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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777991/co-evolutionary-associations-between-root-associated-microbiomes-and-root-transcriptomes-in-wild-and-cultivated-rice-varieties
#1
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Fahad Nasir, Xiujun Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
The plants and root-associated microbiomes are closely related. Plant metabolic substances can serve as a nutrient source for the microbiome, and in return, the microbiome can regulate the production of plant metabolic substances. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), as the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), has changed several metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiome during evolution. Thus, the study of the different associations between metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiomes in wild and cultivated rice varieties is important for rice breeding...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774018/the-invasive-brazilian-pepper-tree-schinus-terebinthifolius-is-colonized-by-a-root-microbiome-enriched-with-alphaproteobacteria-and-unclassified-spartobacteria
#2
Karim Dawkins, Nwadiuto Esiobu
Little is known about the rhizosphere microbiome of the Brazilian pepper tree (BP) - a noxious category 1 invasive plant inducing an enormous economic and ecological toll in Florida. Some invasive plants have been shown to drastically change the soil microbiome compared to other native plants. The rhizobacteria community structure of BP, two Florida native plants ( Hamelia patens and Bidens alba ) and bulk soils were characterized across six geographical sites. Although all 19 well-known and 10 poorly described phyla were observed in all plant rhizospheres, BP contained the least total bacterial abundance (OTUs) with a distinct bacteria community structure and clustering patterns differing significantly (pCOA and PERMANOVA) from the natives and bulk soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772685/the-emergence-of-endophytic-microbes-and-their-biological-promise
#3
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771325/native-bacteria-promote-plant-growth-under-drought-stress-condition-without-impacting-the-rhizomicrobiome
#4
Elisabeth Armada, Márcio F A Leite, Almudena Medina, Rosario Azcón, Eiko E Kuramae
Inoculation of plants with beneficial plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) emerges a valuable strategy for ecosystem recovery. However, drought conditions might compromise plant-microbe interactions especially in semiarid regions. This study highlights the effect of native PGPB after one-year inoculation on autochthonous shrubs growth and rhizosphere microbial community composition and activity under drought stress conditions. We inoculated three plant species of semiarid Mediterranean zones, Thymus vulgaris, Santolina chamaecyparissus and Lavandula dentata with a Bacillus thuringiensis strain IAM 12077 and, evaluated the impact on plant biomass, plant nutrient contents, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) colonization, soil rhizosphere microbial activity, and both the bacterial and fungal communities...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768137/organic-amendments-beneficial-microbes-and-soil-microbiota-toward-a-unified-framework-for-disease-suppression
#5
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767712/limited-influence-of-hospital-wastewater-on-the-microbiome-and-resistome-of-wastewater-in-a-community-sewerage-system
#6
Elena Buelow, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Eline Majoor, Rob J L Willems, Marc J M Bonten, Heike Schmitt, Willem van Schaik
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been proposed to act as point sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Hospital sewage may contribute to the spread of ARB and ARGs as it contains the feces and urine of hospitalized patients, who are more frequently colonized with multi-drug resistant bacteria than the general population. However, whether hospital sewage noticeably contributes to the quantity and diversity of ARGs in the general sewerage system has not yet been determined...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761785/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-prevalent-human-gut-bacterial-enzyme-sufficient-for-the-inactivation-of-a-family-of-plant-toxins
#7
Nitzan Koppel, Jordan E Bisanz, Maria-Eirini Pandelia, Peter J Turnbaugh, Emily P Balskus
Although the human gut microbiome plays a prominent role in xenobiotic transformation, most of the genes and enzymes responsible for this metabolism are unknown. Recently, we linked the two-gene 'cardiac glycoside reductase' ( cgr ) operon encoded by the gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta to inactivation of the cardiac medication and plant natural product digoxin. Here, we compared the genomes of 25 E. lenta strains and close relatives, revealing an expanded 8-gene cgr -associated gene cluster present in all digoxin metabolizers and absent in non-metabolizers...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761046/low-bacterial-community-diversity-in-two-introduced-aphid-pests-revealed-with-16s-rrna-amplicon-sequencing
#8
Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastían Ortiz-Martínez, Andrea X Silva, Blas Lavandero
Bacterial endosymbionts that produce important phenotypic effects on their hosts are common among plant sap-sucking insects. Aphids have become a model system of insect-symbiont interactions. However, endosymbiont research has focused on a few aphid species, making it necessary to make greater efforts to other aphid species through different regions, in order to have a better understanding of the role of endosymbionts in aphids as a group. Aphid endosymbionts have frequently been studied by PCR-based techniques, using species-specific primers, nevertheless this approach may omit other non-target bacteria cohabiting a particular host species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756135/microbial-small-molecules-weapons-of-plant-subversion
#9
REVIEW
Ioannis A Stringlis, Hao Zhang, Corné M J Pieterse, Melvin D Bolton, Ronnie de Jonge
Covering: up to 2018Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut...
