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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622341/hygienic-and-grooming-behaviors-in-african-and-european-honeybees-new-damage-categories-in-varroa-destructor
#1
Beatrice T Nganso, Ayuka T Fombong, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian W W Pirk, Charles Stuhl, Baldwyn Torto
Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614408/schistosoma-japonicum-infection-downregulates-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#2
Sugan Qiu, Xiaolin Fan, Yingying Yang, Panpan Dong, Wei Zhou, Yongliang Xu, Yonghua Zhou, Fukun Guo, Yi Zheng, Jun-Qi Yang
The "hygiene hypothesis" is a theory try to explain the dramatic increases in the prevalence of autoimmune and allergic diseases over the past two to three decades in developed countries. According to this theory, reduced exposure to parasites and microorganisms in childhood is the main cause for the increased incidences of both T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated autoimmunity and Th2-mediated allergy. In this study, we investigated the impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on the allergic airway inflammation induced by repeated intracheal inoculations of house dust mites (HDM), which is a Th17 and neutrophils dominant murine asthma model, mimicking severe asthma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605817/-handling-and-reprocessing-of-semicritical-medical-devices-in-the-ent-a-prospective-study
#3
Roland Hülse, Angela Wenzel, J Ulrich Sommer, Manfred Hülse, Karl Hörmann
Numerous laws, guidelines and recommendations govern the handling and reprocessing of semi-critical medical devices in the field of ENT. Although mechanically reprocessing is characterized as a preferential, manual reprocessing is still conducted in most ENT clinics and medical practices for reasons of cost and practicability. In the presented study, we developed an optimized hygienic concept for reprocessing of medical products in the field of ENT.A demand analysis of rigid endoscopes and of ENT equipment was carried out based on hypothesis that only mechanical reprocessing was performed for the entire instrumentation...
June 12, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580341/targeting-innate-immunity-to-downmodulate-adaptive-immunity-and-reverse-type-1-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Arata Itoh, William M Ridgway
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by specific destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells accompanied by evidence of beta-cell-directed autoimmunity such as autoreactive T cells and islet autoantibodies (IAAs). Currently, T1D cannot be prevented or reversed in humans. T1D is easy to prevent in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) spontaneous mouse model but reversing new-onset T1D in mice is more difficult. Since the discovery of the T-cell receptor in the 1980s and the subsequent identification of autoreactive T cells directed toward beta-cell antigens (eg, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase), the dream of antigen-specific immunotherapy has dominated the field with its promise of specificity and limited side effects...
2017: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494794/juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-in-relation-to-perinatal-and-maternal-characteristics-a-case-control-study
#5
Samantha W Bell, Susan Shenoi, J Lee Nelson, Parveen Bhatti, Beth A Mueller
BACKGROUND: Existing data on associations between maternal and early childhood exposures and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) risk is scant and inconsistent with previous studies showing potential role for prematurity, number of siblings and infections. We explored JIA and International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) JIA categories in relation to selected infant (birthweight, size-for-gestational-age, gestational age), and maternal (parity, delivery type, prior fetal loss) characteristics that may be markers for exposures related to two pathways (hygiene hypothesis, microchimerism) potentially associated with autoimmune disorder occurrence...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474475/what-happened-to-koch-s-postulates-in-diarrhoea
#6
Shamima Sultana, Shafiqul A Sarker, Harald Brüssow
In 1890, Robert Koch has formulated postulates describing what criteria a parasite has to fulfil to qualify as an aetiological agent for an infectious disease. Since then Koch's postulates have experienced reformulations by nearly every generation of microbiologists reflecting new discoveries changing the understanding of infectious diseases pathogenesis. The latest addition to this discussion is the role of the host commensal microbiota in turning infections into disease. After an overview of the historical developments of the postulates, data on diarrhoea aetiology from Bangladesh with respect to Koch's postulates were analysed...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425257/role-of-hygienic-factors-in-the-etiology-of-allergic-disorders-in-children
#7
Şule Yeşil, Ahmet Kan, Olkar Abdulmajed, Arzu Bakirtaş, Nedim Sultan, Sadık M Demirsoy
BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the role of body flora and chronic inflammatory infections in the etiology of allergic disorders in Turkish children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty pediatric asthma patients with positive skin prick tests and 40 age-matched healthy subjects with negative skin prick tests were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum H. pylori IgG, viral hepatitis serology, IL-10, and TGF-beta levels were measured. Stool and throat cultures were taken and tested for occurrence of microorganisms...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351489/dying-for-love-perimenopausal-degeneration-of-vaginal-microbiome-drives-the-chronic-inflammation-malignant-transformation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-to-prostatic-adenocarcinoma
