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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053067/the-proteome-of-pus-from-human-brain-abscesses-host-derived-neurotoxic-proteins-and-the-cell-type-diversity-of-cns-pus
#1
Bjørnar Hassel, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Jugoslav Ivanovic, Øyvind Voie, Daniel Dahlberg
OBJECTIVE What determines the extent of tissue destruction during brain abscess formation is not known. Pyogenic brain infections cause destruction of brain tissue that greatly exceeds the area occupied by microbes, as seen in experimental studies, pointing to cytotoxic factors other than microbes in pus. This study examined whether brain abscess pus contains cytotoxic proteins that might explain the extent of tissue destruction. METHODS Pus proteins from 20 human brain abscesses and, for comparison, 7 subdural empyemas were analyzed by proteomics mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051149/resolution-of-a-human-mast-cell-development-conundrum
#2
K Frank Austen, Michael F Gurish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050978/chrysin-attenuates-atopic-dermatitis-by-suppressing-inflammation-of-keratinocytes
#3
Jin Kyeong Choi, Yong Hyun Jang, Soyoung Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Young-Ae Choi, Meiling Jin, Jung Ho Choi, Jee Hun Park, Pil-Hoon Park, Hyukjae Choi, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Dongwoo Khang, Sang-Hyun Kim
We previously reported the inhibitory effect of chrysin, a natural flavonoid plentifully contained in propolis, vegetables and fruits, on the mast cell-mediated allergic reaction. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chrysin on atopic dermatitis (AD) and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We used an AD model in BALB/c mice by the repeated local exposure of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DNCB/DFE caused AD-like skin lesions...
October 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050542/hepatic-mastocytosis-in-japanese-black-cattle
#4
Susumu Ohfuji
In 5 Japanese Black steers (2-2.4 years old) that originated from 5 different feedlots, the livers were found at slaughter to have multiple nodular or cordlike lesions (5 steers) and an extensive fibrotic area (1 steer). Microscopic changes included extensive fibroplasia in the portal tracts and chronic proliferative endophlebitis-like lesions confined to the portal vein branches. Fibroplasia was much more prominent in the macroscopic fibrotic lesion of 1 steer. Portal vein branches presented irregular variciform dilation of the vascular lumen and fibroplastic changes in the subendothelial areas that showed occasional hemorrhage and were simultaneously infiltrated with large numbers of mast cells and moderate to large numbers of eosinophils...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050294/the-density-of-mast-cells-c-kit-and-tryptase-correlates-with-each-other-and-with-angiogenesis-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#5
Michele Ammendola, Cosmo Damiano Gadaleta, Adam Enver Frampton, Tullio Piardi, Riccardo Memeo, Valeria Zuccalà, Maria Luposella, Rosa Patruno, Nicola Zizzo, Pietro Gadaleta, Patrick Pessaux, Rosario Sacco, Giuseppe Sammarco, Girolamo Ranieri
Literature data suggest that inflammatory cells such as mast cells (MCs) are involved in angiogenesis. MCs can stimulate angiogenesis by releasing of well identified pro-angiogenic cytokines stored in their cytoplasm. In particular, MCs can release tryptase, a potent in vivo and in vitro pro-angiogenic factor. Nevertheless, few data are available concerning the role of MCs positive to tryptase in primary pancreatic cancer angiogenesis. This study analyzed the correlation between mast cells positive to c-Kit receptor (c-Kit(+) MCs), the density of MCs expressing tryptase (MCD-T) and microvascular density (MVD) in primary tumor tissue from patients affected by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048463/interleukin-9-mediates-chronic-kidney-disease-dependent-vein-graft-disease-a-role-for-mast-cells
#6
Lisheng Zhang, Jiao-Hui Wu, James C Otto, Susan B Gurley, Elizabeth R Hauser, Sudha K Shenoy, Karim Nagi, Leigh Brian, Virginia Wertman, Natalie Mattocks, Jeffrey H Lawson, Neil J Freedman
Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a powerful independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, including vein graft failure. Because CKD impairs the clearance of small proteins, we tested the hypothesis that CKD exacerbates vein graft disease by elevating serum levels of critical cytokines that promote vein graft neointimal hyperplasia. Methods and results: We modelled CKD in C57BL/6 mice with 5/6ths nephrectomy, which reduced glomerular filtration rate by 60%, and we modelled vein grafting with inferior-vena-cava-to-carotid interposition grafting...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048112/how-we-diagnose-and-treat-systemic-mastocytosis-in-adults
#7
REVIEW
Robyn M Scherber, Uma Borate
Rapid advances in the understanding of the molecular biology, data from translational and clinical trials, and retrospective analyses has influenced the diagnosis and treatment of systemic mastocytosis (SM). Many options have existed for the symptomatic management of SM patients, but recent evolution in regards to the molecular underpinnings of this disease and our ability to distinguish clonal mastocytosis from mast cell activation syndrome has changed our treatment paradigm and opened new opportunities for understanding genetic risk, transformation to mast cell leukaemia, and treatment choices...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046777/effect-of-palmitoylethanolamide-on-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#8
