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Neuro trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125266/decision-making-in-very-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-glasgow-coma-scale-3-5-a-literature-review-of-acute-neurosurgical-management-of-the-most-severely-threatened-brain-trauma-patients
#1
Jeroen van Dijck, Florence Reith, Inge van Erp, Thomas van Essen, Andrew Maas, Wilco C Peul, Godard de Ruiter
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with an early GCS score of 3-5 after blunt or penetrating skull-brain assaults are categorized as having sustained a very severe Traumatic Brain Injury (vs-TBI). This category is often overlooked in literature. Impact on patients and families lives however is huge and the question "whether to surgically treat or not" frequently poses a dilemma to treating physicians. Little is known about mortality and outcome, compared to what is known for the group of severe TBI patients (s-TBI) (GCS 3- 8)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098418/bilateral-carotid-cavernous-sinus-fistula-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Gavin Docherty, Maryam Eslami, Kailun Jiang, Jason S Barton
Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal vascular shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. They are commonly classified based on hemodynamics, etiology or anatomically. Hemodynamic classification refers to whether the fistula is high or low flow. Etiology is commonly secondary to trauma or can occur spontaneously in the setting of aneurysm or medical conditions predisposing to arterial wall defects. Bilateral carotid cavernous fistulas are rare. We present a case of bilateral CCF secondary to trauma...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095850/lesions-in-deep-gray-nuclei-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-predict-neurologic-outcome
#3
Frédéric Clarençon, Éric Bardinet, Jacques Martinerie, Vincent Pelbarg, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, Rajiv Gupta, Eléonore Tollard, Gustavo Soto-Ares, Danielle Ibarrola, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Thomas Tourdias, Vincent Degos, Jérome Yelnik, Didier Dormont, Louis Puybasset, Damien Galanaud
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the correlation between injuries to deep gray matter nuclei, as quantitated by lesions in these nuclei on MR T2 Fast Spin Echo (T2 FSE) images, with 6-month neurological outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five patients (80 males, mean age = 36.7y) with severe TBI were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent a MR scan within the 45 days after the trauma that included a T2 FSE acquisition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063484/micrornas-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Clara Snijders, Laurence de Nijs, Dewleen G Baker, Richard L Hauger, Daniel van den Hove, Gunter Kenis, Caroline M Nievergelt, Marco P Boks, Eric Vermetten, Fred H Gage, Bart P F Rutten
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to or witnessing of a (potentially) threatening event. A critical issue is to pinpoint the (neuro)biological mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to stress-related disorder such as PTSD, which develops in the minority of ~15% of individuals exposed to trauma. Over the last few years, a first wave of epigenetic studies has been performed in an attempt to identify the molecular underpinnings of the long-lasting behavioral and mental effects of trauma exposure...
October 21, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039808/a-diagnosis-of-denial-how-mental-health-classification-systems-have-struggled-to-recognise-family-violence-as-a-serious-risk-factor-in-the-development-of-mental-health-issues-for-infants-children-adolescents-and-adults
#5
Wendy Bunston, Candice Franich-Ray, Sara Tatlow
Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood...
October 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988973/comparative-connectomics-mapping-the-inter-individual-variability-of-connections-within-the-regions-of-the-human-brain
#6
Csaba Kerepesi, Balázs Szalkai, Bálint Varga, Vince Grolmusz
The human braingraph, or connectome is a description of the connections of the brain: the nodes of the graph correspond to small areas of the gray matter, and two nodes are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow finds fibers between those brain areas. We have constructed 1015-vertex graphs from the diffusion MRI brain images of 392 human subjects and compared the individual graphs with respect to several different areas of the brain. The inter-individual variability of the graphs within different brain regions was discovered and described...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988342/spectrum-of-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury-relationship-between-functional-impairment-and-health-related-quality-of-life
#7
Anastasia Tsyben, Mathew Guilfoyle, Ivan Timofeev, Fahim Anwar, Judith Allanson, Joanne Outtrim, David Menon, Peter Hutchinson, Adel Helmy
BACKGROUND: The outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is heterogeneous and poorly defined and physical disability scales like the extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOSE) while providing valuation information in terms of broad categorisation of outcome are unlikely to capture the full spectrum of deficits. Quality of life questionnaires such as SF-36 are emerging as potential tools to help characterise factors important to patients' recovery. This study assessed the association between physical disability and subjective health rating...
