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Diabetes type two children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620620/ngal-as-an-early-predictive-marker-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-children-and-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Jeanette Wahlberg
AIMS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often associated with early microvascular complications. Previous studies demonstrated that increased systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial blood pressures (DAP) are linked to microvascular morbidity in T1D. The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in unravelling early cardio-renal dysfunction in T1D. METHODS: Two T1D patient groups participating in two-centre prospective cohorts were studied...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615013/short-term-poor-glycemic-control-and-retinal-microvascular-changes-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes-patients-in-singapore-a-pilot-study
#2
Ling-Jun Li, Ecosse Lamoureux, Tien Yin Wong, Ngee Lek
BACKGROUND: Poor glycemic control in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients is strongly associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related microvascular complications later in life, but it is unclear whether short period of poor glycemic control in children with T1D can cause evident microvascular morphological changes long before any pathological manifestation. Our study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between poor glycemic control and subsequent changes in retinal microvasculature, in a pilot study of 55 pediatric T1D patients from Singapore after a one-year follow-up...
June 15, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605603/efficacy-and-safety-of-degludec-versus-glargine-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Steven P Marso, Darren K McGuire, Bernard Zinman, Neil R Poulter, Scott S Emerson, Thomas R Pieber, Richard E Pratley, Poul-Martin Haahr, Martin Lange, Kirstine Brown-Frandsen, Alan Moses, Simon Skibsted, Kajsa Kvist, John B Buse
Background Degludec is an ultralong-acting, once-daily basal insulin that is approved for use in adults, adolescents, and children with diabetes. Previous open-label studies have shown lower day-to-day variability in the glucose-lowering effect and lower rates of hypoglycemia among patients who received degludec than among those who received basal insulin glargine. However, data are lacking on the cardiovascular safety of degludec. Methods We randomly assigned 7637 patients with type 2 diabetes to receive either insulin degludec (3818 patients) or insulin glargine U100 (3819 patients) once daily between dinner and bedtime in a double-blind, treat-to-target, event-driven cardiovascular outcomes trial...
June 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598991/change-in-potato-consumption-among-norwegian-women-1998-2005-the-norwegian-women-and-cancer-study-nowac
#4
Ambrose Ojodale Attah, Tonje Braaten, Guri Skeie
Studies have shown that potato consumption in Norway have been on the decline in recent years. Increase in income and the association of potato consumption with weight gain and chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes have been identified as some of the factors responsible for the change. The aim of this study was to describe the change in potato consumption within persons and how non-dietary variables influenced that change among participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). A prospective analysis was performed in the NOWAC cohort using linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553591/impact-of-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-log-reliability-on-long-term-glycemic-outcomes-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#5
Chitra Selvan, Anubhav Thukral, Deep Dutta, Sujoy Ghosh, Subhankar Chowdhury
INTRODUCTION: Logbooks of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are useful in the modulation of insulin regimens, which aid in achieving glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, discrepancies in SMBG charting may impede its utility. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of log entries and its impact on long-term glycemic control. METHODS: SMBG in logbooks was compared with readings in glucometer memory and discrepancies between the two were evaluated in 101 children with T1DM...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545398/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-and-early-reduced-diastolic-heart-function
#6
Leif Brunvand, Martin Heier, Cathrine Brunborg, Kristian F Hanssen, Drude Fugelseth, Knut Haakon Stensaeth, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Hanna Dis Margeirsdottir
BACKGROUND: Reduced diastolic function is an early sign of diabetes cardiomyopathy in adults and is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between early reduced diastolic function and elevated levels of HbA1c and AGEs in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: One hundred fourty six T1D patients (age 8-18 years) without known diabetic complications were examined with tissue Doppler imaging and stratified into two groups according to diastolic function...
May 25, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537046/urinary-incontinence-of-women-in-a-nationwide-study-in-sri-lanka-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#7
Ramya Pathiraja, Shamini Prathapan, Sampatha Goonawardena
PURPOSE: Urinary incontinence, be stress incontinence or urge incontinence or a mixed type incontinence affects women of all ages. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was performed in Sri Lanka. The age group of the women in Sri Lanka was categorized into 3 age groups: Less than or equal to 35 years, 36 to 50 years of age and more than or equal to 51 years of age...
