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Gamma-hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531770/treatment-consumption-and-treatment-re-enrollment-in-ghb-dependent-patients-in-the-netherlands
#1
Martijn S van Noorden, Ton Mol, Jeroen Wisselink, Wil Kuijpers, Boukje A G Dijkstra
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess treatment consumption and re-enrollment in treatment in patients with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-dependence in Dutch Addiction Treatment Centers (ATCs) in comparison with other addictions. METHODS: A cohort-study using nationwide administrative data from regular Dutch ATCs associated with the Dutch National Alcohol and Drugs Information System (LADIS), covering an estimated 95% of ATCs. We selected in- and out-patients with alcohol, drug and/or behavioral addictions with a first treatment episode in 2008-2011 and consecutive treatments until 2013 (n=71,679)...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527983/when-a-death-apparently-associated-to-sexual-assault-is-instead-a-natural-death-due-to-idiopathic-hypereosinophilic-syndrome-the-importance-of-gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid-analysis-in-vitreous-humor
#2
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Francesca Portelli, Angelo Montana, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Emiliano Maresi
We here report a case involving a 21-year-old female, found dead in a central square of a city in the south of Italy. Initial evidences and circumstances were suggestive of a death associated with a sexual assault. Two peripheral blood and two vitreous humor samples were collected for the purpose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) testing from the dead body at two different post-mortem intervals (PMIs): approximately 2 (t0) and 36 (t1) hours. The obtained results showed that, between t0 and t1, there was an increase of GHB concentrations in peripheral blood and vitreous humor of 66...
April 11, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480587/melatonin-successfully-rescues-hippocampal-bioenergetics-and-improves-cognitive-function-following-drug-intoxication-by-promoting-nrf2-are-signaling-activity
#3
Li-You Chen, Ting-Yi Renn, Wen-Chieh Liao, Fu-Der Mai, Ying-Jui Ho, George Hsiao, Ai-Wei Lee, Hung-Ming Chang
Prolonged exposure to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) would cause drug intoxication in which impaired cognitive function results from enhanced hippocampal oxidative stress may serve as a major symptom in this deficiency. Considering melatonin possesses significant anti-oxidative efficacy, present study aims to determine whether melatonin would successfully promote the Nrf2-ARE signaling, depress oxidative stress, and rescue hippocampal bioenergetics and cognitive function following drug intoxication injury...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460656/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-an-unusual-cause-of-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis
#4
Laurence Carlier, Vincent Van Belleghem, Kathleen Croes, Frederik Hooft, Matthias Desmet, Olivier Heylen, Stijn Lambrecht, Stefaan Carlier
The causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) are well described in the literature. However, sometimes more frequent causes of HAGMA cannot explain its occurrence. In the case of HAGMA and severe neurological depression in the absence of other causes of HAGMA, clinicians should consider an intoxication with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) as a possible cause. GHB is endogenous to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Synthetic GHB was initially used as an anesthetic but is now only licensed for medical use in a limited number of indications such as the treatment of narcolepsy...
May 2, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439922/illicit-drug-use-among-new-zealand-gay-and-bisexual-men-prevalence-and-association-with-sexual-health-behaviours
#5
Peter Saxton, David Newcombe, Arslan Ahmed, Nigel Dickson, Anthony Hughes
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Data are lacking on drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand. We establish a baseline estimate of drug use and investigate associations with sexual health and HIV risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of GBM was conducted in gay community settings and online. Participants were asked their frequency of using nine drugs (poppers, cannabis, ecstasy, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, LSD, gamma hydroxybutyrate and ketamine) in the previous 6 months...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#6
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425102/fatal-overdose-of-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-acid-after-ingestion-of-1-4-butanediol
#7
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Raphael Cornez, Christophe Demarly, Gilles Tournel, Valery Hédouin
We report a case of fatal intoxication from 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which was ingested by a young and "naïve" gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) consumer during a party with the co-ingestion of alcohol, cannabis, and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine. The following drug concentrations were found using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry on autopsy samples and on a cup and a glass found at the scene: 20,350 mg/L (bottle) for 1,4-BD; 1020 mg/L (femoral blood), 3380 mg/L (cardiac blood), 47,280 mg/L (gastric content), and 570 mg/L (vitreous humor) for GHB...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300620/catabolism-of-gaba-succinic-semialdehyde-or-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-through-the-gaba-shunt-impair-mitochondrial-substrate-level-phosphorylation
#8
Dora Ravasz, Gergely Kacso, Viktoria Fodor, Kata Horvath, Vera Adam-Vizi, Christos Chinopoulos
GABA is catabolized in the mitochondrial matrix through the GABA shunt, encompassing transamination to succinic semialdehyde followed by oxidation to succinate by the concerted actions of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH), respectively. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug that could enter the citric acid cycle through transhydrogenation with α-ketoglutarate to succinic semialdehyde and d-hydroxyglutarate, a reaction catalyzed by hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT)...
