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Environment, T-cells

Tatsuo Ichinohe, Takahiko Miyama, Takakazu Kawase, Yasuko Honjo, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroyuki Sato, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki
The human immune system is a fine network consisted of the innumerable numbers of functional cells that balance the immunity and tolerance against various endogenous and environmental challenges. Although advances in modern immunology have revealed a role of many unique immune cell subsets, technologies that enable us to capture the whole landscape of immune responses against specific antigens have been not available to date. Acquired immunity against various microorganisms including host microbiome is principally founded on T cell and B cell populations, each of which expresses antigen-specific receptors that define a unique clonotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christina M Rollings, Linda V Sinclair, Hugh J M Brady, Doreen A Cantrell, Sarah H Ross
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the differentiation of effector CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated an in-depth characterization of how IL-2 and JAKs configure the CTL proteome to control CTL function. We found that IL-2 signaling through JAK1 and JAK3 (JAK1/3) increased the abundance of a key subset of proteins to induce the accumulation of critical cytokines and effector molecules in T cells...
April 17, 2018: Science Signaling
Jae-Il Lee, Hi-Jung Park, Hye-Jin Park, Yun-Jung Choi, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Kyun Park, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Eung-Soo Hwang, Eun Bong Lee, Seong Hoe Park
Identification of a particular epitope on the domain 2 of human ICAM-1 led us to focus on its role in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Key observations from our previous xenotransplantation research included the generation of tolerogenic DCs, antigen-specific T-cell tolerance, and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines. The critically important point is the fact that it works initially on DC maturation. Ligation of this epitope with a recognizing antibody, MD-3, was also able to create a tolerogenic environment in RA in a manner sililar to that created by xenotransplantation...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Amandeep Kaur, Baldev Singh, Puja Ohri, Jia Wang, Renu Wadhwa, Sunil C Kaul, Pratap Kumar Pati, Arvinder Kaur
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently been studied extensively for its health-supplementing and therapeutic activities against a variety of ailments. Several independent studies have experimentally demonstrated pharmaceutical potential of its active Withanolides, Withaferin A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and Withanolide A (Wil-A). However, to promote its use in herbal industry, an environmentally sustainable cultivation and high yield are warranted. In modern agriculture strategies, there has been indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers to boost the crop-yield, however the practice largely ignored its adverse effect on the quality of soil and the environment...
2018: PloS One
Michael McDonald, Paula T Hammond
In this work, an all-functional polymer material composed of the electrically conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) and lithium-conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was developed to form a dual conductor for three-dimensional electrodes in electrochemical applications. The composite exhibits enhanced ionic conductivity (~10-4 S cm-1) and, counterintuitively, electronic conductivity (~45 S cm-1) with increasing PEO proportion, optimal at a monomer ratio of 20:1 PEO:PEDOT...
April 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A L Wollenberg, T M O'Shea, J H Kim, A Czechanski, L G Reinholdt, M V Sofroniew, T J Deming
Injectable hydrogels with tunable physiochemical and biological properties are potential tools for improving neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation to treat central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Here, we developed injectable diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCH) for NSPC transplantation that contain hydrophilic segments of modified l-methionine (Met). Multiple Met-based DCH were fabricated by post-polymerization modification of Met to various functional derivatives, and incorporation of different amino acid comonomers into hydrophilic segments...
April 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Zhong-Heng Wei, Yue-Yong Li, Shi-Qing Huang, Zhong-Qiu Tan
Interleukin (IL)-33/ST2 pathway plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis through influencing cancer stemness, tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and accumulation of regulatory T cells in tumor microenvironments. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL-33 rs7025417 and ST2 rs3821204 with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Genotyping of IL-33 rs7025417 and ST2 rs3821204 was carried out using a Taqman assay. IL-33 and ST2 mRNA was examined using real-time PCR and plasma IL-33 and sST2 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
April 12, 2018: Cytokine
Josué L Castro-Mejía, Maja Jakesevic, Niels F Fabricius, Łukasz Krych, Dennis S Nielsen, Witold Kot, Katja M Bendtsen, Finn K Vogensen, Camilla H F Hansen, Axel K Hansen
Ampicillin is applied in rodents to induce a temporarily depleted microbiota. To elucidate whether bacteria are just temporarily suppressed or fully eliminated, and how this affects the re-colonisation process, we compared the microbiota and immune system in conventionally housed untreated mice with newly weaned ampicillin treated mice subsequently housed in either a microbe containing environment or in an isolator with only host associated suppressed bacteria to recolonize the gut. Two weeks ampicillin treatment induced a seemingly germ-free state with no bacterial DNA to reveal...
