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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207081/can-we-be-too-clean-for-our-own-good-the-hygiene-hypothesis-reviewed
#1
Sheenal Patel, Rebecca Gruchalla
The hygiene hypothesis began as an attempt to explain the relatively rapid rise in atopic diseases. Strachan's early hypothesis regarding the role of family size and exposure to early childhood infections in the development of atopic diseases has clearly evolved to integrate the possible effects of hygiene, eradication of parasitic infections, immunizations, improvements in home heating and ventilation, dust mite exposure, breastfeeding duration, diet, parental smoking, pollution, and exposure to pets and farm animals...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201853/antigenic-cross-reactivity-between-schistosoma-mansoni-and-peanut-a-role-for-cross-reactive-carbohydrate-determinants-ccds-and-implications-for-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#2
Joseph E Igetei, Marwa El-Faham, Susan Liddell, Michael J Doenhoff
The antigenic reactivity of constituents of Schistosoma mansoni and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was investigated to determine whether identical antigenic epitopes possessed by both organisms provided a possible explanation for the negative correlation between chronic schistosome infection and atopy to allergens. Aqueous extracts of peanuts were probed in Western immunoblots with rabbit IgG antibodies raised against the egg, cercarial and adult worm stages of S. mansoni. Several molecules in the peanut extract were antigenically reactive with antibodies from the various rabbit anti-schistosome sera...
February 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196925/news-feature-cleaning-up-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#3
Megan Scudellari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164267/human-grooming-in-comparative-perspective-people-in-six-small-scale-societies-groom-less-but-socialize-just-as-much-as-expected-for-a-typical-primate
#4
Adrian V Jaeggi, Karen L Kramer, Raymond Hames, Evan J Kiely, Cristina Gomes, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven
OBJECTIVES: Grooming has important utilitarian and social functions in primates but little is known about grooming and its functional analogues in traditional human societies. We compare human grooming to typical primate patterns to test its hygienic and social functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were used to derive expected human grooming time given the potential associations between grooming, group size, body size, terrestriality, and several climatic variables across 69 primate species...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152013/using-spatio-temporal-surveillance-data-to-test-the-infectious-environment-of-children-before-type-1-diabetes-diagnosis
#5
Pierre Bougnères, Sophie Le Fur, Sophie Valtat, Yoichiro Kamatani, Mark Lathrop, Alain-Jacques Valleron
The "hygiene hypothesis" postulates that reduced exposure to infections favours the development of autoimmunity and childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). But on the other side, viruses, notably enteroviruses, are suspected to trigger T1D. The assessment of the possible relationships between infections and T1D still defies the classical tools of epidemiology. We report the methods and results of a geographical approach that maps the addresses of patients to a communicable diseases surveillance database. We mapped the addresses of patients at birth, infancy and T1D diagnosis to the weekly estimates of the regional incidences of 5 frequent communicable diseases routinely collected since 1984 by the French Sentinel network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028291/contaminated-milk-is-a-common-cause-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-a-hypothesis
#6
N Y Boo
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most commonly acquired gastrointestinal disease of neonates, particularly the very preterm (gestation <32 weeks) and/or very low birth weight (<1500g). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite improvement in neonatal care and increased use of expressed breast milk (EBM), the incidence remains high in many neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and even shows increasing trend in some countries. Numerous studies have pointed to the infective nature of NEC...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008837/-enteric-microflora-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#7
Oumaira Rahmouni, Laurent Dubuquoy, Pierre Desreumaux, Christel Neut
During the last years, the importance of a well equilibrated intestinal microbiota (eubiosis) has become more and more obvious in human health. Dysbiosis is now a well-recognized feature associated with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease). Rupture of the normal microbiota can occur through different mechanisms: (1) by a typical Western diet rich in fat and low in fiber, (2) by an acute disruption of the microbiota (by an acute gastroenteritis or by intake of antibiotics) or (3) by a combination of event in early childhood avoiding the establishment of eubiosis (the hygiene hypothesis)...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983971/immune-protective-effect-of-echinococcosis-on-colitis-experimental-model-is-dependent-of-down-regulation-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-no-production
