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Gamma-hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891231/a-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-and-metabolite-identification-of-the-ghb-receptor-antagonist-ncs-382-in-mouse-informs-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-ghb-intoxication
#1
Garrett R Ainslie, K Michael Gibson, Kara R Vogel
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzo-cyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid), a known GHB receptor antagonist, has shown significant efficacy in a murine model of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), a heritable neurological disorder featuring chronic elevation of GHB that blocks the final step of GABA degradation. NCS-382 exposures and elimination pathways remain unknown; therefore, the goal of the present work was to obtain in vivo pharmacokinetic data in a murine model and to identify the NCS-382 metabolites formed by mouse and human...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855594/when-chems-meet-sex-a-rising-phenomenon-called-chemsex
#2
Raffaele Giorgetti, Adriano Tagliabracci, Fabrizio Schifano, Simona Zaami, Enrico Marinelli, Francesco Paolo Busardò
BACKGROUND: The term "chemsex" was coined to indicate the voluntary intake of psychoactive and non psychoactive drugs in the context of recreational settings to facilitate and/or to enhance sexual intercourses mostly among men who have sex with other men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to review the mechanisms of action, the toxicity and the pattern of use and abuse of substances involved in "chemsex" practice together with the sociocultural background underlying it and the health-related consequences that they may have...
November 17, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815844/incidence-and-geographic-distribution-of-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-ssadh-deficiency
#3
Savita Verma Attri, Pratibha Singhi, Natrujee Wiwattanadittakul, Jyotindra N Goswami, Naveen Sankhyan, Gajja S Salomons, Jean-Baptiste Roullett, Ryan Hodgeman, Mahsa Parviz, K Michael Gibson, Phillip L Pearl
The incidence of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of GABA degradation, is unknown. Upon a recent diagnosis of a new family of affected fraternal twins from the Punjabi ethnic group of India, case ascertainment from the literature and our database was done to determine the number of confirmed cases along with their geographic distribution. The probands presented with global developmental delay, infantile onset epilepsy, and a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder upon diagnosis at 10 years of age with intellectual disability, expressive aphasia, and behavioral problems most prominent for hyperactivity...
November 5, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807735/-treatment-of-fibromyalgia-syndrome-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-a%C3%A2-randomized-controlled-study
#4
E Reuter, S Tafelski, K Thieme, C West, U Haase, L Beck, M Schäfer, C Spies
BACKGROUND: The etiology of fibromyalgia syndrome is not yet fully understood. Current hypotheses suggest a potential role of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in influencing endocrinological abnormalities in patients with fibromyalgia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether low dose GHB as a growth-hormone releasing substance reduces pain intensity and improves depressive mood, physical impairment and sleep quality in outpatients with fibromyalgia...
November 2, 2016: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744373/increases-in-serum-growth-hormone-concentrations-associated-with-ghb-administration
#5
Alan D Brailsford, Christiaan Bartlett, Andrew T Kicman, David A Cowan
The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677382/improving-ghb-withdrawal-with-baclofen-study-protocol-for-a-feasibility-study-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Anne Lingford-Hughes, Yash Patel, Owen Bowden-Jones, Mike J Crawford, Paul I Dargan, Fabiana Gordon, Steve Parrott, Tim Weaver, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and its pro-drugs GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are central nervous system depressants whose street names include 'G' and 'liquid ecstasy'. They are used recreationally predominately for their stimulant and pro-sexual effects or for sedation to help with sleep and/or to 'come down' after using stimulant recreational drugs. Although overall population prevalence is low (0.1 %), in some groups such as men who have sex with men, GHB/GBL use may reach 20 %...
September 27, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641247/doxapram-reversal-of-suspected-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-induced-coma
#7
John R Richards, M Thais Davis, Mark R Curry, John H Tsushima, Howard E McKinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601032/a-proposed-preventive-role-for-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-xyrem-r-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Michel Maitre, Christian Klein, Ayikoe G Mensah-Nyagan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem(R)) is frequently used in humans for several clinical indications, including anesthesia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, and alcohol-withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacological effects induced in the brain by therapeutic doses of Xyrem(R) are generally GABAergic-dependent. These effects allow sedation, stress/anxiety reduction, deep sleep induction, decrease of neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, Xyrem(R) promotes the expression of pivotal genes reducing toxic proteinopathies, as demonstrated in laboratory animal models...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578413/microwave-assisted-on-spot-derivatization-for-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-determination-of-polar-low-molecular-weight-compounds-in-dried-blood-spots
#9
Nele Sadones, Elien Van Bever, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan, Luc Van Bortel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458995/targeted-toxicological-screening-for-acidic-neutral-and-basic-substances-in-postmortem-and-antemortem-whole-blood-using-simple-protein-precipitation-and-uplc-hr-tof-ms
#10
Rasmus Telving, Jørgen Bo Hasselstrøm, Mette Findal Andreasen
A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral and basic substances covered by the method were identified in postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples from forensic autopsy cases, clinical forensic cases and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases by a reverse target database search...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449738/psychiatric-comorbidity-psychological-distress-and-quality-of-life-in-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-dependent-patients
#11