May 23, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533136/effect-of-artificial-pancreas-systems-on-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-outpatient-randomised-controlled-trials
#8
Alanna Weisman, Johnny-Wei Bai, Marina Cardinez, Caroline K Kramer, Bruce A Perkins
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems have been in development for several years, including assessment in numerous varied outpatient clinical trials. We aimed to summarise the efficacy and safety of artificial pancreas systems in outpatient settings and explore the clinical and technical factors that can affect their performance. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing artificial pancreas systems (insulin only or insulin plus glucagon) with conventional pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] with blinded continuous glucose monitoring [CGM] or unblinded sensor-augmented pump [SAP] therapy) in adults and children with type 1 diabetes...
May 19, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533125/markers-of-immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-brains-of-young-adults-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-a-difference
#9
William H Hoffman, Carol M Artlett, Dallas Boodhoo, Mary G F Gilliland, Luis Ortiz, Dries Mulder, David H T Tjan, Alvaro Martin, Alexandru Tatomir, Horea Rus
Due to the limited data on diabetic ketoacidosis and brain edema (DKA/BE) in children/adolescents and the lack of recent data on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we addressed the question of whether neuroinflammation was present in the fatal DKA of adults. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies on the brains of two young adults with T1D and fatal DKA and compared them with two teenagers with poorly controlled diabetes and fatal DKA. C5b-9, the membrane attack complex (MAC) had significantly greater deposits in the grey and white matter of the teenagers than the young adults (p=0...
May 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528120/objective-evaluation-of-corneal-and-lens-clarity-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Kemal Tekin, Merve Inanc, Erdal Kurnaz, Elvan Bayramoglu, Emre Aydemir, Mustafa Koc, Zehra Aycan
PURPOSE: To investigate whether abnormal glucose metabolism and duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) affected the corneal and lens clarity in children with well-controlled type 1 DM and to compare the results obtained with those in healthy children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prospective study. METHODS: This multicenter study enrolled 56 patients with DM and 51 control subjects. The duration of DM and the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of the patients in the DM group were recorded...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525638/glucokinase-gene-may-be-a-more-suitable-target-than-the-insulin-gene-for-detection-of-beta-cell-death
#11
J Sklenarova, L Petruzelkova, S Kolouskova, J Lebl, Z Sumnik, O Cinek
Detection and quantification of unmethylated circulating insulin (INS) DNA presumably released from beta cells has been previously used for assessing their destruction. As the targets within the INS gene suffer from suboptimal specificity, we sought to improve the assay parameters by using the glucokinase gene (GCK) tissue-specific pancreatic promoter.The amount of methylated and unmethylated GCK DNA was measured using a droplet PCR assay, and compared with the previously published INS-targeted assay. The method was tested using synthetic target sequences and DNA from pancreatic islets, blood, brain, kidney, large intestine, liver, lung, small intestine and stomach...
May 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508609/oral-health-in-children-with-obesity-or-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Fima Lifshitz, Patricia Lucia Casavalle, Noemí Bordoni, Patricia Noemi Rodriguez, Silvia Maria Friedman
Oral health status must be considered in the care of children with obesity (OB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The health of these patients' mouths may have significant effects on their overall health and evolution of their disease. Here we address periodontal disease (PD) and dental caries (DC), since these are two of the most common chronic diseases affecting OB and DM patients. OB plays a plausible role in the development of PD. Both overall OB and central adiposity are associated with increased hazards of gingivitis and its progression to PD...
December 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487451/infant-feeding-and-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-in-two-large-scandinavian-birth-cohorts
#13
Nicolai A Lund-Blix, Stine Dydensborg Sander, Ketil Størdal, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Kjersti S Rønningen, Geir Joner, Torild Skrivarhaug, Pål R Njølstad, Steffen Husby, Lars C Stene
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relation between the duration of full and any breastfeeding and risk of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included two population-based cohorts of children followed from birth (1996-2009) to 2014 (Denmark) or 2015 (Norway). We analyzed data from a total of 155,392 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Parents reported infant dietary practices when their child was 6 and 18 months old...