Tai-Kyung Seol, Wonho Lee, Sunah Park, Kyu Nam Kim, Tae Yeon Kim, You Na Oh, Jong Hun Jun
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of mast cells and glial cells, and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous systems, plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which is a type of N-acylethanolamide and a lipid, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Relative to the anti-inflammatory effect, little is known about its analgesic effect in chronic pain...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046475/evidence-for-mast-cells-contributing-to-neuromuscular-pathology-in-an-inherited-model-of-als
#9
Emiliano Trias, Sofía Ibarburu, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Ivan C Moura, Patrice Dubreuil, Olivier Hermine, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito
Evidence indicates that neuroinflammation contributes to motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive muscular paralysis. However, it remains elusive whether inflammatory cells can interact with degenerating distal motor axons, influencing the progressive denervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). By analyzing the muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) following paralysis onset in the SOD1G93A rat model, we have observed a massive infiltration and degranulation of mast cells, starting after paralysis onset and correlating with progressive NMJ denervation...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046192/management-of-adverse-reactions-to-biologic-agents
#10
Ghislaine Annie C Isabwe, Leticia de Las Vecillas Sanchez, Mariana Castells
Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to targeted biologic agents present as immediate reactions during infusion or as delayed reactions (after one or more exposures). The new classification includes phenotypes, endotypes, and biomarkers. Phenotypes include immediate type I (immunoglobulin E [IgE] or non-IgE mediated), cytokine release, mixed (type I/cytokine), and immune complexes type III (IgG mediated) reactions as well as delayed type IV reactions. Endotypes include IgE or non-IgE mediated mast cells/basophils activation with elevated serum tryptase and T cells values as well as macrophages, which lead to cytokine production, e...
November 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043985/from-the-observation-of-atypical-cells-on-blood-smear-to-the-diagnosis-of-mast-cell-leukemia-a-case-report-in-a-79-year-old-woman-consulting-for-anemia
#11
Julien Decker, Sabine Meyer, Véronique Latger-Cannard, Sorin Visanica, Elena Loppinet, Jean-François Lesesve, Blandine Bénet
Mast cell leukemia is an extremely rare disease, which belongs to the systemic mastocytosis group (WHO 2016). We are reporting the case of a 79-year-old woman, without any hematological particular history consulting for hyperthermia, repeated malaise and subacute anemia. Her clinical examination was normal. Unusual cells were seen on blood and bone marrow smears. They represent more than 10% of blood nucleated cells end more than 20% of the bone marrow nucleated cells. Bone marrow immunophenotyping was performed to characterize these cells...
October 18, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042984/bmi1-and-brg1-drive-myocardial-repair-by-regulating-cardiac-stem-cell-function-in-acute-rheumatic-heart-disease
#12
Pingxi Xiao, Kai Zhang, Zhiwen Tao, Niannian Liu, Bangshun Ge, Min Xu, Xinzheng Lu
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) occurs due to the accumulation of complications associated with rheumatic fever, and it results in high morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases of RHD are diagnosed in the chronic stages, when treatment options are limited. A small reservoir of cardiac stem cells is responsible for maintaining cardiac homeostasis and repairing tissue damage. Understanding the role of cardiac stem cells and the various proteins responsible for their functions in different pathological stages of RHD is an important area of investigation...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042937/inflammation-and-airway-remodeling-of-the-lung-in-guinea-pigs-with-allergic-rhinitis
#13
Zu-Yao Chen, Shou-Hong Zhou, Qiao-Feng Zhou, Hong-Bo Tang
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma belong to the category of type I allergic diseases, whose pathological features are airway remodeling of the lung and allergic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate inflammation and remodeling of lung tissue in a guinea pig model of AR in order to confirm consistent pathological changes of upper and lower airways in AR. Male guinea pigs were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group (n=10 in each). The AR model was established by sensitization through intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin for three weeks and bilateral nasal local excitation for twelve weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042288/mast-cell-degranulation-and-calcium-influx-are-inhibited-by-an-echinacea-purpurea-extract-and-the-alkylamide-dodeca-2e-4e-dienoic-acid-isobutylamide
