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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240831/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-virulent-and-non-virulent-trypanosoma-cruzi-underlines-the-role-of-surface-proteins-during-infection
#1
A Trey Belew, Caroline Junqueira, Gabriela F Rodrigues-Luiz, Bruna M Valente, Antonio Edson R Oliveira, Rafael B Polidoro, Luciana W Zuccherato, Daniella C Bartholomeu, Sergio Schenkman, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Barbara A Burleigh, Najib M El-Sayed, Santuza M R Teixeira
Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle involving several morphologically and biochemically distinct stages that establish intricate interactions with various insect and mammalian hosts. It has also a heterogeneous population structure comprising strains with distinct properties such as virulence, sensitivity to drugs, antigenic profile and tissue tropism. We present a comparative transcriptome analysis of two cloned T. cruzi strains that display contrasting virulence phenotypes in animal models of infection: CL Brener is a virulent clone and CL-14 is a clone that is neither infective nor pathogenic in in vivo models of infection...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239725/t-cell-calcium-dynamics-visualized-in-a-ratiometric-tdtomato-gcamp6f-transgenic-reporter-mouse
#2
Tobias X Dong, Shivashankar Othy, Amit Jairaman, Jonathan Skupsky, Angel Zavala, Ian Parker, Joseph L Dynes, Michael D Cahalan
Calcium is an essential cellular messenger that regulates numerous functions in living organisms. Here we describe development and characterization of 'Salsa6f', a fusion of GCaMP6f and tdTomato optimized for cell tracking while monitoring cytosolic Ca2+, and a transgenic Ca2+ reporter mouse with Salsa6f targeted to the Rosa26 locus for Cre-dependent expression in specific cell types. The development and function of T cells was unaffected in Cd4-Salsa6f mice. We describe Ca2+ signals reported by Salsa6f during T cell receptor activation in naïve T cells, helper Th17 T cells and regulatory T cells, and Ca2+ signals mediated in T cells by an activator of mechanosensitive Piezo1channels...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238343/thrombospondin-1-partly-mediates-the-cartilage-protective-effect-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-osteoarthritis
#3
Marie Maumus, Cristina Manferdini, Karine Toupet, Paul Chuchana, Louis Casteilla, Mélanie Gachet, Christian Jorgensen, Gina Lisignoli, Danièle Noël
Objective: Assuming that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) respond to the osteoarthritic joint environment to exert a chondroprotective effect, we aimed at investigating the molecular response setup by MSCs after priming by osteoarthritic chondrocytes in cocultures. Methods: We used primary human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and adipose stem cells (ASCs) in mono- and cocultures and performed a high-throughput secretome analysis. Among secreted proteins differentially induced in cocultures, we identified thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) as a potential candidate that could be involved in the chondroprotective effect of ASCs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238241/predictors-of-mortality-within-prison-and-after-release-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-indonesia
#4
Gabriel J Culbert, Forrest W Crawford, Astia Murni, Agung Waluyo, Alexander R Bazazi, Junaiti Sahar, Frederick L Altice
Objectives: HIV-related mortality is increasing in Indonesia, where prisons house many people living with HIV and addiction. We examined all-cause mortality in HIV-infected Indonesian prisoners within prison and up to 24 months post-release. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected HIV-infected male prisoners (n=102) from two prisons in Jakarta, Indonesia completed surveys in prison and were followed up for 2 years (until study completion) or until they died or were lost to follow-up...
2017: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238015/-in-vivo-imaging-of-cutaneous-inflammation-novel-insights-into-cutaneous-immune-responses-revealed-by-multi-photon-microscopic-analysis
#5
Tetsuya Honda, Kenji Kabashima
  Skin is an outermost organ that serves as an interface between the host and the environment. The skin provides not only mechanical barrier functions, but also an active immunological barrier that provides the first line of defense against infections. For the effective clearance of pathogens or antigens in the skin, immune cells, especially effector T cells, must quickly exert their effector functions while avoiding the host damage by their excess activation. Therefore, the quality, magnitude, and the duration of the effector T cell activity must be carefully regulated...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236127/-basic-knowledge-on-the-efficacy-of-hearing-aids-depending-on-the-type-of-hearing-impairment-for-ear-nose-throat-specialists
#6
REVIEW
T Steffens, S C Marcrum
For Ear, Nose & Throat specialists, the physiological and psychoacoustical deficits related to hearing impairment and the compensatory capabilities of hearing aids are topics of prime importance. In conductive hearing loss, the foremost deficit is decreased audibility, for which hearing aids can compensate almost entirely through the use of level independent gain. In the instance of sensorineural hearing loss, however, the irreversible loss of outer and inner hair cells causes a distorted sound perception, which is particularly troublesome when trying to understand speech in noisy environments...
