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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905917/are-distinctive-risk-indicators-associated-with-different-stages-of-caries-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Maria Grazia Cagetti, Giovanna Congiu, Fabio Cocco, Gianfranco Meloni, Silvana Sale, Guglielmo Campus
BACKGROUND: Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease's development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. METHODS: A total of 390 subjects aged 6-8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i) highest caries score; ii) most prevalent caries score; and iii) number of affected teeth...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882059/intestinal-microbiota-as-an-alternative-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Jiaying Wu, Yuyu Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Yuefeng Rao, Jing Miao, Xiaoyang Lu
Epilepsy is one of the most widespread serious neurological disorders, and an aetiological explanation has not been fully identified. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has highlighted the influential role of autoimmune mechanisms in the progression of epilepsy. The hygiene hypothesis draws people's attention to the association between gut microbes and the onset of multiple immune disorders. It is also believed that, in addition to influencing digestive system function, symbiotic microbiota can bidirectionally and reversibly impact the programming of extraintestinal pathogenic immune responses during autoimmunity...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871775/recombinant-proteins-of-helminths-with-immunoregulatory-properties-and-their-possible-therapeutic-use
#3
REVIEW
Leonardo Nascimento Santos, Luis Gustavo Carvalho Pacheco, Carina Silva Pinheiro, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves
The inverse relationship between helminth infections and the development of immune-mediated diseases is a cornerstone of the hygiene hypothesis and studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms by which helminth-derived molecules can suppress immunological disorders. These studies have fostered the idea that parasitic worms may be used as a promising therapeutic alternative for prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases. We discuss the current approaches for identification of helminth proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, including the strategies based on high-throughput technologies...
November 18, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826297/lipopolysaccharide-attenuates-induction-of-proallergic-cytokines-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-interleukin-33-in-respiratory-epithelial-cells-stimulated-with-polyi-c-and-human-parechovirus
#4
Tsang-Hsiung Lin, Chih-Chi Cheng, Hsing-Hao Su, Nan-Chieh Huang, Jih-Jung Chen, Hong-Yo Kang, Tsung-Hsien Chang
Epidemiological studies based on the "hygiene hypothesis" declare that the level of childhood exposure to environmental microbial products is inversely related to the incidence of allergic diseases in later life. Multiple types of immune cell-mediated immune regulation networks support the hygiene hypothesis. Epithelial cells are the first line of response to microbial products in the environment and bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems; however, their role in the hygiene hypothesis is unknown. To demonstrate the hygiene hypothesis in airway epithelial cells, we examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; toll-like receptor 4 ligand) on the expression of the proallergic cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and interleukin 33 (IL33) in H292 cells (pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815232/enhancing-self-efficacy-for-help-seeking-among-transition-aged-youth-in-postsecondary-settings-with-mental-health-and-or-substance-use-concerns-using-crowd-sourced-online-and-mobile-technologies-the-thought-spot-protocol
#5
David Wiljer, Alexxa Abi-Jaoude, Andrew Johnson, Genevieve Ferguson, Marcos Sanches, Andrea Levinson, Janine Robb, Olivia Heffernan, Tyson Herzog, Gloria Chaim, Kristin Cleverley, Gunther Eysenbach, Joanna Henderson, Jeffrey S Hoch, Elisa Hollenberg, Huan Jiang, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Marcus Law, Sarah Sharpe, Tim Tripp, Aristotle Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Seventy percent of lifetime cases of mental illness emerge prior to age 24. While early detection and intervention can address approximately 70% of child and youth cases of mental health concerns, the majority of youth with mental health concerns do not receive the services they need. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the protocol for optimizing and evaluating Thought Spot, a Web- and mobile-based platform cocreated with end users that is designed to improve the ability of students to access mental health and substance use services...