#8
Lila Khelifi, Imene Soufli, Moussa Labsi, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a chronic, endemic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in many parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean area, and in particular in Algeria. Helminth parasites have developed complex strategies to modulate the immune responses of their hosts through versatile immune-regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms may regulate immune responses associated with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965884/investigating-the-differential-impact-of-school-and-community-based-integrated-control-programmes-for-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-timor-leste-the-s-wash-d-for-worms-pilot-study-protocol
#9
Naomi E Clarke, Archie C A Clements, Stuart Bryan, John McGown, Darren Gray, Susana V Nery
BACKGROUND: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions represent an important component of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection control, alongside the administration of anthelmintic drugs, which are generally targeted to school-aged children. Recent modelling studies have suggested that STH control programmes should be broadened to include all age groups across the community. We describe the protocol for a pilot study investigating the impact of school-versus-community-based delivery of integrated WASH and deworming programmes on STH infections in school-aged children in Timor-Leste...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932595/the-relationship-between-acute-malnutrition-hygiene-practices-water-and-livestock-and-their-program-implications-in-eastern-chad
#10
Anastasia Marshak, Helen Young, Elizabeth N Bontrager, Erin M Boyd
BACKGROUND: The causes of acute malnutrition are complex and time and geography variant and need to be better understood in order to both design more effective nutrition programs and evaluate them. The findings reported here are part of an evaluation of a 4-year multisectoral nutrition program led by Concern Worldwide in the Sila Region of eastern Chad. OBJECTIVE: To present evidence and learning about the relationships between acute malnutrition and potential drivers in Sila, Chad...
December 8, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931290/hygiene-factors-associated-with-childhood-food-allergy-and-asthma
#11
Ruchi S Gupta, Anne Marie Singh, Madeline Walkner, Deanna Caruso, Paul J Bryce, Xiaobin Wang, Jacqueline A Pongracic, Bridget M Smith
BACKGROUND: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternalchild factors. METHODS: Children ages 021 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925245/helminths-hygiene-hypothesis-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Erliyani Sartono, Pradana Soewondo, Taniawati Supali, Johannes W A Smit, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Worldwide, there is little overlap between the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses and immune regulatory network might modulate the obesity-induced activation of inflammatory pathways that are associated with the development of insulin resistance, a strong predictor of the development of T2D. However, other factors such as helminth-associated changes in adiposity and gut microbiome might also contribute to improved metabolic outcomes. In this review we summarize epidemiological evidence for the link between helminths and T2D and discuss the potential mechanisms, based on findings from experimental studies as well as the limited number of studies in humans...
December 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905917/are-distinctive-risk-indicators-associated-with-different-stages-of-caries-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Maria Grazia Cagetti, Giovanna Congiu, Fabio Cocco, Gianfranco Meloni, Silvana Sale, Guglielmo Campus
BACKGROUND: Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease's development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. METHODS: A total of 390 subjects aged 6-8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i) highest caries score; ii) most prevalent caries score; and iii) number of affected teeth...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882059/intestinal-microbiota-as-an-alternative-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Jiaying Wu, Yuyu Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Yuefeng Rao, Jing Miao, Xiaoyang Lu
Epilepsy is one of the most widespread serious neurological disorders, and an aetiological explanation has not been fully identified. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has highlighted the influential role of autoimmune mechanisms in the progression of epilepsy. The hygiene hypothesis draws people's attention to the association between gut microbes and the onset of multiple immune disorders. It is also believed that, in addition to influencing digestive system function, symbiotic microbiota can bidirectionally and reversibly impact the programming of extraintestinal pathogenic immune responses during autoimmunity...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871775/recombinant-proteins-of-helminths-with-immunoregulatory-properties-and-their-possible-therapeutic-use
#15
REVIEW
Leonardo Nascimento Santos, Luis Gustavo Carvalho Pacheco, Carina Silva Pinheiro, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves
The inverse relationship between helminth infections and the development of immune-mediated diseases is a cornerstone of the hygiene hypothesis and studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms by which helminth-derived molecules can suppress immunological disorders. These studies have fostered the idea that parasitic worms may be used as a promising therapeutic alternative for prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases. We discuss the current approaches for identification of helminth proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, including the strategies based on high-throughput technologies...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826297/lipopolysaccharide-attenuates-induction-of-proallergic-cytokines-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-interleukin-33-in-respiratory-epithelial-cells-stimulated-with-polyi-c-and-human-parechovirus
#16
Tsang-Hsiung Lin, Chih-Chi Cheng, Hsing-Hao Su, Nan-Chieh Huang, Jih-Jung Chen, Hong-Yo Kang, Tsung-Hsien Chang
Epidemiological studies based on the "hygiene hypothesis" declare that the level of childhood exposure to environmental microbial products is inversely related to the incidence of allergic diseases in later life. Multiple types of immune cell-mediated immune regulation networks support the hygiene hypothesis. Epithelial cells are the first line of response to microbial products in the environment and bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems; however, their role in the hygiene hypothesis is unknown. To demonstrate the hygiene hypothesis in airway epithelial cells, we examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; toll-like receptor 4 ligand) on the expression of the proallergic cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and interleukin 33 (IL33) in H292 cells (pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815232/enhancing-self-efficacy-for-help-seeking-among-transition-aged-youth-in-postsecondary-settings-with-mental-health-and-or-substance-use-concerns-using-crowd-sourced-online-and-mobile-technologies-the-thought-spot-protocol
#17
David Wiljer, Alexxa Abi-Jaoude, Andrew Johnson, Genevieve Ferguson, Marcos Sanches, Andrea Levinson, Janine Robb, Olivia Heffernan, Tyson Herzog, Gloria Chaim, Kristin Cleverley, Gunther Eysenbach, Joanna Henderson, Jeffrey S Hoch, Elisa Hollenberg, Huan Jiang, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Marcus Law, Sarah Sharpe, Tim Tripp, Aristotle Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Seventy percent of lifetime cases of mental illness emerge prior to age 24. While early detection and intervention can address approximately 70% of child and youth cases of mental health concerns, the majority of youth with mental health concerns do not receive the services they need. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the protocol for optimizing and evaluating Thought Spot, a Web- and mobile-based platform cocreated with end users that is designed to improve the ability of students to access mental health and substance use services...
November 4, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793224/the-microbiome-of-the-built-environment-and-human-behavior-implications-for-emotional-health-and-well-being-in-postmodern-western-societies
#18
C E Stamper, A J Hoisington, O M Gomez, A L Halweg-Edwards, D G Smith, K L Bates, K A Kinney, T T Postolache, L A Brenner, G A W Rook, C A Lowry
It is increasingly evident that inflammation is an important determinant of cognitive function and emotional behaviors that are dysregulated in stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and affective disorders. Inflammatory responses to physical or psychological stressors are dependent on immunoregulation, which is indicated by a balanced expansion of effector T-cell populations and regulatory T cells. This balance is in part driven by microbial signals. The hygiene or "old friends" hypothesis posits that exposure to immunoregulation-inducing microorganisms is reduced in modern urban societies, leading to an epidemic of inflammatory disease and increased vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790200/staphylococcus-aureus-entrance-into-the-dairy-chain-tracking-s-aureus-from-dairy-cow-to-cheese
#19
Judith Kümmel, Beatrix Stessl, Monika Gonano, Georg Walcher, Othmar Bereuter, Martina Fricker, Tom Grunert, Martin Wagner, Monika Ehling-Schulz
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761891/superantigens-and-adhesins-of-infant-gut-commensal-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-and-association-with-subsequent-development-of-atopic-eczema
#20
F L Nowrouzian, G Lina, E Hodille, E Lindberg, B Hesselmar, R Saalman, I Adlerberth, A E Wold
BACKGROUND: According to the hygiene hypothesis, insufficient immune activation by microbes increases the risk of allergy development. Staphylococcus aureus, which is part of the skin and gut microbiota of infants in Western countries, produces a variety of T-cell-activating enterotoxins, called superantigens. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether early (0-2 months of age) gut colonization by S. aureus strains that carry specific superantigens and adhesins was related to subsequent development of atopic eczema in a Swedish birth cohort...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
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