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hygiene hypothesis

Cristina Ardura-Garcia, Paul Garner, Philip J Cooper
Introduction: High asthma prevalence in Latin-American cities is thought to be caused by poor hygiene and infections. This contradicts the widely accepted 'hygiene hypothesis' for asthma aetiology. Methods: Systematic review of observational studies evaluating the association between poor hygiene exposures or infections and asthma/wheeze among Latin-American children aged 4-16 years. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and CINAHL electronic databases were searched following a predefined strategy to 18 December 2017...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Elisenda Alari-Pahissa, Antía Moreira, Ana Zabalza, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Elvira Munteis, Andrea Vera, Rafael Arroyo, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Luisa Maria Villar, Miguel López-Botet, Jose E Martínez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been recently associated with a lower multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, remaining controversial whether it has a protective role or is merely an epiphenomenon related to westernization and early-life viral infections. We aimed to evaluate whether CMV serostatus may differ in early MS as compared to non-early MS patients, analyzing the putative association of this virus with MS clinical course and humoral immune responses against other herpesviruses...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Edyta Krzych-Fałta, Konrad Furmańczyk, Aneta Tomaszewska, Dominik Olejniczak, Bolesław Samoliński, Urszula Samolińska-Zawisza
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis proposed by Strachan in the 1980s clearly emphasized the role of microorganisms in atopy prevention. OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to assess the preventive role of probiotics in patients with allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, and/or food allergy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The methods used in the study were the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires for 6-7- and 13-14-year-olds and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (ECRHS II) questionnaire targeted for the 20-44 age group...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
David Ferrandiz-Mont, Nur Wahyuniati, Hsin-Jen Chen, Mulyadi Mulyadi, Tjut Mariam Zanaria, Dar-Der Ji
INTRODUCTION: Exact etiology and proper treatment of eczema are still unknown. The hygiene hypothesis and epidermal barrier dysfunction hypothesis attempted to give some plausible explanations for these issues but they still remain unclear. The identification of factors, including hygiene practices, related to eczema symptoms (ES) could shed some light on these matters. Therefore, this study aimed to determine risk factors related to ES and the ES prevalence in two disparate areas in terms of urbanization in Aceh, Indonesia...
March 7, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Joseph E Igetei, Marwa El-Faham, Susan Liddell, Gabriele Schramm, Michael J Doenhoff
Previous studies have shown that schistosome infection can protect against allergic symptoms, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here we have shown that rabbit IgG antibodies raised against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SmSEA) are cross-reactive with a wide array of molecules in Timothy grass pollen (TGP) and birch tree pollen (BTP). Five of the cross-reactive pollen molecules (two from TGP and three from BTP) were selected randomly and identified by tandem mass spectrometric (TMS) analysis to be, respectively, the TGP allergens Phl p 1 and Phl p 5b, and BTP glutathione S-transferase (GST), and the BTP allergens Bet v 1 and Bet v 6...
March 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
F Aragón, M A Zea-Sevilla, J Montero, P Sancho, R Corral, C Tejedor, B Frades-Payo, V Paredes-Gallardo, A Albaladejo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to carry out an oral health assessment on a group of Alzheimer's patients and to establish a hypothesis regarding the implication of the characteristics of the disease and the treatment of oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 Alzheimer's patients, residents at the Alzheimer Center Reina Sofia Foundation (Madrid, Spain) and at the Alzheimer State Reference Center (Salamanca, Spain), and 36 controls (companions/acquaintances), were studied by oral examination and saliva sampling...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Gregg M Stave
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace...
February 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Natalie G Exum, Gwenyth O Lee, Maribel Paredes Olórtegui, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Josh Colston, Kellogg J Schwab, Benjamin J J McCormick, Margaret N Kosek
Poor child gut health, resulting from a lack of access to an improved toilet or clean water, has been proposed as a biological mechanism underlying child stunting and oral vaccine failure. Characteristics related to household sanitation, water use, and hygiene were measured among a birth cohort of 270 children from peri-urban Iquitos Peru. These children had monthly stool samples and urine samples at four time points and serum samples at (2-4) time points analyzed for biomarkers related to intestinal inflammation and permeability...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
J D Voss, M S Goodson, J C Leon
We propose the idea of "phenotype diffusion," which is a rapid convergence of an observed trait in some human and animal populations. The words phenotype and diffusion both imply observations independent of mechanism as phenotypes are observed traits with multiple possible genetic mechanisms and diffusion is an observed state of being widely distributed. Recognizing shared changes in phenotype in multiple species does not by itself reveal a particular mechanism such as a shared exposure, shared adaptive need, particular stochastic process or a transmission pathway...
