglia play a physiological role in tissue repair by secreting growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1...
December 9, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230220/induction-of-human-lung-mast-cell-apoptosis-by-granule-permeabilization-a-novel-approach-for-targeting-mast-cells
#6
Aida Paivandy, Martin Sandelin, Helena Igelström, Per Landelius, Christer Janson, Fabio R Melo, Gunnar Pejler
Mast cells are implicated as detrimental players in inflammatory lung diseases, particularly asthma. Mast cells respond to activating stimuli by releasing a wide panel of pro-inflammatory compounds that can contribute profoundly to the pathology, and there is currently an unmet need for strategies that efficiently ameliorate harmful effects of mast cells under such conditions. Here, we sought to evaluate a novel concept for targeting human lung mast cells, by assessing the possibility of selectively depleting the lung mast cells by induction of apoptosis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#7
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227868/systemic-mastocytosis-associates-with-cardiovascular-events-despite-lower-plasma-lipid-levels
#8
Swasti Indhirajanti, Paul L A van Daele, Sven Bos, Monique T Mulder, Ilze Bot, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mast cells have been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models and human autopsy studies. However, it is unknown whether long-term exposure to excess of mast cells is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of CVD and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) and controls. METHODS: In 50 patients with SM and 50 age and sex matched controls, the history of CVD and presence of cardiovascular risk factors were assessed...
December 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226261/coordination-of-early-cellular-reactions-during-activation-of-bone-resorption-in-the-rat-mandible-periosteum-an-immunohistochemical-study
#9
Bassam Hassan, Isabelle Fouilloux, Brigitte Baroukh, Annie Llorens, Martin Biosse Duplan, Marjolaine Gosset, Marc Cherruau, Jean-Louis Saffar
The activation step of bone remodeling remains poorly characterized. Activation comprises determination of the site to be remodeled, osteoclast precursor recruitment, their migration to the site of remodeling, and differentiation. These actions involve different compartments and cell types. The aim of this study was to investigate events and cell types involved during activation. We used a bone remodeling model in rats where extractions of the upper jaw molars initiate remodeling of the antagonist lower jaw (mandible) cortex along the periosteum...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225841/multiple-large-osteolytic-lesions-in-a-patient-with-systemic-mastocytosis-a-challenging-diagnosis
#10
Massimiliano Bonifacio, Roberta Zanotti, Emanuele Guardalben, Elda Mimiola, Francesca Scognamiglio, Omar Perbellini, Giovanna De Matteis, Luis Escribano, Patrizia Bonadonna, Daniela Grigolato, Sergio Bissoli, Alice Parisi, Alberto Zamò, Achille Ambrosetti, Maurizio Rossini
Patients with advanced variants of Systemic Mastocytosis may develop destructive bone lesions when massive mast cell (MC) infiltrates are present. Finding of large osteolyses in indolent systemic mastocytosis, typically characterized by low MC burden, should prompt investigations for an alternative explanation.
December 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225792/epigenetic-and-transcriptional-control-of-mast-cell-responses
#11
REVIEW
Silvia Monticelli, Cristina Leoni
Mast cells are tissue-resident, innate immune cells present in most tissues of the body and are important effector and immunomodulatory cells. Differentiated mast cells typically are characterized by the surface expression of the receptors KIT and FcεRI, the latter especially being important for stimulation through IgE antibodies, although these cells have the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental signals, to which they can variably react by releasing pre-stored or de novo-synthesized mediators or both...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225779/risk-of-solid-cancer-in-patients-with-mast-cell-activation-syndrome-results-from-germany-and-usa
#12
Gerhard J Molderings, Thomas Zienkiewicz, Jürgen Homann, Markus Menzen, Lawrence B Afrin
Background:  It has been shown repeatedly that mast cells can promote or prevent cancer development and growth. If development and/or progression of a solid cancer is substantially influenced by mast cell activity, the frequencies of occurrence of solid cancers in patients with primary mast cells disorders would be expected to differ from the corresponding prevalence data in the general population. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that patients with systemic mastocytosis (i.e., a rare neoplastic variant of the primary mast cell activation disease) have increased risk for solid cancers, in particular melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225210/inhibitory-role-of-munc13-1-in-antigen-induced-mast-cell-degranulation
#13
Hironori Higashio, Yoh-Ichi Satoh, Tomoyuki Saino
Secretory granules (SGs) of mast cells are lysosome-related organelles that contain various inflammatory molecules such as histamine, which are stored in the cytoplasm. Mast cell degranulation is the regulated exocytosis of SGs in response to external stimuli, such as the antigen-mediated cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Upon stimulation, SGs undergo priming to become fusion-competent prior to fusing with the plasma membrane, which is mediated by Munc13-4, one of the five members of the vesicle-priming Munc13 protein family...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225187/prostaglandin-d2-generation-from-human-lung-mast-cells-is-catalysed-exclusively-by-cyclooxygenase-1
#14
Bandar K Baothman, Jennifer Smith, Linda J Kay, S Kim Suvarna, Peter T Peachell
