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Environment, T-cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228933/vascularization-and-innervation-of-slits-within-polydimethylsiloxane-sheets-in-the-subcutaneous-space-of-athymic-nude-mice
#1
Rachel E Gurlin, Mark T Keating, Shiri Li, Jonathan Rt Lakey, Sébastien de Feraudy, Bhupinder S Shergill, Elliot L Botvinick
Success of cell therapy in avascular sites will depend on providing sufficient blood supply to transplanted tissues. A popular strategy of providing blood supply is to embed cells within a functionalized hydrogel implanted within the host to stimulate neovascularization. However, hydrogel systems are not always amenable for removal post-transplantation; thus, it may be advantageous to implant a device that contains cells while also providing access to the circulation so retrieval is possible. Here we investigate one instance of providing access to a vessel network, a thin sheet with through-cut slits, and determine if it can be vascularized from autologous materials...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225092/controlled-propulsion-and-separation-of-helical-particles-at-the-nanoscale
#2
Maria Michiko T Alcanzare, Vaibhav Thakore, Santtu T T Ollila, Mikko Karttunen, Tapio Ala-Nissila
Controlling the motion of nano and microscale objects in a fluid environment is a key factor in designing optimized tiny machines that perform mechanical tasks such as transport of drugs or genetic material in cells, fluid mixing to accelerate chemical reactions, and cargo transport in microfluidic chips. Directed motion is made possible by the coupled translational and rotational motion of asymmetric particles. A current challenge in achieving directed and controlled motion at the nanoscale lies in overcoming random Brownian motion due to thermal fluctuations in the fluid...
February 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222374/diuron-causes-sinking-retardation-and-physiochemical-alteration-in-marine-diatoms-thalassiosira-pseudonana-and-skeletonema-marinoi-dohrnii-complex
#3
Mst Ruhina Margia Khanam, Yohei Shimasaki, Md Zahangir Hosain, Koki Mukai, Michito Tsuyama, Xuchun Qiu, Rumana Tasmin, Hiroshi Goto, Yuji Oshima
The present research investigated the effect of diuron on sinking rate and the physiochemical changes in two marine diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana (single-celled species) and Skeletonema marinoi-dohrnii complex (chain-forming species). The results revealed that the sinking rate of both diatoms exposed to diuron at a level of 50% effective concentration for growth (EC50) decreased significantly compared with the control. Photosynthetic performance (Fv/Fm and PIABS) of both diatoms also decreased significantly with diuron exposure...
February 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220815/cbx3-hp1%C3%AE-deficiency-confers-enhanced-tumor-killing-capacity-on-cd8-t-cells
#4
Michael Sun, Ngoc Ha, Duc-Hung Pham, Megan Frederick, Bandana Sharma, Chie Naruse, Masahide Asano, Matthew E Pipkin, Rani E George, To-Ha Thai
Cbx3/HP1γ is a histone reader whose function in the immune system is not completely understood. Here, we demonstrate that in CD8(+) T cells, Cbx3/HP1γ insufficiency leads to chromatin remodeling accompanied by enhanced Prf1, Gzmb and Ifng expression. In tumors obtained from Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient mice or wild type mice treated with Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient CD8(+) T cells, there is an increase of CD8(+) effector T cells expressing the stimulatory receptor Klrk1/NKG2D, a decrease in CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) as well as CD25(+) CD4(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory receptor CTLA4...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219134/-role-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-cytoplasmic-1-on-vascular-calcification-in-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#5
J X Zhang, J S Xu, Y Y Han, Y L Bai, L W Cui, H R Zhang, S L Zhang
Objective: To explore the role of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) on vascular calcification in chronic renal failure rats. Methods: Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (n=6), 5/6 Nephrectomy (Nx) group (n=6), 5/6 Nx+ calcitriol group (n=7). Vascular calcification was determined by von Kossa staining and orthocresolphthalein complexone (OCPC) method. Protein expressions of NFATc1 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in aortas were measured by immunohistochemistry...
