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environment, T-cells, diet, microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481225/impact-of-environmental-factors-on-alloimmunity-and-transplant-fate
#1
REVIEW
Leonardo V Riella, Jessamyn Bagley, John Iacomini, Maria-Luisa Alegre
Although gene-environment interactions have been investigated for many years to understand people's susceptibility to autoimmune diseases or cancer, a role for environmental factors in modulating alloimmune responses and transplant outcomes is only now beginning to emerge. New data suggest that diet, hyperlipidemia, pollutants, commensal microbes, and pathogenic infections can all affect T cell activation, differentiation, and the kinetics of graft rejection. These observations reveal opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions to improve graft outcomes as well as for noninvasive biomarker discovery to predict or diagnose graft deterioration before it becomes irreversible...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327618/the-transcriptional-repressor-hic1-regulates-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#2
K Burrows, F Antignano, M Bramhall, A Chenery, S Scheer, V Korinek, T M Underhill, C Zaph
The intestine is a unique immune environment that must respond to infectious organisms but remain tolerant to commensal microbes and food antigens. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate immune cell function in the intestine remain unclear. Here we identify the POK/ZBTB family transcription factor hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1, ZBTB29) as a central component of immunity and inflammation in the intestine. HIC1 is specifically expressed in immune cells in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) in the steady state and mice with a T-cell-specific deletion of HIC1 have reduced numbers of T cells in the LP...
March 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262351/an-intestinal-organ-culture-system-uncovers-a-role-for-the-nervous-system-in-microbe-immune-crosstalk
#3
Nissan Yissachar, Yan Zhou, Lloyd Ung, Nicole Y Lai, James F Mohan, Allen Ehrlicher, David A Weitz, Dennis L Kasper, Isaac M Chiu, Diane Mathis, Christophe Benoist
Investigation of host-environment interactions in the gut would benefit from a culture system that maintained tissue architecture yet allowed tight experimental control. We devised a microfabricated organ culture system that viably preserves the normal multicellular composition of the mouse intestine, with luminal flow to control perturbations (e.g., microbes, drugs). It enables studying short-term responses of diverse gut components (immune, neuronal, etc.). We focused on the early response to bacteria that induce either Th17 or RORg(+) T-regulatory (Treg) cells in vivo...
March 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054551/innate-and-adaptive-immune-traits-are-differentially-affected-by-genetic-and-environmental-factors
#4
Massimo Mangino, Mario Roederer, Margaret H Beddall, Frank O Nestle, Tim D Spector
The diversity and activity of leukocytes is controlled by genetic and environmental influences to maintain balanced immune responses. However, the relative contribution of environmental compared with genetic factors that affect variations in immune traits is unknown. Here we analyse 23,394 immune phenotypes in 497 adult female twins. 76% of these traits show a predominantly heritable influence, whereas 24% are mostly influenced by environment. These data highlight the importance of shared childhood environmental influences such as diet, infections or microbes in shaping immune homeostasis for monocytes, B1 cells, γδ T cells and NKT cells, whereas dendritic cells, B2 cells, CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells are more influenced by genetics...
January 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892936/influence-of-early-life-exposure-host-genetics-and-diet-on-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome
#5
Antoine M Snijders, Sasha A Langley, Young-Mo Kim, Colin J Brislawn, Cecilia Noecker, Erika M Zink, Sarah J Fansler, Cameron P Casey, Darla R Miller, Yurong Huang, Gary H Karpen, Susan E Celniker, James B Brown, Elhanan Borenstein, Janet K Jansson, Thomas O Metz, Jian-Hua Mao
Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease(1), we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut. We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system(2) to discover that early life history impacts the microbiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045424/gastro-intestinal-tract-the-leading-role-of-mucosal-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Anna Steinert, Katarina Radulovic, Jan Niess
An understanding of mucosal immunity is essential for the comprehension of intestinal diseases that are often caused by a complex interplay between host factors, environmental influences and the intestinal microbiota. Not only improvements in endoscopic techniques, but also advances in high throughput sequencing technologies, have expanded knowledge of how intestinal diseases develop. This review discusses how the host interacts with intestinal microbiota by the direct contact of host receptors with highly conserved structural motifs or molecules of microbes and also by microbe-derived metabolites (produced by the microbe during adaptation to the gut environment), such as short-chain fatty acids, vitamins, bile acids and amino acids...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24390308/gut-microbiota-metabolism-of-dietary-fiber-influences-allergic-airway-disease-and-hematopoiesis
#7
Aurélien Trompette, Eva S Gollwitzer, Koshika Yadava, Anke K Sichelstiel, Norbert Sprenger, Catherine Ngom-Bru, Carine Blanchard, Tobias Junt, Laurent P Nicod, Nicola L Harris, Benjamin J Marsland
Metabolites from intestinal microbiota are key determinants of host-microbe mutualism and, consequently, the health or disease of the intestinal tract. However, whether such host-microbe crosstalk influences inflammation in peripheral tissues, such as the lung, is poorly understood. We found that dietary fermentable fiber content changed the composition of the gut and lung microbiota, in particular by altering the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. The gut microbiota metabolized the fiber, consequently increasing the concentration of circulating short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 2014: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24311313/a-simulated-mucus-layer-protects-lactobacillus-reuteri-from-the-inhibitory-effects-of-linoleic-acid
#8
R De Weirdt, E Coenen, B Vlaeminck, V Fievez, P Van den Abbeele, T Van de Wiele
Lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal, beneficial gut microbe that colonises the intestinal mucus layer, where it makes close contact with the human host and may significantly affect human health. Here, we investigated the capacity of linoleic acid (LA), the most common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in a Western-style diet, to affect L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 prevalence and survival in a simulated mucus layer. Short-term (1 h) survival and mucin-agar adhesion assays of a log-phase L. reuteri suspension in intestinal water demonstrated that the simulated mucus layer protected L...
December 1, 2013: Beneficial Microbes
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