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Alan D Brailsford, Christiaan Bartlett, Andrew T Kicman, David A Cowan
The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Anne Lingford-Hughes, Yash Patel, Owen Bowden-Jones, Mike J Crawford, Paul I Dargan, Fabiana Gordon, Steve Parrott, Tim Weaver, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and its pro-drugs GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are central nervous system depressants whose street names include 'G' and 'liquid ecstasy'. They are used recreationally predominately for their stimulant and pro-sexual effects or for sedation to help with sleep and/or to 'come down' after using stimulant recreational drugs. Although overall population prevalence is low (0.1 %), in some groups such as men who have sex with men, GHB/GBL use may reach 20 %...
September 27, 2016: Trials
John R Richards, M Thais Davis, Mark R Curry, John H Tsushima, Howard E McKinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Michel Maitre, Christian Klein, Ayikoe G Mensah-Nyagan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem(R)) is frequently used in humans for several clinical indications, including anesthesia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, and alcohol-withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacological effects induced in the brain by therapeutic doses of Xyrem(R) are generally GABAergic-dependent. These effects allow sedation, stress/anxiety reduction, deep sleep induction, decrease of neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, Xyrem(R) promotes the expression of pivotal genes reducing toxic proteinopathies, as demonstrated in laboratory animal models...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Nele Sadones, Elien Van Bever, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan, Luc Van Bortel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Rasmus Telving, Jørgen Bo Hasselstrøm, Mette Findal Andreasen
A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral and basic substances covered by the method were identified in postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples from forensic autopsy cases, clinical forensic cases and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases by a reverse target database search...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Rama M Kamal, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Gerdien H de Weert-van Oene, Josja A M van Duren, Cornelis A J De Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Understanding the psychiatric state and psychological distress level of patients with GHB dependence is important to develop effective detoxification and relapse management methods. Our aim is to assess the prevalence among GHB-dependent individuals of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological distress levels and their association with the individuals' pattern of misuse and quality of life. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients were tested with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-plus (MINI-plus), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Depression Anxiety Stress scale (DASS) and EuroQol-5D as a part of the Dutch GHB detoxification monitor in seven addiction treatment centers...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Carole Jamey, Pascal Kintz, Laurent Martrille, Jean-Sébastien Raul
We reported the case of 69-year-old man who was discovered dead at a friend's home. 3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) and poppers (alkyl nitrites) were found at the scene by the police. Autopsy specimens including peripheral and cardiac blood, urine, gastric content, bile and hair were sent to our laboratory to document a possible death involving abuse of drugs. Routine toxicological analysis was performed with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-MS...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Rama M Kamal, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Anton J Loonen, Cornelis A J De Jong
OBJECTIVES: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) withdrawal is a complex syndrome which can be potentially life-threatening. Additionally, GHB-dependent patients frequently report co-occurring substance use of other psychoactive drugs. We assessed the add-on effect of co-use on GHB withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, pretest-posttest design study with 95 patients selected from 229 inpatients admitted for detoxification, who were divided into GHB only (GO, n = 40), GHB plus sedatives (GSE, n = 38), and GHB plus stimulants (GST, n = 17) groups...
July 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Dag Jacobsen, Øivind Ekeberg, Mette Brekke
BACKGROUND: Procedures for the clinical assessment of acute poisoning by substances of abuse should identify patients in need of hospital admission and avoid hazardous discharges, while keeping the observation time short. We assess the safety of a systematic procedure developed at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC). METHODS: All patients 12 years and older treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the OAEOC were included consecutively from October 2011 to September 2012...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
C Michael White
γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a common drug of abuse and poses important health risks to users in the form of respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, or traumatic adverse events. GHB has non-dose-proportional effects and pharmacologic effects such as sedation and retrograde amnesia, which can incapacitate people targeted for assault. It has Krebs cycle metabolism, rapid clearance, relative hydrophilicity, and unique drug interactions. Promptly seeking medical attention during intentional or inadvertent overdose is critical to survival, as is prompt supportive care once medical personnel are alerted...