Rama M Kamal, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Gerdien H de Weert-van Oene, Josja A M van Duren, Cornelis A J De Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Understanding the psychiatric state and psychological distress level of patients with GHB dependence is important to develop effective detoxification and relapse management methods. Our aim is to assess the prevalence among GHB-dependent individuals of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological distress levels and their association with the individuals' pattern of misuse and quality of life. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients were tested with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-plus (MINI-plus), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Depression Anxiety Stress scale (DASS) and EuroQol-5D as a part of the Dutch GHB detoxification monitor in seven addiction treatment centers...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405362/fatal-combination-with-3-methylmethcathinone-3-mmc-and-gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid-ghb
#12
Carole Jamey, Pascal Kintz, Laurent Martrille, Jean-Sébastien Raul
We reported the case of 69-year-old man who was discovered dead at a friend's home. 3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) and poppers (alkyl nitrites) were found at the scene by the police. Autopsy specimens including peripheral and cardiac blood, urine, gastric content, bile and hair were sent to our laboratory to document a possible death involving abuse of drugs. Routine toxicological analysis was performed with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-MS...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310146/the-effect-of-co-occurring-substance-use-on-gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid-withdrawal-syndrome
#13
Rama M Kamal, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Anton J Loonen, Cornelis A J De Jong
OBJECTIVES: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) withdrawal is a complex syndrome which can be potentially life-threatening. Additionally, GHB-dependent patients frequently report co-occurring substance use of other psychoactive drugs. We assessed the add-on effect of co-use on GHB withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, pretest-posttest design study with 95 patients selected from 229 inpatients admitted for detoxification, who were divided into GHB only (GO, n = 40), GHB plus sedatives (GSE, n = 38), and GHB plus stimulants (GST, n = 17) groups...
July 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206472/outpatient-treatment-of-acute-poisoning-by-substances-of-abuse-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#14
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Dag Jacobsen, Øivind Ekeberg, Mette Brekke
BACKGROUND: Procedures for the clinical assessment of acute poisoning by substances of abuse should identify patients in need of hospital admission and avoid hazardous discharges, while keeping the observation time short. We assess the safety of a systematic procedure developed at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC). METHODS: All patients 12 years and older treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the OAEOC were included consecutively from October 2011 to September 2012...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198055/pharmacologic-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-assessment-of-illicitly-used-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate
#15
C Michael White
γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a common drug of abuse and poses important health risks to users in the form of respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, or traumatic adverse events. GHB has non-dose-proportional effects and pharmacologic effects such as sedation and retrograde amnesia, which can incapacitate people targeted for assault. It has Krebs cycle metabolism, rapid clearance, relative hydrophilicity, and unique drug interactions. Promptly seeking medical attention during intentional or inadvertent overdose is critical to survival, as is prompt supportive care once medical personnel are alerted...
May 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181715/hiv-infection-rates-and-risk-behavior-among-young-men-undergoing-community-based-testing-in-san-diego
#16
Martin Hoenigl, Antoine Chaillon, Sheldon R Morris, Susan J Little
Approximately 80% of new HIV infections in the United States occur in men. Four out of five men diagnosed with HIV infection are men who have sex with men (MSM), with an increasing proportion of young MSM (i.e. ≤24 years of age). We performed a retrospective analysis 11,873 cisgender men participating in a community based HIV screening program in San Diego between 2008 and 2014 to characterize the HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors among young men. In young heterosexual men HIV prevalence was lower compared to heterosexual men between 25 and 49 years of age (0...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056292/ssadh-deficiency-possibly-associated-with-enzyme-activity-reducing-snps
#17
Tomoyuki Akiyama, Hitoshi Osaka, Hiroko Shimbo, Tomiko Kuhara, Takashi Shibata, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Kenji Kurosawa, Harumi Yoshinaga
BACKGROUND: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the degradation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and leads to the accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in body fluids. Diagnosis of SSADH deficiency is challenging, since the neurological symptoms are non-specific. CASE: The patient is a nine-year-old Japanese boy who presented with developmental delay, autism, epilepsy, and episodic gait disturbance...
October 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051624/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-and-keratinocytes-proliferation-correspondence-to-int-j-crit-illn-inj-sci-2014-2-108-13
#18
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014439/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-and-cocaine-intoxication-in-a-danish-child
#19
Victoria Elizabeth de Knegt, Torben Breindahl, Kirstine Moll Harboe, Gitte Leth Møller, Malene Landbo Børresen
GHB intoxication must be considered in children with coma and a suspicion of drug intoxication. Furthermore, mixed intoxication with several substances and the possibility of unpredictable symptom profiles should be anticipated to ensure optimal symptomatic treatment of patients.
March 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003176/the-neurobiological-mechanisms-of-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependence-and-withdrawal-and-their-clinical-relevance-a-review
#20
Rama M Kamal, Martijn S van Noorden, Ernst Franzek, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Anton J M Loonen, Cornelius A J De Jong
OBJECTIVE: x03B3;-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has gained popularity as a drug of abuse. In the Netherlands the number of patients in treatment for GHB dependence has increased sharply. Clinical presentation of GHB withdrawal can be life threatening. We aim, through this overview, to explore the neurobiological pathways causing GHB dependency and withdrawal, and their implications for treatment choices. METHODS: In this work we review the literature discussing the findings from animal models to clinical studies focused on the neurobiological pathways of endogenous but mainly exogenous GHB...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
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