May 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743201/what-is-the-role-of-archaea-in-plants-new-insights-from-the-vegetation-of-alpine-bogs
#10
Julian Taffner, Armin Erlacher, Anastasia Bragina, Christian Berg, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Gabriele Berg
The Archaea represent a significant component of the plant microbiome, whereas their function is still unclear. Different plant species representing the natural vegetation of alpine bogs harbor a substantial archaeal community originating from five phyla, 60 genera, and 334 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). We identified a core archaeome for all bog plants and ecosystem-specific, so far unclassified Archaea In the metagenomic data set, Archaea were found to have the potential to interact with plants by (i) possible plant growth promotion through auxin biosynthesis, (ii) nutrient supply, and (iii) protection against abiotic (especially oxidative and osmotic) stress...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743024/endophytic-fungi-from-the-roots-of-horseradish-armoracia-rusticana-and-their-interactions-with-the-defensive-metabolites-of-the-glucosinolate-myrosinase-isothiocyanate-system
#11
Zsolt Szűcs, Tamás Plaszkó, Zoltán Cziáky, Attila Kiss-Szikszai, Tamás Emri, Regina Bertóti, László Tamás Sinka, Gábor Vasas, Sándor Gonda
BACKGROUND: The health of plants is heavily influenced by the intensively researched plant microbiome. The microbiome has to cope with the plant's defensive secondary metabolites to survive and develop, but studies that describe this interaction are rare. In the current study, we describe interactions of endophytic fungi with a widely researched chemical defense system, the glucosinolate - myrosinase - isothiocyanate system. The antifungal isothiocyanates are also of special interest because of their beneficial effects on human consumers...
May 9, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738975/marker-microbiome-clusters-are-determined-by-operational-parameters-and-specific-key-taxa-combinations-in-anaerobic-digestion
#12
Susanne Theuerl, Johanna Klang, Monika Heiermann, Jo De Vrieze
In this study, microbiomes of 36 full-scale anaerobic digesters originated from 22 different biogas plants were compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis. Regarding the differences in microbial community composition, a weighting of the environmental parameters could be derived from higher to lower importance as follows: (i) temperature, (ii) TAN and NH3 concentrations and conductivity, and (iii) the chemical composition of the supplied feedstocks. Biotic interactions between specific bacterial and archaeal community arrangements were revealed, whereby members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Cloacimonetes combined with the archaeal genus Methanothrix dominated the conversion of homogeneous feedstocks, such as waste water sludge or industrial waste...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727054/mycobiome-analysis-of-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-norway-spruce-trees-naturally-infected-by-the-conifer-pathogens-heterobasidion-spp
#13
Andriy Kovalchuk, Mukrimin Mukrimin, Zhen Zeng, Tommaso Raffaello, Mengxia Liu, Risto Kasanen, Hui Sun, Fred O Asiegbu
Plant microbiome plays an important role in maintaining the host fitness. Despite a significant progress in our understanding of the plant microbiome achieved in the recent years, very little is known about the effect of plant pathogens on composition of microbial communities associated with trees. In this study, we analyzed the mycobiome of different anatomic parts of asymptomatic and symptomatic Norway spruce trees naturally infected by Heterobasidion spp. We also investigated the primary impact of the disease on the fungal communities, which are associated with Norway spruce trees...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725101/core-microbiomes-for-sustainable-agroecosystems
#14
REVIEW
Hirokazu Toju, Kabir G Peay, Masato Yamamichi, Kazuhiko Narisawa, Kei Hiruma, Ken Naito, Shinji Fukuda, Masayuki Ushio, Shinji Nakaoka, Yusuke Onoda, Kentaro Yoshida, Klaus Schlaeppi, Yang Bai, Ryo Sugiura, Yasunori Ichihashi, Kiwamu Minamisawa, E Toby Kiers
In an era of ecosystem degradation and climate change, maximizing microbial functions in agroecosystems has become a prerequisite for the future of global agriculture. However, managing species-rich communities of plant-associated microbiomes remains a major challenge. Here, we propose interdisciplinary research strategies to optimize microbiome functions in agroecosystems. Informatics now allows us to identify members and characteristics of 'core microbiomes', which may be deployed to organize otherwise uncontrollable dynamics of resident microbiomes...
