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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319200/the-rise-and-fall-of-peptic-ulceration-a-disease-of-civilization
#1
REVIEW
Ian C Roberts-Thomson
Humans and Helicobacter pylori have evolved and adapted over tens of thousands of years. Yet peptic ulcer disease appeared to be rare prior to the 19th century. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease increased between 1850 and 1900 and culminated in a cohort at high risk that was born at the end of the 19th century. This coincided with the provision of safe water and improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene. One hypothesis for the emergence of peptic ulcer disease focuses on the rate of development of atrophic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249963/exploring-the-association-between-alzheimer-s-disease-oral-health-microbial-endocrinology-and-nutrition
#2
REVIEW
Alice Harding, Ulrike Gonder, Sarita J Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224909/hygiene-hypothesis-in-asthma-development-is-hygiene-to-blame
#3
REVIEW
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders...
December 7, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222098/longitudinal-study-of-the-occurrence-persistence-and-contamination-routes-of-listeria-monocytogenes-genotypes-on-three-finnish-dairy-cattle-farms
#4
Hanna Castro, Anniina Jaakkonen, Marjaana Hakkinen, Hannu Korkeala, Miia Lindström
The molecular epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in a longitudinal study of three Finnish dairy farms during 2013 -- 2016. Totals of 186 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, 224 milk filter socks (MFS), and 1702 samples of the barn environment were analyzed and isolates of L. monocytogenes were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. L. monocytogenes occurred throughout the year in all sample types, and the prevalence in MFS increased significantly during the indoor season. L. monocytogenes was more prevalent in MFS (29%) than in BTM samples (13%)...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161092/the-impact-of-diet-on-immunity-and-respiratory-diseases
#5
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland, Niki D J Ubags
The Western world has witnessed a tremendous increase in the occurrence of allergy and autoimmunity in the second half of the 20th century. Extensive efforts have been made to explain this phenomenon and various hypotheses have been formulated. Among them, two concepts have attracted the most attention: the "hygiene hypothesis," identifying the reduced exposure to environmental microorganisms as a driving force behind the observed epidemiological trends; and the "diet hypotheses," pointing to the importance of changes in our dietary habits...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161087/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-the-age-of-the-microbiome
#6
Markus J Ege
The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" prevented allergies. Examples were endemic fecal-oral infections by viral, bacterial, or protozoic pathogens, such as hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, or Toxoplasma gondii. Later, this concept also included microorganisms beyond pathogens, such as commensals and symbionts, and the hygiene hypothesis was extended to inflammatory diseases in general. An impressive illustration of the hygiene hypothesis was found in the consistent farm effect on asthma and allergies, which has partly been attributed to immunomodulatory properties of endotoxin as emitted by livestock...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157379/incidence-of-fecal-excretion-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cows-before-and-after-the-enrolment-in-the-qu%C3%A3-bec-voluntary-program
#7
J C Arango-Sabogal, J Paré, O Labrecque, G Côté, J P Roy, S Buczinski, V Wellemans, G Fecteau
Paratuberculosis is a chronic and contagious enteric disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This disease of worldwide distribution is responsible for significant economic losses and the bacteria itself has been linked to human Crohn's disease. Paratuberculosis control programs focus on reducing MAP transmission by implementing better management practices that target infection routes. In Québec, a Voluntary Paratuberculosis Prevention and Control Program (QVPPCP) was launched in 2007...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147867/population-structure-of-candida-parapsilosis-no-genetic-difference-between-french-and-urugayan-isolates-using-microsatellite-length-polymorphism
#8
Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Victoria Bórmida, Philippe Poirier, Céline Nourrisson, Dinorah Pan, Stéphane Bretagne, Andrès Puime, Françoise Dromer
Candida parapsilosis is a human commensal yeast, frequently involved in infection worldwide and especially in neonates. It is the second species responsible for bloodstream infections in Uruguay and the third species in France. We were interested in knowing whether the population structure of isolates responsible for candidemia in France and in Uruguay was different. Genotyping methods based on microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) have been described and are especially used for investigation of local outbreaks...
November 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144502/trained-macrophages-support-hygiene-hypothesis
#9
Bérengère de Laval, Michael H Sieweke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133248/evolution-of-the-hygiene-hypothesis-into-biota-alteration-theory-what-are-the-paradigms-and-where-are-the-clinical-applications
#11
Chantal Villeneuve, Henry H Kou, Henrik Eckermann, Antara Palkar, Lauren G Anderson, Erin A McKenney, R Randal Bollinger, William Parker
For thousands of years, changes in human cultures have altered the biota associated with the human body, and those alterations have strongly influenced human health. The hygiene hypothesis has evolved over the past 30 years into a nuanced biota alteration theory, but modern medical priorities and regulatory policies have resulted in tragic underutilization of the acquired knowledge.