November 4, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793224/the-microbiome-of-the-built-environment-and-human-behavior-implications-for-emotional-health-and-well-being-in-postmodern-western-societies
#6
C E Stamper, A J Hoisington, O M Gomez, A L Halweg-Edwards, D G Smith, K L Bates, K A Kinney, T T Postolache, L A Brenner, G A W Rook, C A Lowry
It is increasingly evident that inflammation is an important determinant of cognitive function and emotional behaviors that are dysregulated in stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and affective disorders. Inflammatory responses to physical or psychological stressors are dependent on immunoregulation, which is indicated by a balanced expansion of effector T-cell populations and regulatory T cells. This balance is in part driven by microbial signals. The hygiene or "old friends" hypothesis posits that exposure to immunoregulation-inducing microorganisms is reduced in modern urban societies, leading to an epidemic of inflammatory disease and increased vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790200/staphylococcus-aureus-entrance-into-the-dairy-chain-tracking-s-aureus-from-dairy-cow-to-cheese
#7
Judith Kümmel, Beatrix Stessl, Monika Gonano, Georg Walcher, Othmar Bereuter, Martina Fricker, Tom Grunert, Martin Wagner, Monika Ehling-Schulz
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761891/superantigens-and-adhesins-of-infant-gut-commensal-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-and-association-with-subsequent-development-of-atopic-eczema
#8
F L Nowrouzian, G Lina, E Hodille, E Lindberg, B Hesselmar, R Saalman, I Adlerberth, A E Wold
According to the hygiene hypothesis, insufficient immune activation by microbes increases the risk of allergy development. Staphylococcus aureus, which is part of the skin and gut microbiota of infants in Western countries, produces a variety of T-cell-activating enterotoxins, called superantigens. We investigated whether early (0-2 months of age) gut colonisation by S. aureus strains that carry specific superantigens and adhesins was related to subsequent development of atopic eczema in a Swedish birth-cohort...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726525/randomized-intervention-trial-to-decrease-bisphenol-a-urine-concentrations-in-women-pilot-study
#9
Todd Hagobian, Allison Smouse, Mikaela Streeter, Chloe Wurst, Andrew Schaffner, Suzanne Phelan
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that women have higher concentrations of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), but an intervention to reduce BPA is lacking in women. To test the hypothesis that an intervention to reduce BPA would decrease urinary BPA concentrations over 3 weeks, 24 women (mean ± standard deviation [SD]; 22.1 ± 2.8 kg/m(2) body mass index, 20.9 ± 1.5 years) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The intervention included weekly face-to-face meetings to reduce BPA exposures from food, cosmetics, and other packaged products...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714722/plasmatic-nt-probnp-concentrations-in-patients-with-coexistent-periodontal-disease-and-congestive-heart-failure-pilot-studies
#10
Maciej R Czerniuk, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Iwona Dudzik-Niewiadomska, Tomasz Pilecki, Renata Górska
BACKGROUND: Presented pilot study was conducted in order to evaluate dynamic fluctuations of blood inflammation markers among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and coexistent periodontitis (PDis). AIM: Study hypothesis stated that elimination of chronic inflammation caused by PDis has a significant impact on inflammation markers and, secondarily, also on course and prognosis of CHF. NT-proBNP and TNF-alpha markers were assessed due to their proven diagnostic significance...