May 9, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481337/inadequate-sleep-as-a-contributor-to-type-2-diabetes-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
REVIEW
C Dutil, J-P Chaput
Lack of sleep is a modifiable risk factor for adverse health in humans. Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common in the pediatric population; the largest decline in sleep duration over the past decades has been seen in children and adolescents. The objective of the present narrative review was to provide for the first time an overview of the literature on sleep and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) biomarkers in children and adolescents. For this narrative review, 23 studies were retained (21 observational and 2 experimental studies)...
May 8, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472859/lifestyle-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Nisreen A Alwan, Jane West, Stephen Brown, Christopher Jd McKinlay, Diane Farrar, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is glucose intolerance, first recognised in pregnancy and usually resolving after birth. GDM is associated with both short- and long-term adverse effects for the mother and her infant. Lifestyle interventions are the primary therapeutic strategy for many women with GDM. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of combined lifestyle interventions with or without pharmacotherapy in treating women with gestational diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 May 2016), ClinicalTrials...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457031/prepubertal-childhood-onset-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-four-case-reports
#16
Anandakumar Amutha, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, but prepubertal T2D is still unusual. METHODS: We report four cases of T2D with onset at or below 10 years of age registered at a tertiary diabetes centre in southern India.T2D was diagnosed based on the absence of ketosis, good beta cell reserve as shown by the C peptide assay, absence of GAD antibodies and pancreatic calculi, and response to oral hypoglycemic agents. RESULTS: All four patients were female, obese and had acanthosis nigricans...
February 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436599/metformin-as-targeted-treatment-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#17
Angel Belle C Dy, Flora Tassone, Marwa Eldeeb, María J Salcedo-Arellano, Nicole Tartaglia, Randi Hagerman
Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) may be affected by several comorbid conditions, both behavioral and medical. Growth findings suggest that they are at an increased risk for obesity and overeating. The Prader-Willi phenotype (PWP) of FXS occurs in less than 10% of patients but it is associated with severe hyperphagia, lack of satiation and morbid obesity. Metformin is a drug used in individuals with high risk for diabetes type 2, obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. It has had a strong safety profile in children and adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429491/dorothy-hodgkin-lecture-2017-bringing-the-human-pancreas-into-focus-new-paradigms-for-the-understanding-of-type-1-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
N G Morgan
Type 1 diabetes affects increasingly large numbers of people globally (including at least half a million children under the age of 14 years) and it remains an illness with life-long and often devastating consequences. It is surprising, therefore, that the underlying aetiology of Type 1 diabetes remains poorly understood. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes leading to the loss of β cells in the pancreas have rarely been studied at, or soon after, the onset of disease. Where such studies have been undertaken, a number of surprises have emerged which serve to challenge conventional wisdom...
April 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426239/performance-of-an-artificial-pancreas-system-for-young-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Mark D DeBoer, Marc D Breton, Christian Wakeman, Elaine M Schertz, Emma G Emory, Jessica L Robic, Laura L Kollar, Boris P Kovatchev, Daniel R Cherñavvsky
BACKGROUND: Young children 5-8 years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) exhibit clear needs for improved glycemic control but may be limited in their ability to safely interact with an artificial pancreas system. Our goal was to evaluate the safety and performance of an artificial pancreas (AP) system among young children with T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomized, crossover trial, children with T1D age 5-8 years were enrolled to receive on separate study periods (in random order) either the UVa AP using the DiAs Control Platform software with child-resistant lock-out screens (followed as an out-patient admission) or their usual insulin pump+continuous glucose monitor (CGM) care at home...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383115/clinical-clues-for-autoimmunity-and-neuroinflammation-in-patients-with-autistic-regression
#20
Ori Scott, Diya Shi, Diana Andriashek, Brenda Clark, Helly R Goez
AIM: Autistic regression is a unique variant within the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with recent reports raising the possibility of immune aetiology. This study explores clinical clues for an association between autistic regression and autoimmunity. METHOD: Single-centre charts of children diagnosed with ASD in 2014 were reviewed. We compared the rates of: (1) familial autoimmunity in first-degree and second-degree relatives; (2) febrile illness preceding initial parental concern, as a potential precipitant of immune activation; and (3) possible non-immune precipitants such as pregnancy and postnatal complications...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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