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Plant microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528399/bacterial-microbiome-and-nematode-occurrence-in-different-potato-agricultural-soils
#1
Juan D Castillo, Jorge M Vivanco, Daniel K Manter
Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 g of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to determine negative and positive correlations between any bacterial genus and P. neglectus and M. chitwoodi. Farms showed differences in bacterial communities, percentage of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes, and numbers of P...
May 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526410/adaptor-proteins-gir1-and-gir2-i-interaction-with-the-repressor-glabra2-and-regulation-of-root-hair-development
#2
Renhong Wu, Vitaly Citovsky
Plants use specialized root outgrowths, termed root hairs, to enhance acquisition of nutrients and water, help secure anchorage, and facilitate interactions with soil microbiome. One of the major regulators of this process is GLABRA2 (GL2), a transcriptional repressor of root hair differentiation. However, regulation of the GL2-function is relatively well characterized, it remains completely unknown whether GL2 itself functions in complex with other transcriptional regulators. We identified GIR1 and GIR2, a plant-specific two-member family of closely related proteins that interact with GL2...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514700/a-comparative-in-situ-decomposition-study-using-still-born-piglets-and-leaf-litter-from-a-deciduous-forest
#3
Ayodeji O Olakanye, Andrew Nelson, T Komang Ralebitso-Senior
A cadaver and dead plant organic matter, or litter, are rich energy sources that undergo a complex decomposition process, which impact the surrounding environmental microbiota. Advances in molecular microbiology techniques, with study of the 16S RNA genes, in particular, have highlighted the application of forensic ecogenomics in addressing key knowledge gaps. To investigate subsurface microbiome shifts as a novel tool to establish "postmortem microbial clock" and augment postmortem interval (PMI) and time-since-burial estimations, an in situ study with triplicate underground burials of piglets as human taphonomic proxies and Quercus robur leaf litter was monitored for 270 days...
May 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513546/edible-plants-and-their-influence-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-acne
#4
REVIEW
Ashley K Clark, Kelly N Haas, Raja K Sivamani
Acne vulgaris affects most people at some point in their lives. Due to unclear etiology, likely with multiple factors, targeted and low-risk treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we explore the multiple causes of acne and how plant-based foods and supplements can control these. The proposed causative factors include insulin resistance, sex hormone imbalances, inflammation and microbial dysbiosis. There is an emerging body of work on the human gut microbiome and how it mediates feedback between the foods we eat and our bodies...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512450/host-plant-compatibility-shapes-the-proteogenome-of-frankia-coriariae
#5
Amir Ktari, Abdellatif Gueddou, Imen Nouioui, Guylaine Miotello, Indrani Sarkar, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari, Arnab Sen, Jean Armengaud, Maher Gtari
Molecular signaling networks in the actinorhizal rhizosphere select host-compatible Frankia strains, trigger the infection process and eventually the genesis of nitrogen-fixing nodules. The molecular triggers involved remain difficult to ascertain. Root exudates (RE) are highly dynamic substrates that play key roles in establishing the rhizosphere microbiome. RE are known to induce the secretion by rhizobia of Nod factors, polysaccharides, and other proteins in the case of legume symbiosis. Next-generation proteomic approach was here used to decipher the key bacterial signals matching the first-step recognition of host plant stimuli upon treatment of Frankia coriariae strain BMG5...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512127/a-structure-derived-snap-trap-mechanism-of-a-multispecific-serpin-from-the-dysbiotic-human-oral-microbiome
#6
Theodoros Goulas, Miroslaw Ksiazek, Irene Garcia-Ferrer, Alicja M Sochaj-Gregorczyk, Irena Waligorska, Marcin Wasylewski, Jan Potempa, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
Enduring host-microbiome relationships are based on adaptive strategies within a particular ecological niche. Tannerella forsythia is a dysbiotic member of the human oral microbiome that inhabits periodontal pockets and contributes to chronic periodontitis. To counteract endopeptidases from the host or microbial competitors, T. forsythia possesses a serpin-type proteinase inhibitor called miropin. While serpins from animals, plants, and viruses have been widely studied, those from prokaryotes have received only limited attention...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503198/dynamics-of-two-methanogenic-microbiomes-incubated-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-naphthenic-acids-and-oil-field-produced-water
