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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050214/prox1-represses-il-2-gene-expression-by-interacting-with-nfat2
#1
Shujie Zhang, Ning Yu, Linfang Wang, Yanfeng Liu, Yuying Kong, Jing Liu, Youhua Xie
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is critical for T lymphocyte activation and regulated by many transcriptional factors. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) is a multifunctional transcription factor, which can work as either a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on the cellular and developmental environment. We previously reported the Prox1 expression in T cells, raising the possibility of Prox1 involvement in the regulation of T cell function and IL-2 production. Here we demonstrated that the Prox1 expression in CD4+ T cells was downregulated by T cell receptor (TCR) activation...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048509/plasma-but-not-cerebrospinal-fluid-interleukin-7-and-interleukin-5-levels-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-commencement-predict-cryptococcosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#2
Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Christina C Chang, Daniel M Muema, Tarylee Reddy, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) frequently experience clinical deterioration, known as cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS), upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunological mechanisms underlying C-IRIS are incompletely defined and no reliable predictive biomarkers exist. We investigated whether plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and chemokines predicted C-IRIS and are potential predictive biomarkers...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048222/correlations-between-life-detection-techniques-and-implications-for-sampling-site-selection-in-planetary-analog-missions
#3
Diana M Gentry, Elena S Amador, Morgan L Cable, Nosheen Chaudry, Thomas Cullen, Malene B Jacobsen, Gayathri Murukesan, Edward W Schwieterman, Adam H Stevens, Amanda Stockton, George Tan, Chang Yin, David C Cullen, Wolf Geppert
We conducted an analog sampling expedition under simulated mission constraints to areas dominated by basaltic tephra of the Eldfell and Fimmvörðuháls lava fields (Iceland). Sites were selected to be "homogeneous" at a coarse remote sensing resolution (10-100 m) in apparent color, morphology, moisture, and grain size, with best-effort realism in numbers of locations and replicates. Three different biomarker assays (counting of nucleic-acid-stained cells via fluorescent microscopy, a luciferin/luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect DNA associated with bacteria, archaea, and fungi) were characterized at four nested spatial scales (1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and >1 km) by using five common metrics for sample site representativeness (sample mean variance, group F tests, pairwise t tests, and the distribution-free rank sum H and u tests)...
October 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043805/the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-5-regulates-the-proliferation-and-biosynthetic-processes-in-procyclic-forms-of-trypanosoma-brucei
#4
Fernanda G Kugeratski, Michel Batista, Carla Vanessa de Paula Lima, Lisa J Neilson, Elizabeth Sousa da Cunha, Lyris M F de Godoy, Sara Zanivan, Marco Aurelio Krieger, Fabricio K Marchini
The pathogenic protozoan T. brucei alternates into distinct developmental stages in the mammalian and insect hosts. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways transduce extracellular stimuli into a range of cellular responses, which ultimately lead to the adaptation to the external environment. Here, we combined a loss of function approach with stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry (MS) to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) in T...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042932/cardioprotective-effect-of-notch-signaling-on-the-development-of-myocardial-infarction-complicated-by-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Fang Wu, Bo Yu, Xu Zhang, Yuelan Zhang
The present study aimed to elucidate the role of Notch signaling in the development of myocardial infarction (MI) concomitant with diabetes in vivo and in vitro and evaluated the therapeutic effect of the Notch signaling in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were subjected to 25 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme levels were detected. Infarct size was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis were examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and Masson Trichrome staining, respectively...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042499/activation-of-the-listeria-monocytogenes-virulence-program-by-a-reducing-environment
#6
Jonathan L Portman, Samuel B Dubensky, Bret N Peterson, Aaron T Whiteley, Daniel A Portnoy
Upon entry into the host cell cytosol, the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes coordinates the expression of numerous essential virulence factors by allosteric binding of glutathione (GSH) to the Crp-Fnr family transcriptional regulator PrfA. Here, we report that robust virulence gene expression can be recapitulated by growing bacteria in a synthetic medium containing GSH or other chemical reducing agents. Bacteria grown under these conditions were 45-fold more virulent in an acute murine infection model and conferred greater immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge than bacteria grown in conventional media...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042497/a-single-dual-function-enzyme-controls-the-production-of-inflammatory-nod-agonist-peptidoglycan-fragments-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#7
Jonathan D Lenz, Kathleen T Hackett, Joseph P Dillard
Neisseria gonorrhoeae gonococcus (GC) is a Gram-negative betaproteobacterium and causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. During growth, GC releases lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments, which contribute significantly to the inflammatory damage observed during human infection. In ascending infection of human Fallopian tubes, inflammation leads to increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and sterility. Of the PG fragments released by GC, most are disaccharide peptide monomers, and of those, 80% have tripeptide stems despite the observation that tetrapeptide stems make up 80% of the assembled cell wall...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042410/h-and-pi-byproducts-of-glycosylation-affect-ca-2-%C3%A2-homeostasis-and-are-retrieved-from-the-golgi-complex-by-homologs-of-tmem165-and-xpr1
#8
Nathan A Snyder, Christopher P Stefan, Camille T Soroudi, Adam Kim, Carlos Evangelista, Kyle W Cunningham
Glycosylation reactions in the Golgi complex and the endoplasmic reticulum utilize nucleotide sugars as donors and produce inorganic phosphate (Pi) and acid (H(+)) as byproducts. Here we show that homologs of mammalian XPR1 and TMEM165 (termed Erd1 and Gdt1) recycle luminal Pi and exchange luminal H(+) for cytoplasmic Ca(2+), respectively, thereby promoting growth of yeast cells in low Pi and low Ca2+ environments. As expected for reversible H(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, Gdt1 also promoted growth in high Ca(2+) environments when the Golgi-localized V-ATPase was operational but had the opposite effect when the V-ATPase was eliminated...
