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Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Jessica A Haines, David W Coltman, Ben Dantzer, Jamieson C Gorrell, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam, Stan Boutin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Ecology
Helen V Wilmot, Jason Hockley, Peter Rigsby, Elaine Gray
Until recently, the role of factor XII (FXII) in hemostasis was not considered to be important since patients with FXII deficiency do not present with bleeding. The activation of FXII by agents including mast cells and platelet polyphosphates suggests that it may have a role in thrombogenesis. The inhibition of FXII therefore presents an option for antithrombotic therapy, and antibodies and inhibitors are already in development. Assays for FXII will be required to support these technologies, and an international standard (IS) for FXII would be useful for the development of these methods and for the clinical monitoring of patients...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Xinhua Yu, Anika Kasprick, Karin Hartmann, Frank Petersen
Skin mast cells (MCs), a resident immune cell type with broad regulatory capacity, play an important role in sensing danger signals as well as in the control of the local immune response. It is conceivable to expect that skin MCs regulate autoimmune response and are thus involved in autoimmune diseases in the skin, e.g., autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBD). Therefore, exploring the role of MCs in AIBD will improve our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and the search for novel therapeutic targets. Previously, in clinical studies with AIBD, particularly bullous pemphigoid, patients' samples have demonstrated that MCs are likely involved in the development of the diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dimity H Ball, Lamyaa Al-Riyami, William Harnett, Margaret M Harnett
ES-62 is a secreted parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator that exhibits therapeutic potential in allergy by downregulating aberrant MyD88 signalling to normalise the inflammatory phenotype and mast cell responses. IL-33 plays an important role in driving mast cell responses and promoting type-2 allergic inflammation, particularly with respect to asthma, via MyD88-integrated crosstalk amongst the IL-33 receptor (ST2), TLR4 and FcεRI. We have now investigated whether ES-62 targets this pathogenic network by subverting ST2-signalling, specifically by characterising how the functional outcomes of crosstalk amongst ST2, TLR4 and FcεRI are modulated by the worm product in wild type and ST2-deficient mast cells...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jad Chahoud, Miao Zhang, Amishi Shah, Sue-Hwa Lin, Louis L Pisters, Shi-Ming Tu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment-related acute and late-onset toxicity remains a key challenge in the management of GCTs, with recent evidence showing that the adverse health outcomes of etoposide and cisplatin for four cycles in comparison to bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin for three cycles appear to be similar. Recent data showed that multidisciplinary clinic approach and management in experienced academic centers were associated with improved overall survival in GCT patients...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mary Clark, Jessica Kim, Neelou Etesami, Jacqueline Shimamoto, Ryan V Whalen, Gary Martin, Cheryl Y M Okumura
The resurgence of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in the past two decades has been a rising major public health concern. Due to a large number of GAS infections occurring in the skin, mast cells (MCs), innate immune cells known to localize to the dermis, could play an important role in controlling infection. MCs can exert their antimicrobial activities either early during infection, by degranulation and release of antimicrobial proteases and the cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide LL-37, or by forming antibacterial MC extracellular traps (MCETs) in later stages of infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
M R Khaitov, A R Gaisina, I P Shilovskiy, V V Smirnov, G V Ramenskaia, A A Nikonova, R M Khaitov
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) belongs to the IL-1 cytokine family and plays an important role in modulating immune system by inducing Th2 immune response via the ST2 membrane receptor. Epithelial cells are the major producers of IL-33. However, IL-33 is also secreted by other cells, e.g., bone marrow cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and mast cells. IL-33 targets a broad range of cell types bearing the ST2 surface receptor. Many ST2-positive cells, such as Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils, are involved in the development of allergic bronchial asthma (BA)...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Kyung-Ah Cho, Minhwa Park, Yu-Hee Kim, Hea-Young Park Choo, Kyung Ho Lee
Mast cells are central regulators of allergic inflammation that function by releasing various proallergic inflammatory mediators, including histamine, eicosanoids and proinflammatory cytokines. Occasionally, bacterial infections may initiate or worsen allergic inflammation. A number of studies have indicated that activation of lipoxygenase in mast cells positive regulates allergic inflammatory responses by generating leukotrienes and proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the effects of benzoxazole derivatives on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, production of histamine and surface expression of co‑stimulatory molecules on bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were studied...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yun-Mi Kang, Kyung-Sook Chung, In-Hoon Kook, Yoon-Bum Kook, Hyunsu Bae, Minho Lee, Hyo-Jin An
Although bee venom (BV) is a toxin that causes bee stings to be painful, it has been widely used clinically for the treatment of certain immune‑associated diseases. BV has been used traditionally for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this regard, the present study analyzed the effect of BV on the regulation of inflammatory mediator production by mast cells and their allergic inflammatory responses in an animal model. HMC‑1 cells were treated with BV prior to stimulation with phorbol‑12‑myristate 13‑acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Hong-Yi Li, Jing-Xia Meng, Zhen Liu, Xiao-Wen Liu, Yu-Guang Huang, Jing Zhao
Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic agent widely used in clinical practice, is the preferred anesthetic for asthmatic patients. This study was designed to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of propofol on airway inflammation in a mast cell-dependent mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) without alum and challenged with OVA three times. Propofol was given intraperitoneally 0.5 h prior to OVA challenge. The inflammatory cell count and production of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected...
