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Homer 2

Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Natalie Homer, Michael K Yoon
PURPOSE: To further define the histopathologic features of breast carcinoma conducive to orbital metastasis. METHODS: Ten new female patients with orbital or eyelid breast cancer metastases encountered between 2011 and 2016 had their medical records reviewed for determining their clinical characteristics. Microscopic glass slides from biopsies and immunohistochemical test results were also analyzed. Biomarkers studied included cytokeratin 7, nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, and E-cadherin...
October 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
A Lourenço, N Wellock, R Thomas, M Homer, H Bouchard, T Kanai, N MacDougall, G Royle, H Palmans
Water-equivalent plastics are frequently used in dosimetry for experimental simplicity. This work evaluates the water-equivalence of novel water-equivalent plastics specifically designed for light-ion beams, as well as commercially available plastics in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. A plastic- to-water conversion factor [Formula: see text] was established to derive absorbed dose to water in a water phantom from ionization chamber readings performed in a plastic phantom. Three trial plastic materials with varying atomic compositions were produced and experimentally characterized in a high-energy carbon-ion beam...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Guoying Yu, Christian Lacks Lino Cardenas, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Rong Wang, Tony Woolard, Yi Zhang, Koji Sakamoto, Hojin Lee, Jae-Sung Yi, Giuseppe DeIuliis, Nikolaos Xylourgidis, Farida Ahangari, Patty J Lee, Vassilis Aidinis, Erica L Herzog, Robert Homer, Anton M Bennett, Naftali Kaminski
RATIONALE: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fatal lung disease with dismal prognosis and no cure. The potential role of the ubiquitously expressed SH2 domain-containing-tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) as a therapeutic target has not been studied in IPF Objectives: To determine the expression, mechanistic role and potential therapeutic utility of SHP2 in Pulmonary Fibrosis Methods: The effects of SHP2 overexpression and inhibition on fibroblast response to pro-fibrotic stimuli were analyzed in-vitro in primary human and mouse lung fibroblasts...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Christos Skouras, Xiaozhong Zheng, Margaret Binnie, Natalie Z M Homer, Toby B J Murray, Darren Robertson, Lesley Briody, Finny Paterson, Heather Spence, Lisa Derr, Alastair J Hayes, Andreas Tsoumanis, Dawn Lyster, Rowan W Parks, O James Garden, John P Iredale, Iain J Uings, John Liddle, Wayne L Wright, George Dukes, Scott P Webster, Damian J Mole
Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) protects against multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) in experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). We aimed to precisely define the kynurenine pathway activation in relation to AP and AP-MODS in humans, by carrying out a prospective observational study of all persons presenting with a potential diagnosis of AP for 90 days. We sampled peripheral venous blood at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours post-recruitment. We measured tryptophan metabolite concentrations and analysed these in the context of clinical data and disease severity indices, cytokine profiles and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kei E Fujimura, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne Havstad, Din L Lin, Sophia Levan, Douglas Fadrosh, Ariane R Panzer, Brandon LaMere, Elze Rackaityte, Nicholas W Lukacs, Ganesa Wegienka, Homer A Boushey, Dennis R Ownby, Edward M Zoratti, Albert M Levin, Christine C Johnson, Susan V Lynch
Gut microbiota bacterial depletions and altered metabolic activity at 3 months are implicated in childhood atopy and asthma. We hypothesized that compositionally distinct human neonatal gut microbiota (NGM) exist, and are differentially related to relative risk (RR) of childhood atopy and asthma. Using stool samples (n = 298; aged 1-11 months) from a US birth cohort and 16S rRNA sequencing, neonates (median age, 35 d) were divisible into three microbiota composition states (NGM1-3). Each incurred a substantially different RR for multisensitized atopy at age 2 years and doctor-diagnosed asthma at age 4 years...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Ya Zhou, Fiona V Howell, Oleg O Glebov, David Albrecht, Gareth Williams, Patrick Doherty
Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrograde signaling lipid at synapses. Nothing is known about the dynamics of DAGLα expression in cells and this is important as it will govern where 2-AG can be made and released. We have developed a new construct to label DAGLα at the surface of live cells and follow its trafficking. In hippocampal neurons a cell surface pool of DAGLα co-localizes with Homer, a postsynaptic density marker...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Chunjie Li, Shaomeng Chai, Yongzhi Ju, Lu Hou, Hang Zhao, Wei Ma, Tian Li, Jun Sheng, Wei Shi
Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS and is essential for numerous key neuronal functions. However, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage owing to excitotoxicity via the glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the glutamate receptors and represents a promising target for studying neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative diseases. Pu-erh tea, a fermented tea, mainly produced in Yunnan province, China, has beneficial effects, including the accommodation of the CNS...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Albert M Levin, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne L Havstad, Kei E Fujimura, Ganesa Wegienka, Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Haejin Kim, Edward M Zoratti, Nicholas W Lukacs, Homer A Boushey, Dennis R Ownby, Susan V Lynch, Christine C Johnson
The joint impact of pregnancy, environmental, and sociocultural exposures on early life gut microbiome is not yet well-characterized, especially in racially and socioeconomically diverse populations. Gut microbiota of 298 children from a Detroit-based birth cohort were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing: 130 neonates (median age = 1.2 months) and 168 infants (median age = 6.6 months). Multiple factors were associated with neonatal gut microbiome composition in both single- and multi-factor models, with independent contributions of maternal race-ethnicity, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, marital status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and indoor pets...