October 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038654/cpg-odn-facilitates-effective-intratracheal-immunization-and-recall-of-memory-against-neoantigen-expressing-alveolar-cells
#9
Mathias Riehn, Marcin Cebula, Hansjörg Hauser, Dagmar Wirth
Intrapulmonary immune reactions are impaired by the tolerogenic environment of the lung. This is manifested by the absence of effective endogenous T cell responses upon neoantigen expression. This tolerance is considered to contribute to lung cancer and inefficient immune therapeutic interventions. To investigate the mechanisms contributing to lung tolerance and to overcome these restrictions, we developed a transgenic mouse model with induction of a neoantigen (OVA) exclusively in alveolar type II epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038024/structural-insights-of-a-self-assembling-9-residue-peptide-from-the-c-terminal-tail-of-the-sars-corona-virus-e-protein-in-dpc-and-sds-micelles-a-combined-high-and-low-resolution-spectroscopic-study
#10
Anirban Ghosh, Dipita Bhattacharyya, Anirban Bhunia
In recent years, several studies based on the interaction of self-assembling short peptides derived from Viroporins with model membranes, have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of Corona virus (CoV) infection under physiological conditions. In this study, we have characterized the mechanism of membrane interaction of a short, 9-residue peptide TK9 (T(55)VYVYSRVK(63)) that had been derived from the carboxyl terminal of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Corona virus (SARS CoV) Envelope (E) protein...
October 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036472/measurement-of-nanoscale-dna-translocation-by-uracil-dna-glycosylase-in-human-cells
#11
Alexandre Esadze, Gaddiel Rodriguez, Brian P Weiser, Philip A Cole, James T Stivers
DNA 'sliding' by human repair enzymes is considered to be important for DNA damage detection. Here, we transfected uracil-containing DNA duplexes into human cells and measured the probability that nuclear human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) excised two uracil lesions spaced 10-80 bp apart in a single encounter without escaping the micro-volume containing the target sites. The two-site transfer probabilities were 100% and 54% at a 10 and 40 bp spacing, but dropped to only 10% at 80 bp. Enzyme trapping experiments suggested that site transfers over 40 bp followed a DNA 'hopping' pathway in human cells, indicating that authentic sliding does not occur even over this short distance...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036021/the-role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-airway-inflammation-evolving-paradigms
#12
Inge Kortekaas Krohn, Suzanne M Bal, Korneliusz Golebski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) act as early orchestrators of the immune response, tissue repair, and maintenance of barrier homeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings of the role of ILCs in airway disease and highlights ongoing developments in clinical applications and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of the transcription factors required for their development and cytokine profiles, ILCs have been classified into three subsets that resemble those of T-helper subtypes...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035687/acute-glutamine-ingestion-modulates-lymphocytic-responses-to-exhaustive-exercise-in-the-heat
#13
Chen Zheng, Xiang-Ke Chen, Yue Zhou
The purpose of this study was to determine if acute intake of glutamine modulates homeostatic, hematologic, immune, and inflammatory responses to exhaustive exercise in the heat. Thirteen healthy untrained young men participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. They served as their own control and completed two trials of treadmill exercise at 40% VO2max to exhaustion in a hot environment (38.0 ± 1.0 °C, 60.0 ± 5.0 % relative humidity, and 20.8% oxygen) following placebo (PLA) and glutamine (GLN) consumption...