March 12, 2018: Inflammation
Dmitri Atiakshin, Igor Buchwalow, Vera Samoilova, Markus Tiemann
Mast cells are haematopoietic cells that arise from pluripotent precursors of the bone marrow. They play immunomodulatory roles in both health and disease. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, and preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on various inflammatory settings are closely associated with the enzymatic characteristics of tryptase, the main granule compound of mast cells. Tryptase degranulation is often linked with the development of an immune response, allergy, inflammation, and remodelling of tissue architecture...
March 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Baoxi Wang, Peter A Rice, Xiao-Hong Su
Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ana Valero-Jiménez, Joaquín Zúñiga, José Cisneros, Carina Becerril, Alfonso Salgado, Marco Checa, Ivette Buendía-Roldán, Criselda Mendoza-Milla, Miguel Gaxiola, Annie Pardo, Moisés Selman
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by epithelial cell activation, expansion of the fibroblast population and excessive extracellular matrix accumulation. The mechanisms are incompletely understood but evidence indicates that the deregulation of several proteases contributes to its pathogenesis. Transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4) is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that may promote migration and facilitate epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), two critical processes in the pathogenesis of IPF...
2018: PloS One
Eric E Mast
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Yvonne Hagenlocher, Sonja Gommeringer, Anna Held, Katharina Feilhauer, Jörg Köninger, Stephan C Bischoff, Axel Lorentz
PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) shows increasing prevalence over the last years. We propose that anti-inflammatory plant substances could be used as additional or alternative agents with good compliance in prevention and/or therapy of IBD and its complication intestinal fibrosis. We could recently show that the citrus flavonoid nobiletin acts anti-inflammatory on activation of intestinal mast cells. Here, we analysed the effects of nobiletin on inflammation and fibrosis in IL-10-/- colitis...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Ji-Hyun Lee, Yong-Deok Jeon, Young-Mi Lee, Dae-Ki Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common inflammatory immune disorders. Puerarin is the main isoflavonoid obtained from the root of Pueraria lobata and has been known have ameliorative effects on diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of puerarin on AD have not been uncovered. 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was used to induce atopic dermatitis(AD)-like skin lesions on BALB/c mice for 17 days. Further, the BALB/c mice were orally administered puerarin. Puerarin ameliorated DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms in the mice by regulating skin thickness, degranulation of mast cells, and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE)...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Åsa Lidén, Tine Veronika Karlsen, Bengt Guss, Rolf K Reed, Kristofer Rubin
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Collagen-binding β1 -integrins function physiologically in cellular control of dermal interstitial fluid pressure (PIF ) in vivo and thereby participate in control of extravascular fluid volume. During anaphylaxis, simulated by injection of Compound 48/80 integrin αV β3 takes over this physiological function. Here we addressed the question whether integrin αV β3 can replace collagen-binding β1 -integrin to maintain a long-term homeostatic PIF ...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Carolina Mondillo, María Luisa Varela, Adriana María Belén Abiuso, Ramiro Vázquez
Histamine (HA) is a pleiotropic biogenic amine synthesized exclusively by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in most mammalian tissues. The literature on the role of HA within the male gonad has expanded over the last years, attracting attention to potential unexpected side-effects of anti-histamines on testicular function. In this regard, HA receptors (HRH1, HRH2 and HRH4) have been described in Leydig cells of different species, including human. Via these receptors, HA has been reported to trigger positive or negative interactions with the LH/hCG signaling pathway depending upon its concentration, thereby contributing to the local control of testicular androgen levels...
March 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Mario P Colombo, Elena Jachetti, Valeria Cancila, Alice Rigoni, Lucia Bongiovanni, Barbara Cappetti, Beatrice Belmonte, Claudia Enriquez, Patrizia Casalini, Paola Ostano, Barbara Frossi, Sabina Sangaletti, Claudia Chiodoni, Giovanna Chiorino, Carlo E Pucillo, Claudio Tripodo
Immunotherapy, including the use of checkpoint inhibitors, is a potent therapeutic approach for some cancers, but has limited success with prostate tumors, in which immune suppression is instigated by the tumor. The immunosuppressive capacity of mast cells, which promote adenocarcinoma development in the prostate, prompted our investigation on whether mast cells promote tolerance to SV40 Large-T antigen, the transforming oncogene in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. The incidence of adenocarcinoma was reduced in the offspring of a cross between TRAMP mice and mast cell-deficient KitWsh mice...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
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