October 7, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969714/pathogenesis-and-potential-relative-risk-factors-of-diabetic-neuropathic-osteoarthropathy
#8
REVIEW
Hong-Mou Zhao, Jia-Yu Diao, Xiao-Jun Liang, Feng Zhang, Ding-Jun Hao
Diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy (DNOAP) is an uncommon, but with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, complication of diabetes. The real pathogenesis is still unclear. The two popular theories are the neuro-vascular theory and neuro-traumatic theory. Most theories and pathways focused on the uncontrolled inflammations that resulted in the final common pathway, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis, for the decreased bone density in DNOAP with an osteoclast and osteoblast imbalance...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876567/a-review-of-presentations-to-the-surgical-research-society-of-southern-africa-and-the-association-of-surgeons-of-south-africa-from-2010-to-2016
#9
S Burger, S van Straten, S Rayne
This paper looks at research done in South Africa from 2010 to 2016. We reviewed a total of 679 abstracts, posters and oral presentations submitted to the SAJS and the ASSA congresses during this time. During this time 21945 patients were investigated with an average of 577,5 patients per study. Each paper had on average 3,5 authors. The most popular topics are trauma (23%), gastrointestinal surgery (18%) and breast (11%). Upcoming topics include: reducing sepsis, global surgery, procedural discussion, infectious diseases (HIV/ TB), post-operative healing, ENT, neuro, plastic surgery, cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865131/quercetin-reduces-neural-tissue-damage-and-promotes-astrocyte-activation-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#10
Yeyang Wang, Wenjun Li, Mingsen Wang, Chuangxin Lin, Guitao Li, Xiaozhong Zhou, Junnan Luo, Dadi Jin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is lead to locomotor impairment because of neurological damage after following trauma. Quercetin (Que) has been confirmed have a neuro-protective effect during nerve damage processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of Que in functional recovery, cavity formation, astrocyte activation and nerve regeneration following SCI. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham group, SCI group and Que + SCI group. A rat model of SCI was made at T10 using the modified Allen's method...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860515/activation-of-the-peripheral-immune-system-regulates-neuronal-aromatase-in-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain
#11
Alyssa L Pedersen, Cassie J Gould, Colin J Saldanha
Estradiol provision via neural aromatization decreases neuro-inflammation and -degeneration, but almost nothing is known about the interactions between the peripheral immune system and brain aromatase. Given the vulnerability of the CNS we reasoned that brain aromatization may protect circuits from the threats of peripheral infection; perhaps shielding cells that are less resilient from the degeneration associated with peripheral infection or trauma. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle was administered peripherally to adult zebra finches and sickness behavior was recorded 2 or 24 hours later...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706764/neuroradiological-endovascular-intervention-for-diplopia-in-a-case-of-aneurysmal-aberrant-regeneration-of-the-third-nerve
#12
Anupam C A Rao, Saumil A Shah, Benjamin W C Sim, Steven T H Yun, Neeranjali S Jain, Yashar Kalani, Ian C Francis
Aberrant regeneration of the third nerve occurs as a result of synkinetic 'miswiring' of the third nerve following its injury, such as in third cranial nerve palsy due to tumor, trauma, or aneurysm. The case presented is an elderly woman with new vertical diplopia, which led to a diagnosis of a third cranial nerve palsy, thought to be caused by a 5 mm blister aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery. However, neuro-ophthalmological evaluation diagnosed aberrant regeneration of the third nerve, with the cause of her new vertical diplopia being an ipsilateral fourth nerve palsy...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704652/environmental-stress-causes-lethal-neuro-trauma-during-asymptomatic-viral-infections
#13
Jonathan Chow, Zsuzsa Márka, Imre Bartos, Szabolcs Márka, Jonathan C Kagan
Asymptomatic infections often proceed undetected, yet can still prime the host to be sensitive to secondary environmental stress. While the mechanisms underlying disease caused by asymptomatic infections are unknown, it is believed that productive pathogen replication is required. We report that the environmental stress of carbon dioxide (CO2) anesthesia converts an asymptomatic rhabdovirus infection in Drosophila to one that is lethal. This lethality results from a pool of infectious virus in glial cells and is regulated by the antiviral RNAi pathway of the host...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699144/palliative-care-needs-assessment-in-the-neuro-icu-effect-on-family
#14
Claire J Creutzfeldt, Marina G Hanna, C Sherry Cheever, Abhijit V Lele, Charles Spiekerman, Ruth A Engelberg, J Randall Curtis
BACKGROUND: Examine the association of a daily palliative care needs checklist on outcomes for family members of patients discharged from the neurosciences intensive care unit (neuro-ICU). METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in a single, thirty-bed neuro-ICU in a regional comprehensive stroke and level 1 trauma center. One of two neuro-ICU services that admit patients to the same ICU on alternating days used a palliative care needs checklist during morning work rounds...