May 2018: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725011/gut-microbiomes-of-wild-great-apes-fluctuate-seasonally-in-response-to-diet
#15
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721831/highly-diverse-endophytes-in-roots-of-cycas-bifida-cycadaceae-an-ancient-but-endangered-gymnosperm
#16
Ying Zheng, Tzen-Yuh Chiang, Chao-Li Huang, Xun Gong
As an ancient seed plant, cycads are one of the few gymnosperms that develop a root symbiosis with cyanobacteria, which has allowed cycads to cope with harsh geologic and climatic conditions during the evolutionary process. However, the endophytic microbes in cycad roots remain poorly identified. In this study, using next-generation sequencing techniques, we investigated the microbial diversity and composition of both the coralloid and regular roots of Cycas bifida (Dyer) K.D. Hill. Highly diverse endophytic communities were observed in both the coralloid and regular roots...
May 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720967/how-does-salinity-shape-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiomes-of-alnus-glutinosa-roots
#17
Dominika Thiem, Marcin Gołębiewski, Piotr Hulisz, Agnieszka Piernik, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Black alder ( Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) belongs to dual mycorrhizal trees, forming ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular (AM) root structures, as well as represents actinorrhizal plants that associate with nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. We hypothesized that the unique ternary structure of symbionts can influence community structure of other plant-associated microorganisms (bacterial and fungal endophytes), particularly under seasonally changing salinity in A. glutinosa roots. In our study we analyzed black alder root bacterial and fungal microbiome present at two forest test sites (saline and non-saline) in two different seasons (spring and fall)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718181/the-role-of-bacteria-in-pine-wilt-disease-insights-from-microbiome-analysis
#18
Marta Alves, Anabela Pereira, Cláudia Vicente, Patrícia Matos, Joana Henriques, Helena Lopes, Francisco Nascimento, Manuel Mota, António Correia, Isabel Henriques
Pine Wilt Disease (PWD) has a significant impact on Eurasia pine forests. The microbiome of the nematode (the primary cause of the disease), its insect vector, and the host tree may be relevant for the disease mechanism. The aim of this study was to characterize these microbiomes, from three PWD-affected areas in Portugal, using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and a functional inference-based approach (PICRUSt). The bacterial community structure of the nematode was significantly different from the infected trees but closely related to the insect vector, supporting the hypothesis that nematode microbiome might be in part inherited from the insect...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710571/the-effects-of-sewage-treatment-plant-effluents-on-hepatic-and-intestinal-biomarkers-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#19
Sidika Sakalli, Pham Thai Giang, Viktoriia Burkina, Galia Zamaratskaia, Martin Krøyer Rasmussen, Tomas Bakal, Sarvenaz Khalili Tilami, Sabine Sampels, Jitka Kolarova, Roman Grabic, Jan Turek, Tomas Randak, Vladimir Zlabek
Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the major source of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment. Generally, the effects of individual chemicals on fish are studied under laboratory conditions, which leads to results that are potentially not realistic regarding the effects of these chemicals under environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study, common carps were held in exposed pond that receive water from STP effluents for 360 days under natural conditions. Elimination of xenobiotics starts in the fish intestine, in which the microbial community strongly influences its function...
April 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710519/effects-of-shenling-baizhu-powder-herbal-formula-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-rats
#20
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
April 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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