February 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Henry H Kou, William Parker
A number of factors in Western society, including inflammatory diets, sedentary lifestyles, vitamin D deficiency and chronic psychological stress, are known to induce inflammation and to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. One factor that is emerging as a potential inflammation inducing factor is biota depletion, or loss of biodiversity from the ecosystem of the human body as a result of industrialization. Originally known as the "hygiene hypothesis", biota alteration theory describes the effects of biota alteration on the human immune system...
February 2, 2018: Brain Research
Alireza Bolourian, Zahra Mojtahedi
Resistance to a drug and the suppression of inflammatory disorders with immunosuppressive drugs might have happened upon exposure to natural compounds during evolution. Streptomycetes are soil bacteria, but they produce therapeutic drugs. They have been reported to be the low-abundant members of mucosal microbiomes with a higher prevalence in nonhumans ingesting soil compared to humans. Their lower abundance in the human microbiome might be the representations of our current hygienic lifestyle. We suggest that the Streptomyces bacteria producing antiproliferative/immunosuppressive compounds (e...
January 26, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Glauber Sá Brandão, Glaucia Sá Brandão Freitas Gomes, Glaudson Sá Brandão, Antônia A Callou Sampaio, Claudio F Donner, Luis V F Oliveira, Aquiles Assunção Camelier
Background: Aging causes physiological changes which affect the quality of sleep. Supervised physical exercise is an important therapeutic resource to improve the sleep of the elderlies, however there is a low adherence to those type of programs, so it is necessary to implement an exercise program which is feasible and effective. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that a semi-supervised home exercise program, improves sleep quality and daytime sleepiness of elderlies of the community who present poor sleep quality...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Ian C Roberts-Thomson
Humans and Helicobacter pylori have evolved and adapted over tens of thousands of years. Yet peptic ulcer disease appeared to be rare prior to the 19th century. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease increased between 1850 and 1900 and culminated in a cohort at high risk that was born at the end of the 19th century. This coincided with the provision of safe water and improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene. One hypothesis for the emergence of peptic ulcer disease focuses on the rate of development of atrophic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Alice Harding, Ulrike Gonder, Sarita J Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders...
December 7, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Hanna Castro, Anniina Jaakkonen, Marjaana Hakkinen, Hannu Korkeala, Miia Lindström
The molecular epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in a longitudinal study of three Finnish dairy farms during 2013 to 2016. A total of 186 bulk tank milk (BTM), 224 milk filter sock (MFS), and 1,702 barn environment samples were analyzed, and isolates of L. monocytogenes were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. L. monocytogenes occurred throughout the year in all sample types, and the prevalence in MFS increased significantly during the indoor season. L. monocytogenes was more prevalent in MFS (29%) than in BTM (13%) samples...
February 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland, Niki D J Ubags
The Western world has witnessed a tremendous increase in the occurrence of allergy and autoimmunity in the second half of the 20th century. Extensive efforts have been made to explain this phenomenon and various hypotheses have been formulated. Among them, two concepts have attracted the most attention: the "hygiene hypothesis," identifying the reduced exposure to environmental microorganisms as a driving force behind the observed epidemiological trends; and the "diet hypotheses," pointing to the importance of changes in our dietary habits...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Markus J Ege
The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" prevented allergies. Examples were endemic fecal-oral infections by viral, bacterial, or protozoic pathogens, such as hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, or Toxoplasma gondii. Later, this concept also included microorganisms beyond pathogens, such as commensals and symbionts, and the hygiene hypothesis was extended to inflammatory diseases in general. An impressive illustration of the hygiene hypothesis was found in the consistent farm effect on asthma and allergies, which has partly been attributed to immunomodulatory properties of endotoxin as emitted by livestock...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
J C Arango-Sabogal, J Paré, O Labrecque, G Côté, J P Roy, S Buczinski, V Wellemans, G Fecteau
Paratuberculosis is a chronic and contagious enteric disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This disease of worldwide distribution is responsible for significant economic losses and the bacteria itself has been linked to human Crohn's disease. Paratuberculosis control programs focus on reducing MAP transmission by implementing better management practices that target infection routes. In Québec, a Voluntary Paratuberculosis Prevention and Control Program (QVPPCP) was launched in 2007...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Victoria Bórmida, Philippe Poirier, Céline Nourrisson, Dinorah Pan, Stéphane Bretagne, Andrès Puime, Françoise Dromer
Candida parapsilosis is a human commensal yeast, frequently involved in infection worldwide and especially in neonates. It is the second species responsible for bloodstream infections in Uruguay and the third species in France. We were interested in knowing whether the population structure of isolates responsible for candidemia in France and in Uruguay was different. Genotyping methods based on microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) have been described and are especially used for investigation of local outbreaks...
November 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
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