2016: Scientific Reports
Homer C Genuino, Shanmugam Thiyagarajan, Jan C van der Waal, Ed de Jong, Jacco van Haveren, Daan S van Es, Bert M Weckhuysen, Pieter C A Bruijnincx
Bio-based furanics can be aromatized efficiently by sequential Diels-Alder (DA) addition and hydrogenation steps followed by tandem catalytic aromatization. With a combination of zeolite H-Y and Pd/C, the hydrogenated DA adduct of 2-methylfuran and maleic anhydride can thus be aromatized in the liquid phase and, to a certain extent, decarboxylated to give high yields of the aromatic products 3-methylphthalic anhydride and o- and m-toluic acid. Here, it is shown that a variation in the acidity and textural properties of the solid acid as well as bifunctionality offers a handle on selectivity toward aromatic products...
August 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
Sally A Hull, Shauna McKibben, Kate Homer, Stephanie Jc Taylor, Katy Pike, Chris Griffiths
Inappropriate prescribing in primary care was implicated in nearly half of asthma deaths reviewed in the UK's recent National Review of Asthma Deaths. Using anonymised EMIS-Web data for 139 ethnically diverse general practices (total population 942,511) extracted from the North and East London Commissioning Support Unit, which holds hospital Secondary Uses Services (SUS)-linked data, we examined the prevalence of over-prescribing of short-acting β2-agonist inhalers (SABA), under-prescribing of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) inhalers and solo prescribing of long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) to assess the risk of hospitalisation for people with asthma for 1 year ending August 2015...
2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
David Gomez, Barbara Haas, Kristian Larsen, Aziz S Alali, Russell D MacDonald, Jeffrey M Singh, Homer Tien, Theodore J Iwashyna, Gordon Rubenfeld, Avery B Nathens
BACKGROUND: More than half of severely injured patients are initially transported from the scene of injury to nontrauma centers (NTCs), with many requiring subsequent transfer to trauma center (TC) care. Definitive care in the setting of severe injury is time sensitive. However, transferring severely injured patients from an NTC is a complex process often fraught with delays. Selection of the receiving TC and the mode of interfacility transport both strongly influence total transfer time and are highly amenable to quality improvement initiatives...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Anna J Anderson, Ruth Andrew, Natalie Z Homer, Gregory C Jones, Kenneth Smith, Dawn E Livingstone, Brian R Walker, Roland H Stimson
CONTEXT: The mechanism of action of metformin remains unclear. Given the regulation of the cortisol-regenerating enzyme 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD1) by insulin and the limited efficacy of selective 11βHSD1 inhibitors to lower blood glucose when co-prescribed with metformin, we hypothesized that metformin reduces 11βHSD1 activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin regulates 11βHSD1 activity in vivo in obese men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nikhil J Pandya, Remco V Klaassen, Roel C van der Schors, Johan A Slotman, Adriaan Houtsmuller, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
The group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 have been implicated in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and may serve as potential therapeutic targets in autism spectrum disorders. The interactome of group 1 mGluRs has remained largely unresolved. Using a knockout-controlled interaction proteomics strategy we examined the mGluR5 protein complex in two brain regions, hippocampus and cortex, and identified mGluR1 as its major interactor in addition to the well-described Homer proteins. We confirmed the presence of mGluR1/5 complex by (1) reverse immunoprecipitation using an mGluR1 antibody to pulldown mGluR5 from hippocampal tissue, (2) co-expression in HEK293 cells followed by co-immunoprecipitation to reveal the direct interaction of mGluR1 and 5, and (3) super-resolution microscopy imaging of hippocampal primary neurons to show co-localization of the mGluR1/5 in the synapse...