February 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216616/cd8-t-cells-promote-proliferation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-epithelial-cells-under-low-androgen-level-via-modulation-of-ccl5-stat5-ccnd1-signaling-pathway
#6
Yang Yang, Shuai Hu, Jie Liu, Yun Cui, Yu Fan, Tianjing Lv, Libo Liu, Jun Li, Qun He, Wenke Han, Wei Yu, Yin Sun, Jie Jin
Previous studies by our group have shown that low intra-prostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced BPH epithelial cells (BECs) to recruit CD8+ T cells. However, the influence of the recruited CD8+ T cells on BECs under a low androgen level is still unknown. Here, we found CD8+ T cells have the capacity to promote proliferation of BECs in low androgen condition. Mechanism dissection revealed that interaction between CD8+ T cells and BECs through secretion of CCL5 might promote the phosphorylation of STAT5 and a higher expression of CCND1 in BECs...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215928/human-platelet-lysate-is-a-successful-alternative-serum-supplement-for-propagation-of-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#7
Urban Švajger
BACKGROUND AIMS: Clinical protocols for dendritic cell (DC) generation from monocytes require the use of animal serum-free supplements. Serum-free media can also require up to 1% of serum supplementation. In addition, recommendations based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement) principle also recommend the use of non-animal sera in in vitro studies. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of platelet lysate (PL) for generation of optimally differentiated DCs from monocytes...
February 16, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209611/genetic-manipulation-of-helicobacter-pylori-virulence-function-by-host-carcinogenic-phenotypes
#8
Giovanni Suarez, Judith Romero-Gallo, Johanna C Sierra, M Blanca Piazuelo, Uma Krishna, Martin Alonso Gomez, Keith T Wilson, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, yet only a minority of infected persons ever develop this malignancy. One cancer-linked locus is the cag type 4 secretion system (cagT4SS), which translocates an oncoprotein into host cells. A structural component of the cagT4SS is CagY, which become rapidly altered during in vivo adaptation in mice and rhesus monkeys, rendering the cagT4SS nonfunctional; however, these models rarely develop gastric cancer. We previously demonstrated that the H...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208666/the-mechanisms-and-biomedical-applications-of-an-nir-bodipy-based-switchable-fluorescent-probe
#9
Bingbing Cheng, Venugopal Bandi, Shuai Yu, Francis D'Souza, Kytai T Nguyen, Yi Hong, Liping Tang, Baohong Yuan
Highly environment-sensitive fluorophores have been desired for many biomedical applications. Because of the noninvasive operation, high sensitivity, and high specificity to the microenvironment change, they can be used as excellent probes for fluorescence sensing/imaging, cell tracking/imaging, molecular imaging for cancer, and so on (i.e., polarity, viscosity, temperature, or pH measurement). In this work, investigations of the switching mechanism of a recently reported near-infrared environment-sensitive fluorophore, ADP(CA)₂, were conducted...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208108/dietary-administration-of-edc-mixtures-a-focus-on-fish-lipid-metabolism
#10
O Carnevali, V Notarstefano, I Olivotto, M Graziano, P Gallo, I Di Marco Pisciottano, L Vaccari, A Mandich, E Giorgini, F Maradonna
Many man-made chemical compounds are recognized as endocrine disruptors and once released into the environment are likely to spread and bioaccumulate in wild species. Due to their lipophilic nature, these substances pass through the cell membrane or bind to specific receptors activating physiological responses that in the long run can cause reproductive impairment, physiological disorders, including the occurrence of metabolic syndromes. One significant source of contamination is represented by the consumption of polluted food...