May 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Martin Hoenigl, Antoine Chaillon, Sheldon R Morris, Susan J Little
Approximately 80% of new HIV infections in the United States occur in men. Four out of five men diagnosed with HIV infection are men who have sex with men (MSM), with an increasing proportion of young MSM (i.e. ≤24 years of age). We performed a retrospective analysis 11,873 cisgender men participating in a community based HIV screening program in San Diego between 2008 and 2014 to characterize the HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors among young men. In young heterosexual men HIV prevalence was lower compared to heterosexual men between 25 and 49 years of age (0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tomoyuki Akiyama, Hitoshi Osaka, Hiroko Shimbo, Tomiko Kuhara, Takashi Shibata, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Kenji Kurosawa, Harumi Yoshinaga
BACKGROUND: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the degradation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and leads to the accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in body fluids. Diagnosis of SSADH deficiency is challenging, since the neurological symptoms are non-specific. CASE: The patient is a nine-year-old Japanese boy who presented with developmental delay, autism, epilepsy, and episodic gait disturbance...
October 2016: Brain & Development
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Victoria Elizabeth de Knegt, Torben Breindahl, Kirstine Moll Harboe, Gitte Leth Møller, Malene Landbo Børresen
GHB intoxication must be considered in children with coma and a suspicion of drug intoxication. Furthermore, mixed intoxication with several substances and the possibility of unpredictable symptom profiles should be anticipated to ensure optimal symptomatic treatment of patients.
March 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Rama M Kamal, Martijn S van Noorden, Ernst Franzek, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Anton J M Loonen, Cornelius A J De Jong
OBJECTIVE: x03B3;-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has gained popularity as a drug of abuse. In the Netherlands the number of patients in treatment for GHB dependence has increased sharply. Clinical presentation of GHB withdrawal can be life threatening. We aim, through this overview, to explore the neurobiological pathways causing GHB dependency and withdrawal, and their implications for treatment choices. METHODS: In this work we review the literature discussing the findings from animal models to clinical studies focused on the neurobiological pathways of endogenous but mainly exogenous GHB...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Fabio Caputo, Teo Vignoli, Claudia Tarli, Marco Domenicali, Giorgio Zoli, Mauro Bernardi, Giovanni Addolorato
The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) with sodium oxybate (SMO) or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder...
March 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Timothy E Albertson, James A Chenoweth, Daniel K Colby, Mark E Sutter
Awareness of the prevalence of the use of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) is increasing. Users range from professional athletes and bodybuilders to amateurs and adolescents. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are the most widely used APEDs, typically for purposes of building muscle mass, in forms that include pills, injections, topical preparations, and transdermal systems. AASs are often used in combination with augmenting drugs taken to enhance androgen production and, for men, to decrease estrogen production...
February 2016: FP Essentials
Oliver G Bosch, Erich Seifritz
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, and a medical treatment for narcolepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are endogenously converted to GHB and thereby exert their psychobehavioural effects. In humans, GHB has a wide spectrum of properties ranging from stimulation and euphoria in lower doses, to sedation, deep sleep, and coma after ingestion of high doses. However, behavioural studies in healthy volunteers remain scarce and are usually limited to psychomotor performance testing...
February 11, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Toby Lea, Limin Mao, Max Hopwood, Garrett Prestage, Iryna Zablotska, John de Wit, Martin Holt
BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men typically report high rates of illicit drug use, including methamphetamine use. This paper aimed to analyse trends in crystal methamphetamine ('crystal') and powder methamphetamine ('speed') use among gay and bisexual men in Australia, and characterise the sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual risk practices of men who reported crystal use. METHODS: The Gay Community Periodic Surveys, routinely conducted behavioural surveillance surveys of gay men in Australia, were analysed to examine trends in recent crystal and speed use during 2005-14 (any use in the previous 6 months), and trends in regular crystal and speed use during 2007-14 (at least monthly use in the previous 6 months)...
March 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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