July 11, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574329/spinal-epidural-hematomas-personal-experience-and-literature-review-of-more-than-1000-cases
#15
REVIEW
Maurizio Domenicucci, Cristina Mancarella, Giorgio Santoro, Demo Eugenio Dugoni, Alessandro Ramieri, Maria Felice Arezzo, Paolo Missori
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the formation of acute spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) by correlating etiology, age, site, clinical status, and treatment with immediate results and long-term outcomes. METHODS The authors reviewed their series of 15 patients who had been treated for SEH between 1996 and 2012. In addition, the authors reviewed the relevant international literature from 1869 (when SEH was first described) to 2012, collecting a total of 1010 cases. Statistical analysis was performed in 959 (95%) cases that were considered valid for assessing the incidence of age, sex, site, and clinical status at admission, correlating each of these parameters with the treatment results...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567167/nurse-competence-on-physiologic-monitors-use-toward-eliminating-alarm-fatigue-in-intensive-care-units
#16
Azizeh K Sowan, Ana G Vera, Elma I Fonseca, Charles C Reed, Albert F Tarriela, Andrea E Berndt
BACKGROUND: Studies on nurse competence on alarm management are a few and tend to be focused on limited skills. In response to Phase II of implementing the National Patient Safety Goal on clinical alarm systems safety, this study assessed nurses' perceived competence on physiologic monitors use in intensive care units (ICUs) and developed and validated a tool for this purpose. METHODS: This descriptive study took place in a Magnet hospital in a Southwestern state of the U...
2017: Open Medical Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#17
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504334/advances-in-functional-brain-imaging-technology-and-developmental-neuro-psychology-their-applications-in-the-jungian-analytic-domain
#18
Leon Petchkovsky
Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479469/vascular-injury-due-to-humerus-fracture-in-pediatric-age-when-the-treatment-is-mandatory
#19
Simone Salvati, Alberto Maria Settembrini, Daniele Bissacco, Raffaello Dallatana, Daniela Mazzaccaro, Cornelio Crippa, Pietro Romano, Piergiorgio Settembrini
BACKGROUND: Pink pulseless hand syndrome is a rare condition of vascular injury due to distal humerus fracture. It is characterized by radial and ulnar pulselessness in a complex of good hand perfusion which can remain pink and warm. The management and treatment of this condition is still very debated. METHODS: We report 4 cases of arm traumas which occurred in pediatric patients. In all cases, after the fixation of the fracture by the orthopedic surgeon, the clinical evaluation and duplex ultrasound demonstrated the so called "pink pulseless hand syndrome...
October 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457689/development-of-a-neuro-early-mobilisation-protocol-for-use-in-a-neuroscience-intensive-care-unit
#20
Megan A Brissie, Meg Zomorodi, Sharmila Soares-Sardinha, J Dedrick Jordan
OBJECTIVE: Through evaluation of the literature and working with a team of multidisciplinary healthcare providers, our objective was to refine an interprofessional Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol for complex patients in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Using the literature as a guide, key stakeholders, from multiple professions, designed and refined a Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol. SETTING: This project took place at a large academic medical center in the southeast United States classified as both a Level I Trauma Center and Comprehensive Stroke Center...
October 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
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