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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524239/oral-contraceptive-pills-risky-or-protective-in-case-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#1
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Dina A Radi, Eiman A Hasby
AIM: to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills invivo. METHODS: included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured (two gender worm counts, gravidity, larvae/muscle and RCI). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit mast cells & Foxp3+ T-reg...
May 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523581/human-adenovirus-in-tissues-of-freshwater-snails-living-in-contaminated-waters
#2
J S Gularte, R Staggemeier, M Demoliner, T M S Heck, F H Heldt, R G F Ritzel, C Rigotto, A Henzel, F R Spilki
Human adenovirus (HAdV) is resistant to environment and can be used as a marker to detect fecal contamination. Considering the importance of freshwater snails in the aquatic environment, their use as concentrators for HAdV is a complementary tool for viral analysis of water. The goal of the study was to detect HAdV in snails and surface water collected from wetlands of the Sinos River (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) basin and to compare rates and viral loads found in both samples. HAdV was detected through real-time PCR...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521375/a-genetic-marker-associated-with-shoulder-dislocation
#3
Stuart Kim, John P Kleimeyer, Marwa A Ahmed, Andy L Avins, Michael Fredericson, Jason L Dragoo, John P A Ioannidis
Shoulder dislocations are common shoulder injuries associated with athletic activity in contact sports, such as football, rugby, wrestling, and hockey. Identifying genetic loci associated with shoulder dislocation could shed light on underlying mechanisms for injury and identify predictive genetic markers. To identify DNA polymorphisms associated with shoulder dislocation, a genome-wide association screen was performed using publically available data from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health including 662 cases of shoulder dislocation and 82 602 controls from the European ancestry group...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515322/g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-directly-modulates-vesicle-fusion-by-competing-with-synaptotagmin-for-binding-to-neuronal-snare-proteins-embedded-in-membranes
#4
Zack Zurawski, Brian Page, Michael C Chicka, Rebecca L Brindley, Christopher A Wells, Anita M Preininger, Karren Hyde, James A Gilbert, Osvaldo Cruz-Rodriguez, Kevin P M Currie, Edwin R Chapman, Simon Alford, Heidi E Hamm
Gi/o-coupled GPCRs can inhibit neurotransmitter release at synapses via multiple mechanisms. In addition to Gβγ-mediated modulation of voltage-gated calcium channels(VGCC), inhibition can also be mediated through the direct interaction of Gβγ subunits with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex of the vesicle fusion apparatus. Binding studies with soluble SNARE complexes have shown that Gβγ binds to both ternary SNARE complexes, t-SNARE heterodimers, and monomeric SNAREs, competing with synaptotagmin(syt)1 for binding sites on t-SNARE...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510224/dna-supercoiling-is-a-fundamental-regulatory-principle-in-the-control-of-bacterial-gene-expression
#5
REVIEW
Charles J Dorman, Matthew J Dorman
Although it has become routine to consider DNA in terms of its role as a carrier of genetic information, it is also an important contributor to the control of gene expression. This regulatory principle arises from its structural properties. DNA is maintained in an underwound state in most bacterial cells and this has important implications both for DNA storage in the nucleoid and for the expression of genetic information. Underwinding of the DNA through reduction in its linking number potentially imparts energy to the duplex that is available to drive DNA transactions, such as transcription, replication and recombination...
September 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510216/dna-supercoiling-is-a-fundamental-regulatory-principle-in-the-control-of-bacterial-gene-expression
#6
REVIEW
Charles J Dorman, Matthew J Dorman
Although it has become routine to consider DNA in terms of its role as a carrier of genetic information, it is also an important contributor to the control of gene expression. This regulatory principle arises from its structural properties. DNA is maintained in an underwound state in most bacterial cells and this has important implications both for DNA storage in the nucleoid and for the expression of genetic information. Underwinding of the DNA through reduction in its linking number potentially imparts energy to the duplex that is available to drive DNA transactions, such as transcription, replication and recombination...