#8
Albert Stuart Reece
Prostatic carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in males and is so common as to become almost holoendemic with advancing age. The recent demonstration that far from being benign, "benign" prostatic hypertrophy is a likely a reaction of the prostate to chronic untreated lower genital tract infection, and that this chronic inflammation is likely the usual precursor to the frequent occurrence of prostatic carcinoma has far reaching implications. The obvious source for the chronic inflammatory stimulus in the prostate is the documented dramatically altered lower female genital microbiota associated with the menopause...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350867/dissociation-between-skin-test-reactivity-and-anti-aeroallergen-ige-determinants-among-urban-brazilian-children
#9
Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Rafael V Veiga, João C M Ponte, Sérgio S da Cunha, Silvia M Simões, Álvaro A Cruz, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Sheila M Matos, Thiago Magalhães Silva, Camila A Figueiredo, Lain C Pontes-de-Carvalho, Laura C Rodrigues, Rosemeire L Fiaccone, Philip J Cooper, Maurício L Barreto
BACKGROUND: The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342137/skewed-exposure-to-environmental-antigens-complements-hygiene-hypothesis-in-explaining-the-rise-of-allergy
#10
Wilfried Allaerts, Tse Wen Chang
The Hygiene Hypothesis has been recognized as an important cornerstone to explain the sudden increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in modernized culture. The recent epidemic of allergic diseases is in contrast with the gradual implementation of Homo sapiens sapiens to the present-day forms of civilization. This civilization forms a gradual process with cumulative effects on the human immune system, which co-developed with parasitic and commensal Helminths. The clinical manifestation of this epidemic, however, became only visible in the second half of the twentieth century...
June 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333952/adjuvant-treatment-with-the-bacterial-lysate-om-85-improves-management-of-atopic-dermatitis-a-randomized-study
#11
Christine Bodemer, Gerard Guillet, Frederic Cambazard, Franck Boralevi, Stefania Ballarini, Christian Milliet, Paola Bertuccio, Carlo La Vecchia, Jean-François Bach, Yves de Prost
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors play a major role on atopic dermatitis (AD) which shows a constant rise in prevalence in western countries over the last decades. The Hygiene Hypothesis suggesting an inverse relationship between incidence of infections and the increase in atopic diseases in these countries, is one of the working hypothesis proposed to explain this trend. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the efficacy and safety of oral administration of the bacterial lysate OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®), in the treatment of established AD in children...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303762/tlr9-based-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-allergic-diseases
#12
Shokrollah Farrokhi, Narjes Abbasirad, Ali Movahed, Hossein Ali Khazaei, Masoud Pishjoo, Nima Rezaei
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors expressed on many cell types of innate immunity, recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbes. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that a reduced microbial exposure in early childhood increases the susceptibility to allergic diseases due to deviation in development of the immune system. TLRs are key roles in the right and healthy direction of adaptive immunity with the induction of T-helper 2 toward Th1 immune responses and regulatory T cells...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258270/oral-health-status-and-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-among-hospitalized-and-nonhospitalized-geriatric-patients
#13
Abdulaziz M AlBaker, Fahad F AlBaqami, Tariq M AlHarbi, Mohammad D AlAmri, Jagan K Baskaradoss
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the oral health status and its effect on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of hospitalized and nonhospitalized elderly patients in a single community. The null hypothesis for the study states that there is no difference in the oral health status and OHRQoL between hospitalized and nonhospitalized elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at the King Khalid Hospital and College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257064/a-pilot-study-into-the-association-between-oral-health-status-and-human-papillomavirus-16-infection
#14
Charles Xiaohang Sun, Nigel Bennett, Peter Tran, Kai Dun Tang, Yenkai Lim, Ian Frazer, Lakshman Samaranayake, Chamindie Punyadeera
BACKGROUND: Over the next 20 years, oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) will represent the majority of head and neck cancers (HNCs) in the United States. It is estimated that human papillomavirus (HPV) may account for as much as 70% to 80% of OPCs in North America and in certain parts of Europe. It is hence crucial to understand the disease risk factors and natural history of oral HPV infections. We hypothesized that poor oral health (by measures such as poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease) leads to a higher degree of oral HPV-16 infections within a patient cohort from a dental school clinic...