October 7, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698735/parasitic-infection-as-a-potential-therapeutic-tool-against-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Shadike Apaer, Tuerhongjiang Tuxun, Hai-Zhang Ma, Heng Zhang, Amina Aierken, Abudusalamu Aini, Yu-Peng Li, Ren-Yong Lin, Hao Wen
Parasites, which are a recently discovered yet ancient dweller in human hosts, remain a great public health burden in underdeveloped countries, despite preventative efforts. Rheumatoid arthritis is a predominantly cosmopolitan health problem with drastic morbidity rates, although encouraging progress has been achieved regarding treatment. However, although various types of methods and agents have been applied clinically, their broad usage has been limited by their adverse effects and/or high costs. Sustained efforts have been exerted on the 'hygiene hypothesis' since the 1870s...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688654/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-india-past-present-and-future
#12
REVIEW
Gautam Ray
There is rising incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in India topping the Southeast Asian (SEA) countries. The common genes implicated in disease pathogenesis in the West are not causal in Indian patients and the role of "hygiene hypothesis" is unclear. There appears to be a North-South divide with more ulcerative colitis (UC) in north and Crohn's disease (CD) in south India. IBD in second generation Indian migrants to the West takes the early onset and more severe form of the West whereas it retains the nature of its country of origin in migrants to SEA countries...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632204/the-hygiene-hypothesis-and-its-inconvenient-truths-about-helminth-infections
#13
Neima Briggs, Jill Weatherhead, K Jagannadha Sastry, Peter J Hotez
Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624890/thumb-sucking-amish-and-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613688/genomic-analysis-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-from-wild-passerines-in-england-and-wales
#15
Alison E Mather, Becki Lawson, Elizabeth de Pinna, Paul Wigley, Julian Parkhill, Nicholas R Thomson, Andrew J Page, Mark A Holmes, Gavin K Paterson
: Passerine salmonellosis is a well-recognized disease of birds in the order Passeriformes, which includes common songbirds such as finches and sparrows, caused by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Previous research has suggested that some subtypes of S Typhimurium-definitive phage types (DTs) 40, 56 variant, and 160-are host adapted to passerines and that these birds may represent a reservoir of infection for humans and other animals. Here, we have used the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from British passerines, five isolates of similar DTs from humans and a domestic cat, and previously published S Typhimurium genomes that include similar DTs from other hosts to investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of passerine salmonellae to other S Typhimurium isolates and investigate possible genetic features of the distinct disease pathogenesis of S Typhimurium in passerines...
November 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611006/antibodies-against-phosphorylcholine-among-new-guineans-compared-to-swedes-an-aspect-of-the-hygiene-missing-old-friends-hypothesis
#16
Johan Frostegård, WenJing Tao, Lennart Råstam, Ulf Lindblad, Staffan Lindeberg
BACKGROUND: We here study antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) which we reported to be inversely associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and autoimmune conditions. In previous studies, we determined that this inverse association is more pronounced at low levels with high risk and at high levels, with decreased risk. We compare individuals from Kitava, New Guinea (with low risk of these conditions), with Swedish controls. METHODS: We studied a group of 178 individuals from Kitava (age 20-86), and compared those above age 40 (n = 108) with a group of age- and sex-matched individuals from a population based cohort in Sweden (n = 108)...
September 9, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573628/human-helminths-and-allergic-disease-the-hygiene-hypothesis-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Helton C Santiago, Thomas B Nutman
There is much debate about the interaction between helminths and allergic disease. The "Hygiene Hypothesis," a very popular concept among scientists and the lay public, states that infections, especially during childhood, can protect against allergic diseases. Indeed, helminth infections are known to induce regulatory responses in the host that can help the control of inflammation (including allergic inflammation). However, these infections also induce type-2-associated immune responses including helminth-specific IgE that can cross-react against environmental allergens and mediate IgE-driven effector responses...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566465/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota
#18
Xu Hu, Tao Wang, Feng Jin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder, which associates with impaired cognition. Gut microbiota can modulate host brain function and behavior via microbiota-gut-brain axis, including cognitive behavior. Germ-free animals, antibiotics, probiotics intervention and diet can induce alterations of gut microbiota and gut physiology and also host cognitive behavior, increasing or decreasing risks of AD. The increased permeability of intestine and blood-brain barrier induced by gut microbiota disturbance will increase the incidence of neurodegeneration disorders...
October 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563682/effects-of-invariant-nkt-cells-on-parasite-infections-and-hygiene-hypothesis
#19
REVIEW
Jun-Qi Yang, Yonghua Zhou, Ram Raj Singh
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are unique subset of innate-like T cells recognizing glycolipids. iNKT cells can rapidly produce copious amounts of cytokines upon antigen stimulation and exert potent immunomodulatory activities for a wide variety of immune responses and diseases. We have revealed the regulatory effect of iNKT cells on autoimmunity with a serial of publications. On the other hand, the role of iNKT cells in parasitic infections, especially in recently attractive topic "hygiene hypothesis," has not been clearly defined yet...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548430/the-search-for-causative-environmental-factors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Gerhard Rogler, Jonas Zeitz, Luc Biedermann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group...
2016: Digestive Diseases
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