November 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509989/the-dna-sequence-specificity-of-bleomycin-cleavage-in-a-systematically-altered-dna-sequence
#7
Shweta D Gautam, Jon K Chen, Vincent Murray
Bleomycin is an anti-tumour agent that is clinically used to treat several types of cancers. Bleomycin cleaves DNA at specific DNA sequences and recent genome-wide DNA sequencing specificity data indicated that the sequence 5'-RTGT*AY (where T* is the site of bleomycin cleavage, R is G/A and Y is T/C) is preferentially cleaved by bleomycin in human cells. Based on this DNA sequence, we constructed a plasmid clone to explore this bleomycin cleavage preference. By systematic variation of single nucleotides in the 5'-RTGT*AY sequence, we were able to investigate the effect of nucleotide changes on bleomycin cleavage efficiency...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507795/digital-analysis-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-the-signature-of-rejection-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Viktor H Koelzer, Lena Sokol, Stefan Zahnd, Lucine Christe, Heather Dawson, Martin D Berger, Daniel Inderbitzin, Inti Zlobec, Alessandro Lugli
The immune system plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor immune rejection has been previously linked to the activation of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) STAT1, IRF-5 and IRF-1. Specific immunoregulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) may impact the expression of these ISG in the tumor microenvironment. In this translational study, we develop a digital image analysis protocol to identify the ISG-gene expression signature and investigate miRNA expression in the immediate environment of invading cancer cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507242/an-rpohi-dependent-response-promotes-outgrowth-after-extended-stationary-phase-in-the-alphaproteobacterium-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#9
B Remes, T Rische-Grahl, K M H Müller, K U Förstner, Y Sung-Huan, L Weber, A Jäger, V Peuser, G Klug
Under unfavorable growth conditions, bacteria enter stationary phase and can maintain cell viability over prolonged periods with no increase in cell number. To get insights into the regulatory mechanisms that allow bacteria to resume growth when conditions become favorable again (outgrowth) we performed global transcriptome analyses at different stages of growth for the alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides The majority of genes was not differentially expressed across growth phases. After short stationary phase (about 20 h after growth starts to slow down), only 7 % of the genes showed altered expression (fold change of > 1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506251/diversity-in-vitro-virulence-traits-and-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-of-gastrointestinal-yeast-flora-of-healthy-poultry-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#10
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Nawal Kishor Sharan, Bharat Prasad Baral, Deependra Hamal, Niranjan Nayak, Peralam Yegneswaran Prakash, Brijesh Sathian, Indira Bairy, Shishir Gokhale
BACKGROUND: Poultry farming and consumption of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) meat and eggs are common gastronomical practices worldwide. Till now, a detailed understanding about the gut colonisation of Gallus gallus domesticus by yeasts and their virulence properties and drug resistance patterns in available literature remain sparse. This study was undertaken to explore this prevalent issue. RESULTS: A total of 103 specimens of fresh droppings of broiler chickens (commercial G domesticus) and domesticated chickens (domesticated G domesticus) were collected from the breeding sites...
May 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504719/novel-myc-driven-medulloblastoma-models-from-multiple-embryonic-cerebellar-cells
#11
D Kawauchi, R J Ogg, L Liu, D J H Shih, D Finkelstein, B L Murphy, J E Rehg, A Korshunov, C Calabrese, F Zindy, T Phoenix, Y Kawaguchi, J Gronych, R J Gilbertson, P Lichter, A Gajjar, M Kool, P A Northcott, S M Pfister, M F Roussel
Group3 medulloblastoma (MBG3) that predominantly occur in young children are usually associated with MYC amplification and/or overexpression, frequent metastasis and a dismal prognosis. Physiologically relevant MBG3 models are currently lacking, making inferences related to their cellular origin thus far limited. Using in utero electroporation, we here report that MBG3 mouse models can be developed in situ from different multipotent embryonic cerebellar progenitor cells via conditional expression of Myc and loss of Trp53 function in several Cre driver mouse lines...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504251/programmable-co-delivery-of-the-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-nlg919-and-chemotherapeutic-doxorubicin-via-a-redox-responsive-immunostimulatory-polymeric-prodrug-carrier
#12
Jing-Jing Sun, Yi-Chao Chen, Yi-Xian Huang, Wen-Chen Zhao, Yan-Hua Liu, Raman Venkataramanan, Bin-Feng Lu, Song Li
To achieve synergistic therapeutic efficacy and prevent cancer relapse, chemotherapy and immunotherapy have been combined as a new modality for tumor treatment. In this work, we designed a redox-responsive immunostimulatory polymeric prodrug carrier, PSSN10, for programmable co-delivery of an immune checkpoint inhibitor NLG919 (NLG) and a chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX). NLG-containing PSSN10 prodrug polymers were self-assembled into nano-sized micelles that served as a carrier to load DOX (DOX/PSSN10 micelles)...
May 8, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503661/in-vitro-detection-of-hypoxia-using-a-ratiometric-quantum-dot-based-oxygen-sensor
#13
Armen Shamirian, Hamid Samareh Afsari, Asra Hassan, Lawrence W Miller, Preston T Snee
A quantum-dot based ratiometric fluorescent oxygen probe for the detection of hypoxia in live cells is reported. The system is comprised of a water-soluble near-infrared emissive quantum dot conjugated to perylene dye. The response to the oxygen concentration is investigated using enzymatic oxygen scavenging in water, while in vitro studies were performed with HeLa cells incubated under varying O2 levels. In both cases a significant enhancement in dye/QD emission intensity ratio was observed in the deoxygenated environment, demonstrating the possible use of this probe for cancer research...
