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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445052/facile-preparation-of-drug-loaded-tristearin-encapsulated-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-using-coaxial-electrospray-processing
#1
Manoochehr Rasekh, Zeeshan Ahmad, Richard Barrie Michael Cross, Javier Hernández Gil, James D E T Wilton-Ely, Philip W Miller
Naturally occurring polymers are promising biocompatible materials that have many applications for emerging therapies, drug delivery systems and diagnostic agents. The handling and processing of such materials still constitutes a major challenge which can limit the full exploitation of their properties. This study explores an ambient environment processing technique: coaxial electrospray (CO-ES) to encapsulate genistein (an isoflavonoid and model drug), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, 10-15 nm) and a fluorophore (BODIPY) into a layered (triglyceride tristearin shell) particulate system, with a view to constructing a theranostic agent...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444111/pattern-recognition-receptors-immune-targets-to-enhance-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
T Shekarian, S Valsesia-Wittmann, J Brody, M C Michallet, S Depil, C Caux, A Marabelle
Durable tumor responses and significant levels of disease control rates have been described in more than 20 advanced/metastatic cancer types with B7-family immune checkpoint-targeted anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies. These results and the recent approvals of ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab are currently revolutionizing the way we envision the future of cancer care. However these clinical benefits are not observed in all cancer types and in every patient. Therefore, our clinical challenge is to identify therapeutic strategies which could overcome the primary and secondary resistances to these novel cancer immunotherapies...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442606/the-exit-strategy-an-approach-for-identifying-bacterial-proteins-exported-during-host-infection
#3
E F Perkowski, K E Zulauf, D Weerakoon, J D Hayden, T R Ioerger, D Oreper, S M Gomez, J C Sacchettini, M Braunstein
Exported proteins of bacterial pathogens function both in essential physiological processes and in virulence. Past efforts to identify exported proteins were limited by the use of bacteria growing under laboratory (in vitro) conditions. Thus, exported proteins that are exported only or preferentially in the context of infection may be overlooked. To solve this problem, we developed a genome-wide method, named EXIT (exported in vivotechnology), to identify proteins that are exported by bacteria during infection and applied it to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during murine infection...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442414/inhibition-of-allogeneic-cytotoxic-t-cell-cd8-proliferation-via-polymer-induced-treg-cd4-cells
#4
Ning Kang, Wendy M Toyofuku, Xining Yang, Mark D Scott
T cell-mediated immune rejection remains a barrier to successful transplantation. Polymer-based bioengineering of cells may provide an effective means of preventing allorecognition and the proliferation of cytotoxic (CD8(+)) T lymphocytes (CTL). Using MHC-disparate murine splenocytes modified with succinimidyl valerate activated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [SVA-mPEG] polymers, the effects of leukocyte immunocamouflage on CD8(+) and CD4(+) alloproliferation and T regulatory (Treg) cell induction were assessed in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) model...
April 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442041/cytokine-gene-expression-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-after-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-pregnancies-in-small-ruminants
#5
Heloisa M Rutigliano, Amanda Wilhelm, Justin Hall, Bi Shi, Qinggang Meng, Rusty Stott, Thomas D Bunch, Kenneth L White, Christopher J Davies, Irina A Polejaeva
The present retrospective study investigated pregnancy rates, the incidence of pregnancy loss and large offspring syndrome (LOS) and immune-related gene expression of sheep and goat somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) pregnancies. We hypothesised that significantly higher pregnancy losses observed in sheep compared with goat SCNT pregnancies are due to the increased amounts of T-helper 1 cytokines and proinflammatory mediators at the maternal-fetal interface. Sheep and goat SCNT pregnancies were generated using the same procedure...
April 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441886/differences-between-live-and-heat-killed-bifidobacteria-in-the-regulation-of-immune-function-and-the-intestinal-environment
#6
H Sugahara, R Yao, T Odamaki, J Z Xiao
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host, such as improvement of the intestinal environment, modulation of immune function and energy metabolism. Heat-killed probiotic strains have also been known to exhibit some physiological functions; however, the differences between live and heat-killed probiotics have not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the differences between live and heat-killed Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, a probiotic strain, in the regulation of immune function, intestinal metabolism and intestinal gene expression of the host using gnotobiotic mouse model and omics approaches...
April 26, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436537/error-prone-replication-bypass-of-the-imidazole-ring-opened-formamidopyrimidine-deoxyguanosine-adduct
#7
Yan Sha, Irina G Minko, Chanchal K Malik, Carmelo J Rizzo, R Stephen Lloyd
Addition of hydroxyl radicals to the C8 position of 2'-deoxyguanosine generates an 8-hydroxyguanyl radical that can be converted into either 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine or N-(2-deoxy-d-pentofuranosyl)-N-(2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine) (Fapy-dG). The Fapy-dG adduct can adopt different conformations and in particular, can exist in an unnatural α anomeric configuration in addition to canonical β configuration. Previous studies reported that in 5'-TGN-3' sequences, Fapy-dG predominantly induced G → T transversions in both mammalian cells and Escherichia coli, suggesting that mutations could be formed either via insertion of a dA opposite the 5' dT due to primer/template misalignment or as result of direct miscoding...