February 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207890/mucosal-stromal-fibroblasts-markedly-enhance-hiv-infection-of-cd4-t-cells
#11
Jason A Neidleman, Joseph C Chen, Nargis Kohgadai, Janis A Müller, Anders Laustsen, Karthiga Thavachelvam, Karen S Jang, Christina M Stürzel, Jennifer J Jones, Christina Ochsenbauer, Avantika Chitre, Ma Somsouk, Maurice M Garcia, James F Smith, Ruth M Greenblatt, Jan Münch, Martin R Jakobsen, Linda C Giudice, Warner C Greene, Nadia R Roan
Understanding early events of HIV transmission within mucosal tissues is vital for developing effective prevention strategies. Here, we report that primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from endometrium, cervix, foreskin, male urethra, and intestines significantly increase HIV infection of CD4+ T cells-by up to 37-fold for R5-tropic HIV and 100-fold for X4-tropic HIV-without themselves becoming infected. Fibroblasts were more efficient than dendritic cells at trans-infection and mediate this response in the absence of the DC-SIGN and Siglec-1 receptors...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202614/virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-infiltrate-melanoma-lesions-and-retain-function-independently-of-pd-1-expression
#12
Dan A Erkes, Corinne J Smith, Nicole A Wilski, Sofia Caldeira-Dantas, Toktam Mohgbeli, Christopher M Snyder
It is well known that CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are correlated with positive prognoses in cancer patients and are used to determine the efficacy of immune therapies. Although it is generally assumed that CD8(+) TILs will be tumor-associated Ag (TAA) specific, it is unknown whether CD8(+) T cells with specificity for common pathogens also infiltrate tumors. If so, the presence of these T cells could alter the interpretation of prognostic and diagnostic TIL assays. We compared TAA-specific and virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in the same tumors using murine CMV, a herpesvirus that causes a persistent/latent infection, and vaccinia virus, a poxvirus that is cleared by the host...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198584/the-farming-environment-protects-mice-from-allergen-induced-skin-contact-hypersensitivity
#13
Christophe P Frossard, Vladimir Lazarevic, Nadia Gaïa, Stefano Leo, Camille Doras, Walid Habre, Jacques Schrenzel, Danielle Burger, Philippe A Eigenmann
BACKGROUND: Being born and raised in a farm provides a long-lasting protection for allergies. The microbial environment provided by farm animals is crucial to induce this protective effect, although underlying immune mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To establish a mouse model of global exposure to the farming environment and to study immunologic changes linked to protection of allergy. METHODS: Mice colonies were bred in parallel in a farm cowshed and the University animal facility (AF)...
February 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198363/gut-memories-do-not-fade-epigenetic-regulation-of-lasting-gut-homing-receptor-expression-in-cd4-memory-t-cells
#14
B A Szilagyi, J Triebus, C Kressler, M de Almeida, S Tierling, P Durek, M Mardahl, A Szilagyi, S Floess, J Huehn, U Syrbe, J Walter, J K Polansky, A Hamann
The concept of a "topographical memory" in lymphocytes implies a stable expression of homing receptors mediating trafficking of lymphocytes back to the tissue of initial activation. However, a significant plasticity of the gut-homing receptor α4β7 was found in CD8(+) T cells, questioning the concept. We now demonstrate that α4β7 expression in murine CD4(+) memory T cells is, in contrast, imprinted and remains stable in the absence of the inducing factor retinoic acid (RA) or other stimuli from mucosal environments...
February 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197867/ultramorphological-changes-in-gill-rakers-of-astyanax-altiparanae-characidae-kept-in-contaminated-environments
#15
F P Lopes, B F Pereira, R M S Alves, J R T Valim, F A T Figueiredo, D L Pitol, F H Caetano
Most water bodies in Brazil, and in the world, are contaminated by some types of pollutants, ranging from sewage to metal/chemicals, carcinogenic products, and biodegradable detergents. Despite the extensive knowledge on their effects on fish biology and especially on gill morphology, research that concerns their impacts on gill rakers and implications in parameters such as food consumption cannot be found in the literature. Gill rakers are vital because, together with gills, they are responsible for the defense and protection of the organism and for selecting appropriate food for survival...