#7
Bonahis J Oko, Yu Tao, David C Stuckey
BACKGROUND: Oil field produced water (OFPW) is widely produced in large volumes around the world. Transforming the organic matter in OFPW into bioenergy, such as biomethane, is one promising way to sustainability. However, OFPW is difficult to biologically degrade because it contains complex compounds such as naphthenic acids (NAs), or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although active microbial communities have been found in many oil reservoirs, little is known about how an exotic microbiome, e...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502120/gut-microbial-communities-of-american-pikas-ochotona-princeps-evidence-for-phylosymbiosis-and-adaptations-to-novel-diets
#8
Kevin D Kohl, Johanna Varner, Jennifer L Wilkening, M Denise Dearing
1.Gut microbial communities provide many physiological functions to their hosts, especially in herbivorous animals. We still lack an understanding of how these microbial communities are structured across hosts in nature, especially within a given host species. Studies on laboratory mice have demonstrated that host genetics can influence microbial community structure, but that diet can overwhelm these genetic effects. 2.We aimed to test these ideas in a natural system, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). First, pikas are high elevation specialists with significant population structure across various mountain ranges in the USA, allowing us to investigate whether similarities in microbial communities match host genetic differences...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499226/effectiveness-of-a-full-scale-horizontal-slow-sand-filter-for-controlling-phytopathogens-in-recirculating-hydroponics-from-microbial-isolation-to-full-microbiome-assessment
#9
Francesc X Prenafeta-Boldú, Isabel Trillas, Marc Viñas, Miriam Guivernau, Rafaela Cáceres, Oriol Marfà
The microbial disinfestation efficiency of an innovative horizontal-flow slow sand filter (HSSF) for treating nutrient solution spent from an experimental closed-loop nursery was evaluated by means of a combination of culture-dependent and independent molecular techniques. A dense inoculum of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was applied in the fertigation system (10(6) cells per mL). Indigenous and introduced populations of eubacteria and fungi were assessed in the nutrient solution, the HSSF influent/effluent, and a sand bed transect by isolation on selective media, as well as by quantitative qPCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS) on target ribosomal genes...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498878/the-malleable-gut-microbiome-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-diet-dependent-shifts-of-bacterial-community-structures
#10
Stéphanie Céline Michl, Jenni-Marie Ratten, Matt Beyer, Mario Hasler, Julie LaRoche, Carsten Schulz
Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496167/effect-of-trichoderma-harzianum-on-maize-rhizosphere-microbiome-and-biocontrol-of-fusarium-stalk-rot
#11
Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Yaqian Li, Chuanjin Yu, Qiang-Qiang Wang, Meng Wang, Jianan Sun, Jin-Xin Gao, Jie Chen
Fusarium stalk rot (FSR) caused by Fusarium graminearum (FG) significantly affects the productivity of maize grain crops. Application of agrochemicals to control the disease is harmful to environment. In this regard, use of biocontrol agent (BCA) is an alternative to agrochemicals. Although Trichoderma species are known as BCA, the selection of host-pathogen specific Trichoderma is essential for the successful field application. Hence, we screened a total of 100 Trichoderma isolates against FG, selected Trichoderma harzianum (CCTCC-RW0024) for greenhouse experiments and studied its effect on changes of maize rhizosphere microbiome and biocontrol of FSR...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494084/the-use-of-high-throughput-dna-sequence-analysis-to-assess-the-endophytic-microbiome-of-date-palm-roots-grown-under-different-levels-of-salt-stress
#12
Mahmoud W Yaish, Ibtisam Al-Harrasi, Aliya S Alansari, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Bernard R Glick
Date palms are able to grow under diverse abiotic stress conditions including in saline soils, where microbial communities may be help in the plant's salinity tolerance. These communities able to produce specific growth promoting substances can enhance date palm growth in a saline environment. However, these communities are poorly defined. In the work reported here, the date palm endophytic bacterial and fungal communities were identified using the pyrosequencing method, and the microbial differential abundance in the root upon exposure to salinity stress was estimated...