Mast cells are an exceptionally rich source of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 is pro-inflammatory and can cause bronchoconstriction. The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is central to the generation of prostanoids such as PGD2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX. COX exists as two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. The principal aim of this study was to establish whether COX-1 and/or COX-2 mediates PGD2 generation from human lung mast cells. Mast cells were isolated from human lung tissue and purified by flotation over Percoll and immunomagnetic bead separations...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225084/autophagy-deficiency-in-myeloid-cells-exacerbates-eosinophilic-inflammation-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#15
Go Eun Choi, Seung-Yong Yoon, Ji-Yun Kim, Do-Young Kang, Yong Ju Jang, Hun Sik Kim
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic inflammation is a major pathologic feature of chronic rhinosinusitis and is frequently associated with severe refractory disease. Prostaglandin D2 level is elevated in chronic rhinosinusitis and is an important contributing factor to eosinophilic inflammation. Autophagy has a pleiotropic effect on immune responses and disease pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest the potential involvement of autophagy in chronic rhinosinusitis and the prostaglandin pathway. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether altered function of autophagy is associated with eosinophilic inflammation and dysregulated production of prostaglandin D2 in chronic rhinosinusitis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223146/investigation-of-mast-cell-toll-like-receptor-3-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-and-systemic-mastocytosis-participants-using-the-novel-application-of-automacs-magnetic-separation-and-flow-cytometry
#16
Cassandra Balinas, Thao Nguyen, Samantha Johnston, Peter Smith, Donald Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik
BACKGROUND: Viral infections and hypersensitivities are commonly reported by Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients. Mast Cells (MC) uniquely mediate type 1 hypersensitivities and resolve viral infections via toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). OBJECTIVE: To characterise and compare mast cell progenitors (MCPs) in CFS/ME participants with a known MC disorder, Systemic mastocytosis (SM), and secondly, to investigate the role of MC TLR3 in CFS/ME participants following Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) stimulation...
December 10, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222810/monocytes-enhance-neutrophil-induced-blister-formation-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-bullous-pemphigoid
#17
E de Graauw, C Sitaru, M P Horn, L Borradori, S Yousefi, D Simon, H-U Simon
BACKGROUND: Lesions of bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease characterized by the presence of tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to hemidesmosomal antigens, harbour a mixed inflammatory cellular infiltrate. In various models, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, monocytes as well as B and T cells have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of BP. However, their interactions with and effective role in blister formation remains uncertain...
December 8, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222399/pediatric-disorders-of-orthostatic-intolerance
#18
REVIEW
Julian M Stewart, Jeffrey R Boris, Gisela Chelimsky, Phillip R Fischer, John E Fortunato, Blair P Grubb, Geoffrey L Heyer, Imad T Jarjour, Marvin S Medow, Mohammed T Numan, Paolo T Pianosi, Wolfgang Singer, Sally Tarbell, Thomas C Chelimsky
Orthostatic intolerance (OI), having difficulty tolerating an upright posture because of symptoms or signs that abate when returned to supine, is common in pediatrics. For example, ∼40% of people faint during their lives, half of whom faint during adolescence, and the peak age for first faint is 15 years. Because of this, we describe the most common forms of OI in pediatrics and distinguish between chronic and acute OI. These common forms of OI include initial orthostatic hypotension (which is a frequently seen benign condition in youngsters), true orthostatic hypotension (both neurogenic and nonneurogenic), vasovagal syncope, and postural tachycardia syndrome...
December 8, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221580/mechanisms-of-allergen-immunotherapy-for-inhaled-allergens-and-predictive-biomarkers
#19
REVIEW
Mohamed H Shamji, Stephen R Durham
Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with IgE-dependent allergic rhinitis and asthma. When immunotherapy is given continuously for 3 years, there is persistent clinical benefit for several years after its discontinuation. This disease-modifying effect is both antigen-specific and antigen-driven. Clinical improvement is accompanied by decreases in numbers of effector cells in target organs, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunotherapy results in the production of blocking IgG/IgG4 antibodies that can inhibit IgE-dependent activation mediated through both high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils and low-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRII) on B cells...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221165/angiogenesis-in-adenosquamous-cancer-of-pancreas
#20
Nicola Silvestris, Katia Danza, Vito Longo, Oronzo Brunetti, Livia Fucci, Antonella Argentiero, Angela Calabrese, Ivana Cataldo, Roberto Tamma, Domenico Ribatti, Stefania Tommasi
Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASCP) is an uncommon variant of exocrine pancreatic malignancies, characterized by a histological admixture of adenomatous and squamous cell elements. This cancer is characterized by a poorly differentiated histology and a poorer clinical outcome compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Unlike PDAC, that is characterized by a low microvascular density (MVD) and collapsed vasculature, no data are available about angiogenesis in ASPC. Immunohistochemical evaluation of MVD and trypatse-positive mast cells (MCs) were performed on a single case of ASCP compared to PDAC...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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