December 13, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236117/liquid-crystal-elastomer-foams-with-elastic-properties-specifically-engineered-as-biodegradable-brain-tissue-scaffolds
#7
M E Prévôt, H Andro, S L M Alexander, S Ustunel, C Zhu, Z Nikolov, S T Rafferty, M T Brannum, B Kinsel, L T J Korley, E J Freeman, J A McDonough, R J Clements, E Hegmann
Tissue regeneration requires 3-dimensional (3D) smart materials as scaffolds to promote transport of nutrients. To mimic mechanical properties of extracellular matrices, biocompatible polymers have been widely studied and a diverse range of 3D scaffolds have been produced. We propose the use of responsive polymeric materials to create dynamic substrates for cell culture, which goes beyond designing only a physical static 3D scaffold. Here, we demonstrated that lactone- and lactide-based star block-copolymers (SBCs), where a liquid crystal (LC) moiety has been attached as a side-group, can be crosslinked to obtain Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) with a porous architecture using a salt-leaching method to promote cell infiltration...
December 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235714/formate-hydrogenlyase-and-formate-secretion-ameliorate-h2-inhibition-in-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-thermococcus-paralvinellae
#8
Begüm D Topçuoğlu, Cem Meydan, Roberto Orellana, James F Holden
Some hyperthermophilic heterotrophs in the genus Thermococcus produce H2 in the absence of S° and have up to seven hydrogenases, but their combined physiological roles are unclear. Here, we show which hydrogenases in Thermococcus paralvinellae are affected by added H2 during growth without S°. Growth rates and steady-state cell concentrations decreased while formate production rates increased when T. paralvinallae was grown in a chemostat with 65 µM of added H2(aq) . Differential gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq showed consistent expression of six hydrogenase operons with and without added H2 ...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235503/inactivation-of-the-dnak-gene-in-clostridium-difficile-630-%C3%AE-erm-yields-a-temperature-sensitive-phenotype-and-increases-biofilm-forming-ability
#9
Shailesh Jain, Deborah Smyth, Barry M G O'Hagan, John T Heap, Geoff McMullan, Nigel P Minton, Nigel G Ternan
Clostridium difficile infection is a growing problem in healthcare settings worldwide and results in a considerable socioeconomic impact. New hypervirulent strains and acquisition of antibiotic resistance exacerbates pathogenesis; however, the survival strategy of C. difficile in the challenging gut environment still remains incompletely understood. We previously reported that clinically relevant heat-stress (37-41 °C) resulted in a classical heat-stress response with up-regulation of cellular chaperones...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234980/low-dose-interleukin-2-as-a-modulator-of-treg-homeostasis-after-hsct-current-understanding-and-future-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Ken-Ichi Matsuoka
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg is a functionally distinct subset of mature T cells with broad suppressive activity and has been shown to play an important role in the establishment of immune tolerance after HSCT. Altered cytokine environment in post-HSCT lymphopenia with a relative functional deficiency of IL-2 could hamper the reconstitution of Treg, leading to refractory GVHD. Based on the theory of low-dose IL-2 in which Treg can be selectively stimulated through the high-affinity IL-2 receptor, clinical studies have been conducted and demonstrated that low-dose IL-2 administration can restore Treg homeostasis and promote the expansion of this subset on the polymorphic processes of Treg reconstitution after HSCT...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234685/local-and-systemic-cd4-t-cell-exhaustion-reverses-with-clinical-resolution-of-pulmonary-sarcoidosis
#11
Charlene Hawkins, Guzel Shaginurova, D Auriel Shelton, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Kyra A Oswald-Richter, Joseph E Rotsinger, Anjuli Young, Lindsay J Celada, Naftali Kaminski, Carla Sevin, Wonder P Drake
Investigation of the Th1 immune response in sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells has revealed reduced proliferative capacity and cytokine expression upon TCR stimulation. In other disease models, such cellular dysfunction has been associated with a step-wise, progressive loss of T cell function that results from chronic antigenic stimulation. T cell exhaustion is defined by decreased cytokine production upon TCR activation, decreased proliferation, increased expression of inhibitory cell surface receptors, and increased susceptibility to apoptosis...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234010/loss-of-the-molecular-clock-in-myeloid-cells-exacerbates-t-cell-mediated-cns-autoimmune-disease
#12
Caroline E Sutton, Conor M Finlay, Mathilde Raverdeau, James O Early, Joseph DeCourcey, Zbigniew Zaslona, Luke A J O'Neill, Kingston H G Mills, Annie M Curtis
The transcription factor BMAL1 is a core component of the molecular clock, regulating biological pathways that drive 24 h (circadian) rhythms in behaviour and physiology. The molecular clock has a profound influence on innate immune function, and circadian disruption is linked with increased incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. Here we show that BMAL1 and time-of-day regulate the accumulation and activation of various immune cells in a CNS autoimmune disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233192/methanolic-extract-of-euchelus-asper-exhibits-in-ovo-anti-angiogenic-and-in-vitro-anti-proliferative-activities
#13
Sweta Agrawal, Sachin Chaugule, Shashank More, Gargi Rane, Madhavi Indap
BACKGROUND: The marine environment is a rich source of bioactive natural products. Many of the marine bioactive compounds have been derived successfully from molluscs. Euchelus asper is a marine mollusc which is commonly found in the intertidal rocky regions of the Mumbai coast. The present study was focused on evaluating the anti-angiogenic and anti- proliferative activities of methanolic extract of Euchelus asper (EAME). METHODS: The anti-angiogenic activity of EAME (50-800 μg/mL) was assessed by chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) model wherein multiple parameters in the CAM blood vessels were analysed through morphometric and histological investigations...