July 9, 2016: Proteomics
Emma C Bridgman, Megan M Doherty, Kaleigh A Ellis, Elizabeth A Homer, Taylor N Lashbrook, Margaret E Mraz, Gina C Pernesky, Emma M Vreeke, Kayode D Oshin, Allen G Oliver
In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, [CuBr(C18H18N4)]Br, there are three crystallographically independent cations. One of the cations exhibits positional disorder of the pyridin-2-yl-methyl groups over two sets of sites with refined occupancies of 0.672 (8) and 0.328 (8). The outer-sphere bromine counter-ion is severely disordered over multiple sites. In each cation, the Cu(II) ion is coordinated by the four N atoms of the tris-(pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)amine ligand and one bromine and adopts a slightly distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry...
June 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Junmei Wang, Zhaoxia Liu, Jingyi Fang, Jiang Du, Yun Cui, Li Xu, Guilin Li
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare, highly malignant tumor of the central nervous system (CNS) that typically occurs during infancy. These tumors exhibit morphologic heterogeneity and differentiate along multiple lineages, thus posing a diagnostic challenge. Here, we present two cases of AT/RT with a primitive neuroectodermal component and histological pattern resembling an embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), a rare but distinctive embryonal entity with different therapeutic implications...
June 15, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Stephanie J C Taylor, Dawn Carnes, Kate Homer, Brennan C Kahan, Natalia Hounsome, Sandra Eldridge, Anne Spencer, Tamar Pincus, Anisur Rahman, Martin Underwood
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for chronic pain is often limited, and there is growing concern about the adverse effects of these treatments, including opioid dependence. Nonpharmacological approaches to chronic pain may be an attractive alternative or adjunctive treatment. We describe the effectiveness of a novel, theoretically based group pain management support intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain...
June 2016: PLoS Medicine
Leonard J Nelson, Katie Morgan, Philipp Treskes, Kay Samuel, Catherine J Henderson, Claire LeBled, Natalie Homer, M Helen Grant, Peter C Hayes, John N Plevris
Conventional in vitro human hepatic models for drug testing are based on the use of standard cell lines derived from hepatomas or primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). Limited availability, inter-donor functional variability and early phenotypic alterations of PHHs restrict their use; whilst standard cell lines such as HepG2 lack a substantial and variable set of liver-specific functions such as CYP450 activity. Alternatives include the HepG2-derivative C3A cells selected as a more differentiated and metabolically active hepatic phenotype...
June 10, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Pratyush S Suryavanshi, Subhash C Gupta, Roopali Yadav, Varun Kesherwani, Jinxu Liu, Shashank M Dravid
The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) and glutamate delta-2 receptors. We have previously shown that GluD1 knockout mice exhibit features of developmental delay, including impaired spine pruning and switch in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit, which are relevant to autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we identified a novel role of GluD1 in regulating metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) signaling in the hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated colocalization of mGlu5 with GluD1 punctas in the hippocampus...
August 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Ashraf Fayad, Mohammed T Ansari, Homer Yang, Terrence Ruddy, George A Wells
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of perioperative diastolic dysfunction (PDD) in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery remains uncertain, and the current guidelines do not recognize PDD as a perioperative risk factor. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether existing evidence supports PDD as an independent predictor of adverse events after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Google search engine were searched for English-language citations in April 2015 investigating PDD as a risk factor for perioperative adverse events in adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery...
July 2016: Anesthesiology
Margaretha G M Roemer, Ranjana H Advani, Azra H Ligon, Yasodha Natkunam, Robert A Redd, Heather Homer, Courtney F Connelly, Heather H Sun, Sarah E Daadi, Gordon J Freeman, Philippe Armand, Bjoern Chapuy, Daphne de Jong, Richard T Hoppe, Donna S Neuberg, Scott J Rodig, Margaret A Shipp
PURPOSE: Classical Hodgkin lymphomas (cHLs) include small numbers of malignant Reed-Sternberg cells within an extensive but ineffective inflammatory/immune cell infiltrate. In cHL, chromosome 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 alterations increase the abundance of the PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, and their further induction through Janus kinase 2-signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling. The unique composition of cHL limits its analysis with high-throughput genomic assays. Therefore, the precise incidence, nature, and prognostic significance of PD-L1/PD-L2 alterations in cHL remain undefined...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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