November 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132960/influenza-derived-peptides-cross-react-with-allergens-and-provide-asthma-protection
#12
Chrysanthi Skevaki, Christoph Hudemann, Mikhail Matrosovich, Christian Möbs, Sinu Paul, Andreas Wachtendorf, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Daniel P Potaczek, Stefanie Hagner, Diethard Gemsa, Holger Garn, Alessandro Sette, Harald Renz
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis is the leading concept to explain the current asthma epidemic, which is built on the observation that a lack of bacterial contact early in life induces allergic Th2 immune responses. OBJECTIVE: Since little is known about the contribution of respiratory viruses in this context, we evaluated the effect of prior influenza-infection on the development of allergic asthma. METHODS: Mice were infected with influenza and once recovered, subjected to an ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced experimental asthma protocol...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127996/highlights-in-immune-response-microbiome-and-precision-medicine-in-allergic-disease-and-asthma
#13
EDITORIAL
Milena Sokolowska, Cezmi A Akdis
Several recent key findings in immunology of allergic diseases that have led to a need of reassessment of our current thinking are reviewed in this issue of the journal. Recently developed strong evidence on the role of hygiene hypothesis in protection from allergic disease and its immune mechanisms is reviewed by Ober et al. The authors pointed out immunologic mechanisms of lower prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization observed among Amish children living on traditional farms with higher endotoxin levels as compared to Hutterite children living on industrialized farms...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121668/seasonal-recurrence-of-cowpox-virus-outbreaks-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#14
Julia Stagegaard, Andreas Kurth, Daniel Stern, Piotr Wojciech Dabrowski, Ann Pocknell, Andreas Nitsche, Livia Schrick
Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Nine cheetahs showed varying severity of clinical disease; two of them died (22%). All episodes occurred between August and October of the respective year. No other carnivores kept at the same institution nor the keepers taking care of the animals were clinically affected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121087/the-gram-negative-sensing-receptor-pgrp-lc-contributes-to-grooming-induction-in-drosophila
#15
Aya Yanagawa, Claudine Neyen, Bruno Lemaitre, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109850/liver-cystic-echinococcosis-and-human-host-immune-and-autoimmune-follow-up-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Nikica M Grubor, Katica D Jovanova-Nesic, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an infectious disease caused by the larvae of parasite Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). To successfully establish an infection, parasite release some substances and molecules that can modulate host immune functions, stimulating a strong anti-inflammatory reaction to carry favor to host and to reserve self-survival in the host. The literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, and an open access search for immunology of hydatidosis was performed. Accumulating data from animal experiments and human studies provided us with exciting insights into the mechanisms involved that affect all parts of immunity...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068485/is-the-hygiene-hypothesis-relevant-for-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
M Wendel-Haga, E G Celius
The hygiene hypothesis, suggesting that low exposure to pathogens early in life can increase the risk for immune-mediated diseases, has been proposed as an explanation for the increase in incidence of allergy and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries during the last decades. Several aspects of the hygiene hypothesis have been related to MS. Already in 1966, the risk of MS was suggested to be higher in individuals with high hygienic standard during childhood. Further, an episode of infectious mononucleosis is an independent risk factor for MS and can be regarded as an indicator of low exposure to pathogens early in life, as infection with Epstein-Barr virus often is asymptomatic when it occurs in young children...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066232/infections-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Xiaonan Zhong, Yifan Zhou, Tingting Lu, Zhanhang Wang, Ling Fang, Lisheng Peng, Allan G Kermode, Wei Qiu
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory astrocytopathy that has both genetic and environmental causes. A growing body of evidence suggests that the presence of several infectious agents correlates with the development of NMOSD. In this review, we summarize studies that either support or present evidence against the hypothesized association between infection and NMOSD. We will also present an overview of potential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NMOSD. Finally, we provide some beneficial properties that infectious elements may have based on "hygiene hypothesis"...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065558/the-interactive-roles-of-lipopolysaccharides-and-dsrna-viruses-on-respiratory-epithelial-cells-and-dendritic-cells-in-allergic-respiratory-disorders-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#19
REVIEW
Tsang-Hsiung Lin, Hsing-Hao Su, Hong-Yo Kang, Tsung-Hsien Chang
The original hygiene hypothesis declares "more infections in early childhood protect against later atopy". According to the hygiene hypothesis, the increased incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is explained by the decrease of infections. Epithelial cells and dendritic cells play key roles in bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. Among the various pattern-recognition receptor systems of epithelial cells and dendritic cells, including toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and others, TLRs are the key systems of immune response regulation...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064315/safety-and-efficacy-of-helminth-treatment-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-results-of-the-hint-2-clinical-trial
#20
John Fleming, Gianna Hernandez, Leslie Hartman, Jane Maksimovic, Sara Nace, Benjamin Lawler, Todd Risa, Thomas Cook, Rashmi Agni, Mark Reichelderfer, Christopher Luzzio, Loren Rolak, Aaron Field, Zsuzsanna Fabry
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis suggests that microbial replacement may be therapeutic in allergic and autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, the results of helminth treatment, including in multiple sclerosis (MS), have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) during oral administration of ova from the porcine whipworm, Trichuris suis (TSO). METHODS: A total of 16 disease-modifying treatment (DMT) naive RRMS subjects were studied in a baseline versus treatment (BVT) controlled prospective study...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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