March 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284776/neural-underpinnings-of-prosexual-effects-induced-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-in-healthy-male-humans
#9
Oliver G Bosch, Michael M Havranek, Andrea Baumberger, Katrin H Preller, Robin von Rotz, Marcus Herdener, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Milan Scheidegger, Tim Klucken, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs. In experiment I, subjective effects of 20 and 35mg/kg GHB vs...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249788/the-mrna-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-igf1-is-decreased-in-the-rat-frontal-cortex-following-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-administration
#10
Erika Brolin, Jenny Johansson, Sofia Zelleroth, Shanti Diwakarla, Fred Nyberg, Alfhild Grönbladh, Mathias Hallberg
In recent years, growth hormone (GH), together with its secondary mediators insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), have been highlighted for their beneficial effects in the central nervous system (CNS), in particular as cognitive enhancers. Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are known to be impaired in individuals suffering from substance abuse. In the present study, we investigated the effect of gamma-hydroxybuturate (GHB), an illicit drug used for its sedating and euphoric properties, on genes associated with the somatotrophic axis in regions of the brain important for cognitive function...
February 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213850/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-content-in-hair-samples-correlates-negatively-with-age-in-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#11
S S Johansen, X Wang, D Sejer Pedersen, P L Pearl, J-B Roullet, G R Ainslie, K R Vogel, K M Gibson
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse, an approved therapeutic for narcolepsy, an agent employed for facilitation of sexual assault, as well as a biomarker of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD). Our laboratory seeks to identify surrogate biomarkers in SSADHD that can shed light on the developmental course of this neurometabolic disease. Since GHB may be quantified in hair as a potential surrogate to identify victims of drug-related assault, we have opted to examine its level in SSADHD...
February 18, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186869/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125446/inpatient-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-detoxification-a-case-report-describing-day-to-day-therapeutic-management
#13
Louis von Theobald, Morgane Rousselet, Jennyfer Cholet, Hélène Debar, David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a synthetic drug increasingly used by consumers of psychoactive substances. The sought after psychoactive effects of GHB have resulted in an increase in recreational use in Europe. GHB is considered to have a high dependence potential, and abrupt discontinuation after long-term use can result in a severe withdrawal syndrome. Despite a large number of publications related to GHB withdrawal and detoxification, to date, no evidence-based protocol or consensual international therapeutic guidelines are available (over and above the administration of benzodiazepines)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117545/recreational-drug-use-and-chemsex-among-hiv-infected-in-patients-a-unique-screening-opportunity
#14
E R Elliot, S Singh, S Tyebally, K Gedela, M Nelson
OBJECTIVES: While a high rate of recreational drug use (RDU) has been documented among HIV-infected out-patients, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM), there is a distinct lack of data for HIV-infected in-patients. Hospital admission offers a unique opportunity to engage drug users. We aimed to establish and characterize RDU among new admissions to a large dedicated London HIV in-patient unit and compare it to RDU among general medical admissions to inform clinical pathways...
January 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111035/postmortem-concentrations-of-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-in-peripheral-blood-and-brain-tissue-differentiating-between-postmortem-formation-and-antemortem-intake
#15
Ragnar Thomsen, Brian Schou Rasmussen, Sys Stybe Johansen, Kristian Linnet
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a recreational drug, a drug of abuse, as well as an endogenous molecule in mammals. The drug has become infamous as a tool for drug-facilitated sexual assault. GHB is found in low concentrations in living humans, while at postmortem the concentration of GHB rises due to fermentation processes. The endogenous nature of GHB leads to difficulty in interpretation of concentrations, as the source of GHB is not obvious. Postmortem brain and blood samples were collected from 221 individuals at autopsy...
January 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110168/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uhplc-ms-ms-for-determination-of-ghb-precursors-and-metabolites-in-different-specimens-application-to-clinical-and-forensic-cases
#16
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Emilia Marchei, Roberta Pacifici, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Simona Pichini
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Sodium salt of GHB has been used as a medication for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal. Moreover, GHB and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are illegal recreational drugs of abuse. A procedure based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and hair for acute and chronic exposure to GHB and in seized preparations coming from black market...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098924/-hypernatremia-caused-by-treatment-with-ghb-obtained-via-a-doctor-s-prescription
#17
I M Rood, C G W Seijger, J A van Waarde, M M R de Maat, J C Verhave, M J Blans
In the last few years, gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been used increasingly as a party drug; this has led to a marked increase in the number of requests for professional help with the treatment of GHB addiction. Pharmaceutical GHB (sodium oxybate, the sodium-salt of GHB), registered for cataplexia in narcolepsy patients, is used off-label to treat the withdrawal symptoms associated with GHB addiction. Pharmaceutical GHB has a high sodium load. In this report we present the cases of two patients who developed symptomatic hypernatremia following treatment with pharmaceutical GHB and who thereafter needed intensive care for the severe withdrawal symptoms that they experienced...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068052/revision-of-import-and-export-requirements-for-controlled-substances-listed-chemicals-and-tableting-and-encapsulating-machines-including-changes-to-implement-the-international-trade-data-system-itds-revision-of-reporting-requirements-for-domestic-transactions
#18
(no author information available yet)
The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness...
December 30, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032458/recognition-of-gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid-withdrawal-rapid-progression-and-prolonged-symptomatology
#19
Rajan Kailainathan, Anselm Wong, Shaun Greene, Zeff Koutsogiannis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936427/an-observed-rise-in-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-associated-deaths-in-london-evidence-to-suggest-a-possible-link-with-concomitant-rise-in-chemsex
#20
Joanna Hockenhull, Kevin G Murphy, Sue Paterson
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is the drug most linked to acute harm out of those used in chemsex, the incidence of which is reported to be increasing. However, there have been few systematic studies of the harms associated with GHB use. We investigated GHB-associated deaths from London coroners' jurisdictions between 2011 and 2015. METHODS: Blood and urine samples were collected by pathologists and submitted for toxicological analysis at the request of coroners...
January 2017: Forensic Science International
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