February 14, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197547/neural-progenitor-cells-promote-axonal-growth-and-alter-axonal-mrna-localization-in-adult-neurons
#16
Tanuja T Merianda, Ying Jin, Ashley L Kalinski, Pabitra K Sahoo, Itzhak Fischer, Jeffery L Twiss
The inhibitory environment of the spinal cord and the intrinsic properties of neurons prevent regeneration of axons following CNS injury. However, both ascending and descending axons of the injured spinal cord have been shown to regenerate into grafts of embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Previous studies have shown that grafts composed of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) and neural-restricted progenitors (NRPs) can provide a permissive microenvironment for axon growth. We have used cocultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons together with NPCs, which have shown significant enhancement of axon growth by embryonic rat GRP and GRPs/NRPs, both in coculture conditions and when DRGs are exposed to conditioned medium from the NPC cultures...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197369/the-transcriptome-of-lung-tumor-infiltrating-dendritic-cells-reveals-a-tumor-supporting-phenotype-and-a-microrna-signature-with-negative-impact-on-clinical-outcome
#17
Lotte Pyfferoen, Elisabeth Brabants, Celine Everaert, Nancy De Cabooter, Kelly Heyns, Kim Deswarte, Manon Vanheerswynghels, Sofie De Prijck, Glenn Waegemans, Melissa Dullaers, Hamida Hammad, Olivier De Wever, Pieter Mestdagh, Jo Vandesompele, Bart N Lambrecht, Karim Y Vermaelen
Targeting immunomodulatory pathways has ushered a new era in lung cancer therapy. Further progress requires deeper insights into the biology of immune cells in the lung cancer micro-environment. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous and highly plastic immune cell system with a central role in controlling immune responses. The intratumoral infiltration and activation status of DCs are emerging as clinically relevant parameters in lung cancer. In this study, we used an orthotopic preclinical model of lung cancer to dissect how the lung tumor micro-environment affects tissue-resident DCs and extract novel biologically and clinically relevant information...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196692/shisa6-confers-resistance-to-differentiation-promoting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-mouse-spermatogenic-stem-cells
#18
Moe Tokue, Kanako Ikami, Seiya Mizuno, Chiyo Takagi, Asuka Miyagi, Ritsuko Takada, Chiyo Noda, Yu Kitadate, Kenshiro Hara, Hiroko Mizuguchi, Takuya Sato, Makoto Mark Taketo, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Takehiko Ogawa, Satoru Kobayashi, Naoto Ueno, Satoru Takahashi, Shinji Takada, Shosei Yoshida
In the seminiferous tubules of mouse testes, a population of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1 (GFRα1)-positive spermatogonia harbors the stem cell functionality and supports continual spermatogenesis, likely independent of asymmetric division or definitive niche control. Here, we show that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes spermatogonial differentiation and reduces the GFRα1(+) cell pool. We further discovered that SHISA6 is a cell-autonomous Wnt inhibitor that is expressed in a restricted subset of GFRα1(+) cells and confers resistance to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195448/mitochondrion-anchoring-photosensitizer-with-aggregation-induced-emission-characteristics-synergistically-boosts-the-radiosensitivity-of-cancer-cells-to-ionizing-radiation
#19
Chris Y Y Yu, Huae Xu, Shenglu Ji, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Xiaolin Li, Sunil Krishnan, Dan Ding, Ben Zhong Tang
The first mitochondrion-anchoring photosensitizer that specifically generates singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) in mitochondria under white light irradiation that can serve as a highly effective radiosensitizer is reported here, significantly sensitizing cancer cells to ionizing radiation. An aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen), namely DPA-SCP, is rationally designed with α-cyanostilbene as a simple building block to reveal AIE, diphenylamino (DPA) group as a strong electron donating group to benefit red emission and efficient light-controlled (1) O2 generation, as well as a pyridinium salt as the targeting moiety to ensure specific mitochondrial localization...
February 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193730/mismatch-repair-incompatibilities-in-diverse-yeast-populations
#20
Duyen T Bui, Anne Friedrich, Najla Al-Sweel, Gianni Liti, Joseph Schacherer, Charles F Aquadro, Eric Alani
An elevated mutation rate can provide cells with a source of mutations to adapt to changing environments. We identified a negative-epistatic interaction involving naturally occurring variants in the MLH1 and PMS1 mismatch repair (MMR) genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae We hypothesized that this MMR incompatibility, created through mating between divergent S. cerevisiae, yields mutator progeny that can rapidly but transiently adapt to an environmental stress. Here we analyzed the MLH1 and PMS1 genes across 1,010 S...
February 13, 2017: Genetics
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