December 12, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231815/endothelial-cells-express-nkg2d-ligands-and-desensitize-anti-tumor-nk-responses
#14
Thornton W Thompson, Alexander Byungsuk Kim, Po-Yi Jonathan Li, Jiaxi Wang, Benjamin T Jackson, Kristen Ting Hui Huang, Lily Zhang, David H Raulet
Natural Killer (NK) cells confer protection from tumors and infections by releasing cytotoxic granules and pro-inflammatory cytokines upon recognition of diseased cells. The responsiveness of NK cells to acute stimulation is dynamically tuned by steady-state receptor-ligand interactions of an NK cell with its cellular environment. Here we demonstrate that in healthy WT mice the NK activating receptor NKG2D is engaged in vivo by one of its ligands, RAE-1ε, which is expressed constitutively by lymph node endothelial cells and highly induced on tumor-associated endothelium...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230226/cholesterol-metabolism-in-t-cells
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Bietz, Hengyu Zhu, Manman Xue, Chenqi Xu
Compartmentalization and spatial control of biochemical reactions is the foundation of cell-based life on earth. The lipid bilayer system employed by eukaryote cells not only keeps them separate from the environment but also provides a platform for key receptors to sense and interact with outside factors. Arguably one of the cell types most reliant on interactions of this kind, immune cells depend on their membrane to keep functioning properly. In this review, the influence of variation in cholesterol levels, a key component of lipid bilayer stability, on T cells will be discussed in detail...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229855/distinct-roles-of-n-and-o-glycans-in-cellulase-activity-and-stability
#16
Antonella Amore, Brandon C Knott, Nitin T Supekar, Asif Shajahan, Parastoo Azadi, Peng Zhao, Lance Wells, Jeffrey G Linger, Sarah E Hobdey, Todd A Vander Wall, Todd Shollenberger, John M Yarbrough, Zhongping Tan, Michael F Crowley, Michael E Himmel, Stephen R Decker, Gregg T Beckham, Larry E Taylor
In nature, many microbes secrete mixtures of glycoside hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and accessory enzymes to deconstruct polysaccharides and lignin in plants. These enzymes are often decorated with N- and O-glycosylation, the roles of which have been broadly attributed to protection from proteolysis, as the extracellular milieu is an aggressive environment. Glycosylation has been shown to sometimes affect activity, but these effects are not fully understood. Here, we examine N- and O-glycosylation on a model, multimodular glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A), which exhibits an O-glycosylated carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and an O-glycosylated linker connected to an N- and O-glycosylated catalytic domain (CD)-a domain architecture common to many biomass-degrading enzymes...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#17
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226929/synergistic-arsenic-v-and-lead-ii-retention-on-synthetic-jarosite-i-simultaneous-structural-incorporation-behaviour-and-mechanism
#18
J Aguilar-Carrillo, M Villalobos, T Pi-Puig, I N Escobar-Quiroz, F M Romero
Jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] minerals are effective scavengers of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and are abundant, for example, in acid rock/mine drainage scenarios. The retention process is highly relevant for environmental attenuation of heavy metals and metalloids since these are usually highly soluble and thus mobile under acidic conditions. We investigated both macroscopically and at the molecular scale the extent and the effects of concomitant incorporation of As(v) and Pb(ii) into synthetic jarosite at different As/Pb starting molar ratios, using XRD-Rietveld, SEM, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and wet chemistry...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226183/in-vitro-homeostatic-proliferation-of-human-cd8-t-cells
#19
Hossam A Abdelsamed, Caitlin C Zebley, Ben Youngblood
Long-lived T-cell-mediated immunity requires persistence of memory T cells in an antigen-free environment while also maintaining a heightened capacity to recall effector functions. Such antigen-independent homeostatic proliferation is mediated in part by the common gamma-chain cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. To further explore the mechanisms governing maintenance of effector functions in long-lived memory T cells during antigen-independent proliferation, human naïve and memory CD8 T cells can be sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), labeled with the proliferation-tracking dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and then purified based on their levels of cell division...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223157/self-organization-of-recombinant-membrane-porin-ompf-from-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-in-aqueous-environments
#20
E V Sidorin, V A Khomenko, N Yu Kim, P S Dmitrenok, A M Stenkova, O D Novikova, T F Solov'eva
Recombinant porin OmpF (an integral protein of bacterial outer membrane) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was synthesized in Escherichia coli cells as inclusion bodies. By combining the methods of anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies, recombinant OmpF (rOmpF) was isolated as an individual protein in its denatured state, and its characteristic properties (molecular mass, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and hydrodynamic radius of the protein in 8 M urea solution) were determined. According to the data of gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, optical spectroscopy, and binding of the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, the rOmpF is fully unfolded in 8 M urea and exists in random coil conformation...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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