April 24, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435461/recipient-glycemic-micro-environments-govern-therapeutic-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-infusion-on-osteopenia
#8
Bing-Dong Sui, Cheng-Hu Hu, Chen-Xi Zheng, Yi Shuai, Xiao-Ning He, Ping-Ping Gao, Pan Zhao, Meng Li, Xin-Yi Zhang, Tao He, Kun Xuan, Yan Jin
Therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion have been revealed in various human disorders, but impacts of diseased micro-environments are only beginning to be noticed. Donor diabetic hyperglycemia is reported to impair therapeutic efficacy of stem cells. However, whether recipient diabetic condition also affects MSC-mediated therapy is unknown. We and others have previously shown that MSC infusion could cure osteopenia, particularly in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Here, we discovered impaired MSC therapeutic effects on osteopenia in recipient type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434746/supplementing-an-immunomodulatory-feed-ingredient-to-modulate-thermoregulation-physiologic-and-production-responses-in-lactating-dairy-cows-under-heat-stress-conditions
#9
T Leiva, R F Cooke, A P Brandão, K M Schubach, L F D Batista, M F Miranda, E A Colombo, R O Rodrigues, J R G Junior, R L A Cerri, J L M Vasconcelos
This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433788/regulation-of-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells-by-peptide-coupled-substrates
#10
Devin T Bridgen, Bailey V Fearing, Liufang Jing, Johannah Sanchez-Adams, Megan C Cohan, Farshid Guilak, Jun Chen, Lori A Setton
Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are derived from the notochord and differ from neighboring cells of the intervertebral disc in phenotypic marker expression and morphology. Adult human NP cells lose this phenotype and morphology with age in a pattern that contributes to progressive disc degeneration and pathology. Select laminin-mimetic peptide ligands and substrate stiffnesses were examined for their ability to regulate human NP cell phenotype and biosynthesis through the expression of NP-specific markers aggrecan, N-cadherin, collagen types I and II, and GLUT1...
April 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432663/the-vascular-wall-a-plastic-hub-of-activity-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Cassandra P Awgulewitsch, Linh T Trinh, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize recent findings regarding the plasticity and fate switching among somatic and progenitor cells residing in the vascular wall of blood vessels in health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Cell lineage tracing methods have identified multiple origins of stem cells, macrophages, and matrix-producing cells that become mobilized after acute or chronic injury of cardiovascular tissues. These studies also revealed that in the disease environment, resident somatic cells become plastic, thereby changing their stereotypical identities to adopt proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotypes...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429753/impact-of-surface-active-guanidinium-tetramethylguanidinium-and-cholinium-based-ionic-liquids-on-vibrio-fischeri-cells-and-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-liposomes
#12
Antti H Rantamäki, Suvi-Katriina Ruokonen, Evangelos Sklavounos, Lasse Kyllönen, Alistair W T King, Susanne K Wiedmer
We investigated the toxicological effect of seven novel cholinium, guanidinium, and tetramethylguanidinium carboxylate ionic liquids (ILs) from an ecotoxicological point of view. The emphasis was on the potential structure-toxicity dependency of these surface-active ILs in aqueous environment. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were defined for each IL using Vibrio (Aliivibrio) fischeri marine bacteria. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes were used as biomimetic lipid membranes to study the interactions between the surface-active ILs and the liposomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428789/il-10-producing-b-cells-regulate-t-helper-cell-immune-responses-during-1-3-%C3%AE-glucan-induced-lung-inflammation
#13
Fangwei Liu, Xiaowei Lu, Wujing Dai, Yiping Lu, Chao Li, Sitong Du, Ying Chen, Dong Weng, Jie Chen
With the rapid development of industry and farm, fungi contamination widely exists in occupational environment. Inhalation of fungi-contaminated organic dust results in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. 1,3-β-Glucan is a major cell wall component of fungus and is considered as a biomarker of fungi exposure. Current studies showed that 1,3-β-glucan exposure induced lung inflammation, which involved uncontrolled T helper (Th) cell immune responses, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cell (Treg). A recently identified IL-10-producing B cells (B10) was reported in regulating immune homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428203/tslp-activated-dendritic-cells-induce-human-t-follicular-helper-cell-differentiation-through-ox40-ligand
#14
Lucia Pattarini, Coline Trichot, Sofia Bogiatzi, Maximilien Grandclaudon, Stephan Meller, Zela Keuylian, Melanie Durand, Elisabetta Volpe, Stefania Madonna, Andrea Cavani, Andrea Chiricozzi, Marco Romanelli, Toshiyuki Hori, Alain Hovnanian, Bernhard Homey, Vassili Soumelis
T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are important regulators of humoral responses. Human Tfh polarization pathways have been thus far associated with Th1 and Th17 polarization pathways. How human Tfh cells differentiate in Th2-skewed environments is unknown. We show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-activated dendritic cells (DCs) promote human Tfh differentiation from naive CD4 T cells. We identified a novel population, distinct from Th2 cells, expressing IL-21 and TNF, suggestive of inflammatory cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428191/the-role-of-minimal-residual-disease-testing-in-myeloma-treatment-selection-and-drug-development-current-value-and-future-applications