September 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493980/characterization-of-the-juvenile-green-turtle-chelonia-mydas-microbiome-throughout-an-ontogenetic-shift-from-pelagic-to-neritic-habitats
#13
James T Price, Frank V Paladino, Margaret M Lamont, Blair E Witherington, Scott T Bates, Tanya Soule
The gut microbiome of herbivorous animals consists of organisms that efficiently digest the structural carbohydrates of ingested plant material. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) provide an interesting model of change in these microbial communities because they undergo a pronounced shift from a surface-pelagic distribution and omnivorous diet to a neritic distribution and herbivorous diet. As an alternative to direct sampling of the gut, we investigated the cloacal microbiomes of juvenile green turtles before and after recruitment to neritic waters to observe any changes in their microbial community structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493368/microbial-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-dryland-ecosystems-mechanisms-microbiome-and-mitigation
#14
Hang-Wei Hu, Pankaj Trivedi, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Globally, drylands represent the largest terrestrial biome and are projected to expand by 23% by the end of this century. Drylands are characterized by extremely low levels of water and nutrients and exhibit highly heterogeneous distribution in plants and biocrusts which make microbial processes shaping the dryland functioning rather unique compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with ozone depletion potential. Despite of the pivotal influences of microbial communities on the production and consumption of N2 O, we have limited knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms underpinning N2 O emissions from drylands, which are estimated to account for 30% of total gaseous nitrogen emissions on Earth...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491055/metagenomic-sequencing-of-diamondback-moth-gut-microbiome-unveils-key-holobiont-adaptations-for-herbivory
#15
Xiaofeng Xia, Geoff M Gurr, Liette Vasseur, Dandan Zheng, Huanzi Zhong, Bingcai Qin, Junhan Lin, Yue Wang, FengQin Song, Yong Li, Hailan Lin, Minsheng You
Herbivore specialists adapt to feed on a specific group of host plants by evolving various mechanisms to respond to plant defenses. Insects also possess complex gut microbiotas but their potential role in adaptation is poorly understood. Our previous study of the genome of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, revealed an intrinsic capacity to detoxify plant defense compounds, which is an important factor in its success as a pest. Here we expand on that work with a complete taxonomic and functional profile of the P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488752/functional-structure-of-the-bromeliad-tank-microbiome-is-strongly-shaped-by-local-geochemical-conditions
#16
Stilianos Louca, Saulo M S Jacques, Aliny P F Pires, Juliana S Leal, Angélica L González, Michael Doebeli, Vinicius F Farjalla
Phytotelmata in tank-forming Bromeliaceae plants are regarded as potential miniature models for aquatic ecology, but detailed investigations of their microbial communities are rare. Hence, the biogeochemistry in bromeliad tanks remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the detritus within the tanks of two bromeliad species, Aechmea nudicaulis and Neoregelia cruenta, from a Brazilian sand dune forest. We used metagenomic sequencing for functional community profiling and 16S sequencing for taxonomic profiling...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476862/the-natural-biotic-environment-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Hinrich Schulenburg, Marie-Anne Félix
Organisms evolve in response to their natural environment. Consideration of natural ecological parameters are thus of key importance for our understanding of an organism's biology. Curiously, the natural ecology of the model species Caenorhabditis elegans has long been neglected, even though this nematode has become one of the most intensively studied models in biological research. This lack of interest changed ∼10 yr ago. Since then, an increasing number of studies have focused on the nematode's natural ecology...
May 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472099/microbiomes-associated-with-infective-stages-of-root-knot-and-lesion-nematodes-in-soil
#18
Ahmed Elhady, Ariadna Giné, Olivera Topalovic, Samuel Jacquiod, Søren J Sørensen, Francisco Javier Sorribas, Holger Heuer
Endoparasitic root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and lesion (Pratylenchus spp.) nematodes cause considerable damage in agriculture. Before they invade roots to complete their life cycle, soil microbes can attach to their cuticle or surface coat and antagonize the nematode directly or by induction of host plant defenses. We investigated whether the nematode-associated microbiome in soil differs between infective stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans, and whether it is affected by variation in the composition of microbial communities among soils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469632/interplant-aboveground-signaling-prompts-upregulation-of-auxin-promoter-and-malate-transporter-as-part-of-defensive-response-in-the-neighboring-plants
#19
Connor Sweeney, Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Harsh P Bais
When disrupted by stimuli such as herbivory, pathogenic infection, or mechanical wounding, plants secrete signals such as root exudates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The emission of VOCs induces a response in the neighboring plant communities and can improve plant fitness by alerting nearby plants of an impending threat and prompting them to alter their physiology for defensive purposes. In this study, we investigated the role of plant-derived signals, released as a result of mechanical wounding, that may play a role in intraspecific communication between Arabidopsis thaliana communities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469630/abscisic-acid-as-pathogen-effector-and-immune-regulator
#20
REVIEW
Laurens Lievens, Jacob Pollier, Alain Goossens, Rudi Beyaert, Jens Staal
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene signaling molecule produced in all kingdoms of life. To date, the best known functions of ABA are derived from its role as a major phytohormone in plant abiotic stress resistance. Different organisms have developed different biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways related to ABA. Despite this, there are also intriguing common themes where ABA often suppresses host immune responses and is utilized by pathogens as an effector molecule. ABA also seems to play an important role in compatible mutualistic interactions such as mycorrhiza and rhizosphere bacteria with plants, and possibly also the animal gut microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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