October 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033948/unique-features-of-pancreatic-resident-regulatory-t-cells-in-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Jingli Lu, Chaoqi Zhang, Lifeng Li, Wenhua Xue, Chengliang Zhang, Xiaojian Zhang
Recent progress in regulatory T cells (Tregs) biology emphasizes the importance of understanding tissue-resident Tregs in response to tissue-specific environment. Now, emerging evidence suggests that pancreatic-resident forkhead box P3(+) Tregs have distinguishable effects on the suppression of over-exuberant immune responses in autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, there is growing interest in elucidating the role of pancreatic-resident Tregs that function and evolve in the local environment. In this review, we discuss the phenotype and function of Tregs residing in pancreatic tissues and pancreatic lymph nodes, with emphasis on the unique subpopulations of Tregs that control the disease progression in the context of T1D...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033934/ebi3-prevents-trypanosoma-cruzi-induced-myocarditis-by-dampening-ifn-%C3%AE-driven-inflammation
#15
Tiago Silva Medina, Gabriela Gonçalves Oliveira, Maria Cláudia Silva, Bruna Araújo David, Grace Kelly Silva, Denise Morais Fonseca, Renata Sesti-Costa, Amanda Farage Frade, Monique Andrade Baron, Barbara Ianni, Alexandre Costa Pereira, Christophe Chevillard, Edécio Cunha-Neto, José Antonio Marin-Neto, João Santana Silva
The identification of anti-inflammatory mediators can reveal important targetable molecules capable of counterbalancing Trypanosoma cruzi-induced myocarditis. Composed of Ebi3 and IL-27p28 subunits, IL-27 is produced by myeloid cells and is able to suppress inflammation by inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, thus emerging as a potential candidate to ameliorate cardiac inflammation induced by T. cruzi. Although IL-27 has been extensively characterized as a suppressive cytokine that prevents liver immunopathogenesis after T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033929/immunity-and-fibrogenesis-the-role-of-th17-il-17-axis-in-hbv-and-hcv-induced-chronic-hepatitis-and-progression-to-cirrhosis
#16
REVIEW
Feliciano Chanana Paquissi
Cirrhosis is a common final pathway for most chronic liver diseases; representing an increasing burden worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current evidence has shown that, after an initial injury, the immune response has a significant participation in the ongoing damage, and progression from chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) to cirrhosis, driving the activation and maintenance of main fibrogenic pathways. Among immune deregulations, those related to the subtype 17 of T helper lymphocytes (Th17)/interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis have been recognized as key immunopathological and prognostic elements in patients with CVH...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033913/biochemical-function-molecular-structure-and-evolution-of-an-atypical-thioredoxin-reductase-from-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#17
Odile Valette, Tam T T Tran, Christine Cavazza, Elodie Caudeville, Gaël Brasseur, Alain Dolla, Emmanuel Talla, Laetitia Pieulle
Thioredoxin reductase (TR) regulates the intracellular redox environment by reducing thioredoxin (Trx). In anaerobes, recent findings indicate that the Trx redox network is implicated in the global redox regulation of metabolism but also actively participates in protecting cells against O2. In the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH), there is an intriguing redundancy of the Trx system which includes a classical system using NADPH as electron source, a non-canonical system using NADH and an isolated TR (DvTRi)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033844/syngeneic-b16f10-melanoma-causes-cachexia-and-impaired-skeletal-muscle-strength-and-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#18
Fabrício A Voltarelli, Fernando T Frajacomo, Camila de Souza Padilha, Mayra T J Testa, Paola S Cella, Diogo F Ribeiro, Donizete X de Oliveira, Luciana C Veronez, Gabriela S Bisson, Felipe A Moura, Rafael Deminice
Muscle wasting has been emerging as one of the principal components of cancer cachexia, leading to progressive impairment of work capacity. Despite early stages melanomas rarely promotes weight loss, the appearance of metastatic and/or solid tumor melanoma can leads to cachexia development. Here, we investigated the B16F10 tumor-induced cachexia and its contribution to muscle strength and locomotor-like activity impairment. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5 × 10(4) B16F10 melanoma cells or PBS as a Sham negative control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032059/is-the-adaptive-immune-response-in-murine-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-influenced-by-zinc-supplementation
#19
Cássia Mariana Bronzon da Costa, Marina Del Vecchio Filipin, Fabrícia Helena Santello, Luiz Miguel Pereira, Miriam Paula Alonso Toldo, José Clóvis do Prado Júnior, Ana Amélia Carraro Abrahão
Chagas disease afflicts 7 to 8 million people worldwide and congenital Chagas' disease usually leads to changes in the maternal environment, culminating in fetal adaptations. Several articles have described the importance of micronutrients on pregnancy, which is sensitive to infections. In Trypanosoma cruzi endemic regions, the Chagas disease is aggravated by the lack of micronutrients in an average diet, to which pregnant women are more susceptible. The aim of this study was to evaluate distinct T cells phenotypes and intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry in pregnant Wistar rats under zinc therapy during experimental Chagas' disease...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031576/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-trophic-exposure-to-silver-nanospheres-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-a-neotropical-fish-hoplias-intermedius
#20
T Klingelfus, J R Lirola, L F Oya Silva, G R Disner, M Vicentini, M J B Nadaline, J C Z Robles, L M Trein, C L Voigt, H C Silva de Assis, M Mela, D M Leme, M M Cestari
Nanotechnologies are at the center of societal interest, due to their broad spectrum of application in different industrial products. The current concern about nanomaterials (NMs) is the potential risks they carry for human health and the environment. Considering that NMs can reach bodies of water, there is a need for studying the toxic effects of NMs on aquatic organisms. Among the NMs' toxic effects on fish, the interactions between NMs and the nervous system are yet to be understood. For this reason, our goal was to assess the neurotoxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanospheres [AgNS (PVP coated)] and compare their effects in relation to silver ions (Ag(+)) in carnivorous Hoplias intermedius fish after acute and subchronic trophic exposure through the analysis of morphological (retina), biochemical (brain) and genetic biomarkers (brain and blood)...
October 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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