March 27, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Jian Han, Quan-Xiu Gao, Yong-Guang Zhang, Li Li, Osama A A Mohamad, Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao, Min Xiao, Wael N Hozzein, Dalal H M Alkhalifah, Yong Tao, Wen-Jun Li
The genus Nocardiopsis is an unique actinobacterial group that widely distributed in hypersaline environments. In this study, we investigated the growth conditions, transcriptome analysis, production and accumulation of ectoine by Nocardiopsis gilva YIM 90087T under salt stress. The colony color of N. gilva YIM 90087T changed from yellow to white under salt stress conditions. Accumulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine in cells was an efficient way to regulate osmotic pressure. The ectoine synthesis was studied by transferring the related genes ( ectA, ectB , and ectC ) to Escherichia coli ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Diana C DeLucia, Charles R Rinaldo, Giovanna Rappocciolo
Professional antigen presenting cells (APC: myeloid dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ); B lymphocytes) mediate highly efficient HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells, termed trans infection, that could contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have previously shown that lower cholesterol content in DC and B lymphocytes is associated with a lack of HIV-1 trans infection in HIV-1 infected nonprogressors (NP). Here we assessed whether HIV-1 trans infection mediated by another major APC, MΦ, is deficient in NP due to altered cholesterol metabolism...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Charles J Cho, Hyo Jeong Kang, Yeon-Mi Ryu, Young Soo Park, Hui Jeong Jeong, Young-Mi Park, Hyun Lim, Jeong Hoon Lee, Ho June Song, Hwoon-Yong Jung, Sang-Yeob Kim, Seung-Jae Myung
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer with lymphoid stroma (GCLS) is pathologically characterized by poorly developed tubular structures with a prominent lymphocytic infiltration. Its clinical and prognostic features differ in patients positive and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This study analyzed the expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), and the density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) including CD3+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as their prognostic significance in patients with GCLS...
April 7, 2018: Gastric Cancer
R Beiras, T Tato
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a organochlorine biocide that, unlike most other organochlorines, is still in use as timber preservative. Its water solubility, high toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and the concentrations reported in estuarine waters (up to 0.1 µg L-1 ) indicate it may pose a risk in coastal environments. Aquatic environrmental regulations are commonly based on standard freshwater organisms that may not represent the sensitivity of marine species. The present study consists of a water quality criteira reevalutation of PCP in coastal waters based on toxicity tests conducted recording sensitive endpoints of marine species representative of coastal ecosystems, following QA/QC standard procedures...
April 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology
A B Westbye, L Kater, C Wiesmann, H Ding, C K Yip, J T Beatty
Several members of the Rhodobacterales ( Alphaproteobacteria ) produce a conserved horizontal gene transfer vector, called gene transfer agent (GTA), that appears to have evolved from a bacteriophage. The model system to study GTA biology is the R. capsulatus GTA (RcGTA), a small, tailed bacteriophage-like particle produced by a subset of the cells in a culture. The response regulator CtrA is conserved in the Alphaproteobacteria and is an essential regulator of RcGTA production: it controls production and maturation of the RcGTA particle and RcGTA release from cells...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shawn E McGlynn, Grayson L Chadwick, Ariel O'Neill, Mason Mackey, Andrea Thor, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Victoria J Orphan
Phylogenetically diverse environmental ANME archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria cooperatively catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane oxidation (AOM) in multi-celled consortia within methane seep environments. To better understand these cells and their symbiotic associations, we applied a suite of electron microscopy approaches including correlative<u>f</u>luorescence <u>i</u> n<u>s</u>itu <u>h</u>ybridization -<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (FISH-EM),<u>t</u>ransmission<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (TEM), and<u>s</u>erial<u>b</u>lock face scanning<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy 3D reconstructions (SBEM)...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nadine Nagy, Hedwich F Kuipers, Payton L Marshall, Esther Wang, Gernot Kaber, Paul L Bollyky
The tissue microenvironment contributes to local immunity and to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases - a diverse set of conditions characterized by sterile inflammation, immunity against self-antigens, and destruction of tissues. However, the specific factors within the tissue microenvironment that contribute to local immune dysregulation in autoimmunity are poorly understood. One particular tissue component implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases is hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix (ECM) polymer...