October 28, 2016: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501670/treg-recruiting-microspheres-prevent-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-dry-eye-disease
#14
Michelle L Ratay, Andrew J Glowacki, Stephen C Balmert, Abhinav P Acharya, Julia Polat, Lawrence P Andrews, Morgan V Fedorchak, Joel S Schuman, Dario A A Vignali, Steven R Little
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common ocular disorder affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The pathology of DED involves the infiltration of CD4(+) lymphocytes, leading to tear film instability and destructive inflammation. In the healthy steady state, a population of immunosuppressive T-cells called regulatory T-cells (Treg) regulates proliferation of immune cells that would otherwise lead to a disruption of immunological homeostasis. For this reason, it has been suggested that Tregs could restore the immunological imbalance in DED...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497120/analysis-of-light-and-carbon-specific-transcriptomes-implicates-a-class-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-cellulose-sensing
#15
Eva Stappler, Christoph Dattenböck, Doris Tisch, Monika Schmoll
In fungi, most metabolic processes are subject to regulation by light. Trichoderma reesei is adapted to degradation of plant cell walls and regulates production of the required enzymes in a manner dependent on the nutrient source and the light status. Here we investigated the interrelated relevance of two regulation levels of the transcriptome of T. reesei: light regulation and carbon source-dependent control. We show that the carbon source (cellulose, lactose, sophorose, glucose, or glycerol) is the major source of variation, with light having a modulating effect on transcript regulation...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495132/predicting-the-effects-of-potentially-therapeutic-modified-peptides-on-polyclonal-t-cell-populations-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Evan L Sauer, Elisabeth Trifilieff, Judith M Greer
Altered peptide ligands (APLs) have routinely been studied in clonal populations of Th cells that express a single T cell receptor (TCR), but results generated in this manner poorly predict the effects of APLs on polyclonal Th cells in vivo, contributing to the failure of phase II clinical trials of APLs in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We have used a panel of APLs derived from an encephalitogenic epitope of myelin proteolipid protein to investigate the relationship between antigen cross-reactivity in a polyclonal environment, encephalitogenicity, and the capacity of an APL to provide protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494555/-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-regulate-adaptive-immune-tolerance-in-the-liver
#17
Y Q Du, C Sun, S M Huang, D L Yang, J Wu
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a major group of nonparenchymal cells in the liver and are involved in immunological surveillance of the liver through the expression of various scavenger receptors and pattern recognition receptors. However, in case of several physiological states, viral infections, and tumor environment, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells maintain immune tolerance in the liver through various mechanisms and cause persistent viral infection and tumor metastasis. This article reviews the mechanisms of immune tolerance of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the liver induced by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488871/spatial-targeting-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-tumor-cells-with-a-ph-sensitive-cluster-nanocarrier-for-cancer-chemo-immunotherapy
#18
Song Shen, Hong-Jun Li, Kai-Ge Chen, Yucai Wang, Xian-Zhu Yang, Zhe-Xiong Lian, Jinzhi Du, Jun Wang
Chemo-immunotherapy, which combines chemotherapeutics with immune-modulating agents, represents an appealing approach for improving cancer therapy. To optimize its therapeutic efficacy, differentially delivering multiple therapeutic drugs to target cells is desirable. Here we developed an immunostimulatory nanocarrier (denoted as (BLZ-945)SCNs/Pt) that could spatially target tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor cells for cancer chemo-immunotherapy. (BLZ-945)SCNs/Pt undergo supersensitive structure collapse in the prevascular regions of tumor tissues, and enable simultaneous release of platinum (Pt)-prodrug conjugated small particles and BLZ-945, a small molecule inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) of TAMs...
May 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488704/targeting-curcumin-to-specific-tumour-cell-environments-the-influence-of-ancillary-ligands
#19
A Glenister, C K J Chen, E M Tondl, D Paterson, T W Hambley, A K Renfrew
Tumour-activation of prodrugs has the potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer agents while minimising systemic toxicity. Cobalt complexes are of interest in this respect as chaperones to deliver and release anticancer agents in the low oxygen, reducing environment of solid tumours. In addition to being able to release a cytotoxic ligand under the conditions of the tumour microenvironment, it is fundamental that the chaperone complex must also be able to penetrate through multiple cell layers to deliver the cytotoxin to all regions of the tumour...
May 10, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488574/prox1-represses-il-2-gene-expression-by-interacting-with-nfat2
#20
Shujie Zhang, Ning Yu, Linfang Wang, Yanfeng Liu, Yuying Kong, Jing Liu, Youhua Xie
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is critical for T lymphocyte activation and regulated by many transcriptional factors. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) is a multifunctional transcription factor, which can work as either a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on the cellular and developmental environment. We previously reported the Prox1 expression in T cells, raising the possibility of Prox1 involvement in the regulation of T cell function and IL-2 production. Here we demonstrated that the Prox1 expression in CD4+ T cells was downregulated by T cell receptor (TCR) activation...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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