#15
Kenneth C Anderson, Daniel Auclair, Gary J Kelloff, Caroline C Sigman, Herve Avet-Loiseau, Ann T Farrell, Nicole J Gormley, Shaji K Kumar, Ola Landgren, Nikhil C Munshi, Michele Cavo, Faith E Davies, Alessandra Di Bacco, Jennifer S Dickey, Steven I Gutman, Howard R Higley, Mohamad A Hussein, J Milburn Jessup, Ilan R Kirsch, Richard F Little, Robert D Loberg, Jens G Lohr, Lata Mukundan, James L Omel, Trevor J Pugh, Gregory H Reaman, Michael D Robbins, A Kate Sasser, Nancy Valente, Elena Zamagni
Treatment of myeloma has benefited from the introduction of more effective and better tolerated agents, improvements in supportive care, better understanding of disease biology, revision of diagnostic criteria, and new sensitive and specific tools for disease prognostication and management. Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) in response to therapy is one of these tools, as longer progression-free survival (PFS) is seen consistently among patients who have achieved MRD negativity. Current therapies lead to unprecedented frequency and depth of response, and next generation flow and sequencing methods to measure MRD in bone marrow are in use and being developed with sensitivities in the range of 10(-5)‒10(-6) cells...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427861/divergent-function-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-in-donor-tissue-versus-recipient-immune-system-in-a-murine-model-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans
#16
Katharina Schütte-Nütgen, Olaf Boenisch, Hakima Harrach, Alicia Casey, Indira Guleria, Nader Najafian, Mohamed H Sayegh, Craig J Gerard, Meera Subramaniam
Costimulatory molecules, such as the programmed death ligand (PD-L1), might exert differential effects on T-cell function, depending on the clinical setting and/or immunological environment. Given the impact of T cells on bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) in lung transplantation, we used an established tracheal transplant model inducing BO-like lesions to investigate the impact of PD-L1 on alloimmune responses and histopathological outcome in BO. In contrast to other transplant models in which PD-L1 generally shows protective functions, we demonstrated that PD-L1 has divergent effects depending on its location in donor versus recipient tissue...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427698/novel-functional-polymorphism-in-igf-1-gene-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-new-insight-to-ms
#17
Majid Shahbazi, Reza Abdolmohammadi, Hamid Ebadi, Touraj Farazmandfar
BACKGROUND: Interactions between several genes and environment may play a role in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). The IGF-1 plays a key role in proliferation, maintenance and survival of nerve cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that IGF-1 may be a target for prediction and control MS. We aimed to analysis IGF-1 gene promoter sequence, to investigate the effect of the single nucleotide variants on IGF-1 expression and its association with MS. METHODS: We enrolled 339 MS patients and 431 healthy controls...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426371/optimization-of-preculture-conditions-to-maximize-the-in-vivo-performance-of-cell-seeded-engineered-intervertebral-discs
#18
John T Martin, Sarah E Gullbrand, Bhavana Mohanraj, Beth G Ashinsky, Dong Hwa Kim, Kensuke Ikuta, Dawn M Elliott, Lachlan J Smith, Robert L Mauck, Harvey E Smith
The development of engineered tissues has progressed over the past 20 years from in vitro characterization to in vivo implementation. For musculoskeletal tissue engineering in particular, the emphasis of many of these studies was to select conditions that maximized functional and compositional gains in vitro. However, the transition from the favorable in vitro culture environment to a less favorable in vivo environment has proven difficult, and, in many cases, engineered tissues do not retain their preimplantation phenotype after even short periods in vivo...
April 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425113/environmental-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-exposure-drives-t-cell-activation-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#19
Adam C Soloff, Bethany Jacobs Wolf, Natasha D White, Derek Muir, Sean Courtney, Gary Hardiman, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable compounds that have been associated with immunotoxicity in epidemiologic studies and experimental rodent models. Lengthy half-lives and resistance to environmental degradation result in bioaccumulation of PFAAs in humans and wildlife. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the most prevalent PFAA detected within the environment, is found at high levels in occupationally exposed humans. We have monitored the environmental exposure of dolphins in the Charleston, SC region for over 10 years and levels of PFAAs, and PFOS in particular, were significantly elevated...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424687/cd103-cd8-t-cells-in-the-toxoplasma-infected-brain-exhibit-a-tissue-resident-memory-transcriptional-profile
#20
Tyler A Landrith, Suhas Sureshchandra, Andrea Rivera, Jessica C Jang, Maham Rais, Meera G Nair, Ilhem Messaoudi, Emma H Wilson
During chronic infection, memory T cells acquire a unique phenotype and become dependent on different survival signals than those needed for memory T cells generated during an acute infection. The distinction between the role of effector and memory T cells in an environment of persistent antigen remains unclear. Here, in the context of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection, we demonstrate that a population of CD8 T cells exhibiting a tissue-resident memory (TRM) phenotype accumulates within the brain. We show that this population is distributed throughout the brain in both parenchymal and extraparenchymal spaces...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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