March 1, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249795/early-exposure-to-agricultural-soil-accelerates-the-maturation-of-the-early-life-pig-gut-microbiota
#15
Nguyen Vo, Tsung Cheng Tsai, Charles Maxwell, Franck Carbonero
Reduced microbial exposure in early childhood is postulated to be associated with subsequent immune deficiencies and associated health conditions. This corollary to the "hygiene hypothesis" has grown of popularity in the medical field, but can only be really tested with animal models. Based on previous observation that access to outdoor environment improves piglets' growth performance, we simulated early microbial exposure by providing pigs with topsoil during the lactation phase. Specifically, pigs from 20 litters were assigned to either control treatments (C) or soil treatments (S): pigs exposed to topsoil from day 4 postpartum to the end of lactation...
June 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239024/in-practical-training-a-questionnaire-survey-and-analysis-to-pharmacy-students-of-the-utilization-situation-of-the-course-contents-of-pharmacy-school
#16
Masato Okubo, Yuka Takahashi, Jun Yamashita, Hideyo Takahashi, Okiko Miyata, Takaaki Suzuki, Itsuko Ishii
  Pharmacy education comprises basic pharmacy (organic chemistry, biochemistry, and physical chemistry) and applied pharmacy (clinical pharmacy, pharm aceutics, and chemical hygiene). Students are expected to apply these subjects studied in pharmacy school during their practical pharmacy training. However, knowledge gained in university does not appear to be fully utilized in practice. We hypothesized that this is due to a lack of connection between pre-practical training education and actual practical training...
February 24, 2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223463/impact-of-a-respiratory-therapy-assess-and-treat-protocol-on-adult-cardiothoracic-icu-readmissions
#17
Robert T Dailey, Thomas Malinowski, Mitchel Baugher, Daniel D Rowley
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this retrospective medical record review was to report on recidivism to the ICU among adult postoperative cardiac and thoracic patients managed with a respiratory therapy assess-and-treat (RTAT) protocol. Our primary null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in all-cause unexpected readmissions and escalations between the RTAT group and the physician-ordered respiratory care group. Our secondary null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in primary respiratory-related readmissions, ICU length of stay, or hospital length of stay...
February 21, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207081/can-we-be-too-clean-for-our-own-good-the-hygiene-hypothesis-reviewed
#18
Sheenal Patel, Rebecca Gruchalla
The hygiene hypothesis began as an attempt to explain the relatively rapid rise in atopic diseases. Strachan's early hypothesis regarding the role of family size and exposure to early childhood infections in the development of atopic diseases has clearly evolved to integrate the possible effects of hygiene, eradication of parasitic infections, immunizations, improvements in home heating and ventilation, dust mite exposure, breastfeeding duration, diet, parental smoking, pollution, and exposure to pets and farm animals...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201853/antigenic-cross-reactivity-between-schistosoma-mansoni-and-peanut-a-role-for-cross-reactive-carbohydrate-determinants-ccds-and-implications-for-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#19
Joseph E Igetei, Marwa El-Faham, Susan Liddell, Michael J Doenhoff
The antigenic reactivity of constituents of Schistosoma mansoni and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was investigated to determine whether identical antigenic epitopes possessed by both organisms provided a possible explanation for the negative correlation between chronic schistosome infection and atopy to allergens. Aqueous extracts of peanuts were probed in Western immunoblots with rabbit IgG antibodies raised against the egg, cercarial and adult worm stages of S. mansoni. Several molecules in the peanut extract were antigenically reactive with antibodies from the various rabbit anti-schistosome sera...
April 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196925/news-feature-cleaning-up-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#20
Megan Scudellari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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