#14
Travis V Gulledge, Nicholas M Collette, Emily Mackey, Stephanie E Johnstone, Yasamin Moazami, Daniel A Todd, Adam J Moeser, Joshua G Pierce, Nadja B Cech, Scott M Laster
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Native Americans used plants from the genus Echinacea to treat a variety of different inflammatory conditions including swollen gums, sore throats, skin inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. Echinacea spp. produce many fatty acid amides referred to as alkylamides, which can inhibit cytokine, chemokine, and prostaglandin production from macrophages and T cells. Alkylamides are thought to contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of E. purpurea extracts by inhibiting production of inflammatory mediators...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042267/initiating-pain-in-osteoarthritis-is-it-the-mast-cell
#15
EDITORIAL
A Ioan-Facsinay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042055/mechanism-underlying-the-suppressor-activity-of-retinoic-acid-on-il4-induced-ige-synthesis-and-its-physiological-implication
#16
Goo-Young Seo, Jeong-Min Lee, Young-Saeng Jang, Seung Goo Kang, Sung-Il Yoon, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Geun-Shik Lee, Seok-Rae Park, Cathryn R Nagler, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim
The present study extends an earlier report that retinoic acid (RA) down-regulates IgE Ab synthesis in vitro. Here, we show the suppressive activity of RA on IgE production in vivo and its underlying mechanisms. We found that RA down-regulated IgE class switching recombination (CSR) mainly through RA receptor α (RARα). Additionally, RA inhibited histone acetylation of germ-line ε (GL ε) promoter, leading to suppression of IgE CSR. Consistently, serum IgE levels were substantially elevated in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice and this was more dramatic in VAD-lecithin:retinol acyltransferase deficient (LRAT(-/-)) mice...
October 3, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039998/fn1-fos-and-itga5-induce-preeclampsia-abnormal-expression-and-methylation
#17
Mei Zhao, Lin Li, Xiumei Yang, Jianying Cui, Hong Li
OBJECTIVE: As a frequent hypertensive disorder in pregnancy, preeclampsia causes 15% of all preterm deliveries. This study aims to understand its mechanism via analyzing gene expression and methylation data. METHODS: Human gene expression microarray data (GSE73374) and corresponding DNA methylation microarray data (GSE73375) of preeclamptic placental tissues (n = 19) and normotensive placental tissues (n = 17) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and CpG islands (DMIs) were identified and compared...
October 17, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038618/mediators-of-inflammation-and-angiogenesis-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-are-they-potential-biomarkers-of-the-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ilaria Puxeddu, Federico Pratesi, Domenico Ribatti, Paola Migliorini
In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), different pathophysiological mechanisms, potentially responsible for the development of the disease, have been recently described. It is likely that the activation of skin mast cells with consequent release of histamine and other proinflammatory mediators is responsible for vasodilation in the lesional skin of CSU. However, the underlying causes of mast cell activation in the disease are largely unknown and remain to be identified. Thus, in this review, we discuss new insights in the pathogenesis of CSU, focusing on inflammation and angiogenesis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038500/role-of-mast-cells-in-clearance-of-leishmania-through-extracellular-trap-formation
#19
Nilofer Naqvi, Kavita Ahuja, Angamuthu Selvapandiyan, Ranadhir Dey, Hira Nakhasi, Niti Puri
Mast Cells (MCs) are one of the first immune cells encountered by invading pathogens. Their presence in large numbers in the superficial dermis, where Leishmania is encountered, suggests that they may play a critical role in immune responses to Leishmania. In this study the interactions of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral Leishmaniasis, and Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous Leishmaniasis with MCs were studied. Co-culture of Leishmania with Peritoneal Mast Cells (PMCs) from BALB/c mice and Rat Basophilic Leukaemia (RBL-2H3) MCs led to significant killing of L...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038009/advances-in-mechanisms-of-allergic-disease-in-2016
#20
Marc E Rothenberg, Hirohisa Saito, R Stokes Peebles
This review highlights advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly type 2 innate lymphoid cells; TH2 lymphocytes; eicosanoid regulation of inflammation; extracellular vesicles in allergic responses; IL-33; microbiome properties, especially as they relate to mucosal barrier function; and a series of findings concerning the allergic inflammatory cells eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells. During the last year, mechanistic advances occurred in understanding type 2 innate lymphoid cells, particularly related to their response to ozone, involvement with experimental food allergy responses, and regulation by IL-33...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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