April 3, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Andrew Kozbial, Lekhana Bhandary, Bradley B Collier, Christopher S Eickhoff, Daniel Hoft, Shashi K Murthy
Dendritic cells (DCs) are an indispensable part of studying human responses that are important for protective immunity against cancer and infectious diseases as well as prevention of autoimmunity and transplant rejection. These cells are also key elements of personalized vaccines for cancer and infectious diseases. Despite the vital role of DCs in both clinical and basic research contexts, methods for obtaining these cells from individuals remains a comparatively under-developed and inefficient process. DCs are present in very low concentrations (<1%) in blood, thus they must be generated from monocytes and the current methodology in DC generation involves a laborious process of static culture and stimulation with cytokines contained in culture medium...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Noel Chia, Rakesh K Kumar, Paul S Foster, Cristan Herbert
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is common in childhood and is associated with a T-helper type 2 (Th2)-biased immunological response. Exacerbations of asthma are characterised by increased inflammation of the airways, which appears to be driven by interleukin (IL)-33 that can activate pulmonary macrophages. The Th2 cytokine environment of allergic asthma may contribute to exaggerated airway inflammation. OBJECTIVES: To test this, we assessed whether production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by IL-33-stimulated macrophages was enhanced in cells pre-treated with the key Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13...
April 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Anurag Kulkarni, Charles R M Bangham
HTLV-1 plus-strand transcription begins with the production of doubly-spliced tax/rex transcripts, the levels of which are usually undetectable in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HTLV-1-infected individuals. However, the presence of a sustained chronically active cytotoxic T-cell response to HTLV-1 antigens in virtually all HTLV-1-infected individuals, regardless of their proviral load, argues against complete latency of the virus in vivo . There is an immediate burst of plus-strand transcription when blood from infected individuals is cultured ex vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chiharu Mizuguchi, Mitsuki Nakamura, Naoko Kurimitsu, Takashi Ohgita, Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Teruhiko Baba, Akira Shigenaga, Toshinori Shimanouchi, Keiichiro Okuhira, Akira Otaka, Hiroyuki Saito
Here, we examined the effects of phosphatidylserine (PS) and cholesterol on the fibril-forming properties of the N-terminal 1‒83 fragment of an amyloidogenic G26R variant of apoA-I bound to small unilamellar vesicles. A thioflavin T fluorescence assay together with microscopic observations showed that PS significantly retards the nucleation step in fibril formation by apoA-I 1‒83/G26R, whereas cholesterol slightly enhances fibril formation. Circular dichroism analyses demonstrated that PS facilitates a structural transition from random coil to α-helix in apoA-I 1‒83/G26R with great stabilization of the α-helical structure upon lipid binding...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pauline Gonnord, Bastian R Angermann, Kaitlyn Sadtler, Erin Gombos, Pascal Chappert, Martin Meier-Schellersheim, Rajat Varma
Cytokines belonging to the common gamma chain (γc ) family depend on the shared γc receptor subunit for signaling. We report the existence of a fast, cytokine-induced pathway cross-talk acting at the receptor level, resulting from a limiting amount of γc on the surface of T cells. We found that this limited abundance of γc reduced interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-21 responses after IL-7 preexposure but not vice versa. Computational modeling combined with quantitative experimental assays indicated that the asymmetric cross-talk resulted from the ability of the "private" IL-7 receptor subunits (IL-7Rα) to bind to many of the γc molecules even before stimulation with cytokine...
April 3, 2018: Science Signaling
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