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Plant microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198425/organic-nitrogen-rearranges-both-structure-and-activity-of-the-soil-borne-microbial-seedbank
#1
Márcio F A Leite, Yao Pan, Jaap Bloem, Hein Ten Berge, Eiko E Kuramae
Use of organic amendments is a valuable strategy for crop production. However, it remains unclear how organic amendments shape both soil microbial community structure and activity, and how these changes impact nutrient mineralization rates. We evaluated the effect of various organic amendments, which range in Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio and degradability, on the soil microbiome in a mesocosm study at 32, 69 and 132 days. Soil samples were collected to determine community structure (assessed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences), microbial biomass (fungi and bacteria), microbial activity (leucine incorporation and active hyphal length), and carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#2
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190522/bioaugmentation-with-bacteria-selected-from-the-microbiome-enhances-arthrocnemum-macrostachyum-metal-accumulation-and-tolerance
#3
Salvadora Navarro-Torre, José M Barcia-Piedras, Miguel A Caviedes, Eloísa Pajuelo, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Ignacio D Rodríguez-Llorente, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the role of bacterial consortia isolated from the endosphere (CE) and rhizosphere (CR) of Arthrocnemum macrostachyum on its metal uptake capacity and tolerance in plants grown in metal polluted sediments. A. macrostachyum plants were randomly assigned to three bioaugmentation treatments (CE, CR and without inoculation) during 120days. Bioaugmentation with both bacterial consortia enhanced A. macrostachyum capacity to accumulate ions in its roots, while shoot ions concentration only increased with CE treatment...
February 10, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188207/use-of-endophytic-and-rhizosphere-bacteria-to-improve-phytoremediation-of-arsenic-contaminated-industrial-soils-by-autochthonous-betula-celtiberica
#4
Victoria Mesa, Alejandro Navazas, Ricardo González-Gil, Aida González, Nele Weyens, Béatrice Lauga, Jose Luis R Gallego, Jesús Sánchez, Ana Isabel Peláez
The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales, Burkholderiales, and Pseudomonadales, specially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera...
February 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184370/metaproteomics-as-a-complementary-approach-to-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Bernardo A Petriz, Octávio L Franco
Classic studies on phylotype profiling are limited to the identification of microbial constituents, where information is lacking about the molecular interaction of these bacterial communities with the host genome and the possible outcomes in host biology. A range of OMICs approaches have provided great progress linking the microbiota to health and disease. However, the investigation of this context through proteomic mass spectrometry-based tools is still being improved. Therefore, metaproteomics or community proteogenomics has emerged as a complementary approach to metagenomic data, as a field in proteomics aiming to perform large-scale characterization of proteins from environmental microbiota, such as the human gut...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177413/selenium-biofortification-and-phytoremediation-phytotechnologies-a-review
#6
Michela Schiavon, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits
The element selenium (Se) is both essential and toxic for most life forms, with a narrow margin between deficiency and toxicity. Phytotechnologies using plants and their associated microbes can address both of these problems. To prevent Se toxicity due to excess environmental Se, plants may be used to phytoremediate Se from soil or water. To alleviate Se deficiency in humans or livestock, crops may be biofortified with Se. These two technologies may also be combined: Se-enriched plant material from phytoremediation could be used as green fertilizer or as fortified food...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173617/specificity-of-root-microbiomes-in-native-grown-nicotiana-attenuata-and-plant-responses-to-uvb-increase-deinococcus-colonization
#7
Rakesh Santhanam, Youngjoo Oh, Ramesh Kumar, Arne Weinhold, Van Thi Luu, Karin Groten, Ian T Baldwin
Plants recruit microbial communities from the soil in which they germinate. Our understanding of the recruitment process and the factors affecting it is still limited for most microbial taxa. We analyzed several factors potentially affecting root microbiome structure - the importance of geographic location of natural populations, the microbiome of native seeds as putative source of colonization and the effect of a plant's response to UVB-exposure on root colonization of highly abundant species. The microbiome of Nicotiana attenuata seeds was determined by a culture-dependent and independent approach, and the root microbiome of natural N...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167932/a-new-approach-to-modify-plant-microbiomes-and-traits-by-introducing-beneficial-bacteria-at-flowering-into-progeny-seeds
#8
Birgit Mitter, Nikolaus Pfaffenbichler, Richard Flavell, Stéphane Compant, Livio Antonielli, Alexandra Petric, Teresa Berninger, Muhammad Naveed, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Geoffrey von Maltzahn, Angela Sessitsch
The microbial component of healthy seeds - the seed microbiome - appears to be inherited between plant generations and can dynamically influence germination, plant performance, and survival. As such, methods to optimize the seed microbiomes of major crops could have far-reaching implications for plant breeding and crop improvement to enhance agricultural food, feed, and fiber production. Here, we describe a new approach to modulate seed microbiomes of elite crop seed embryos and concomitantly design the traits to be mediated by seed microbiomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155802/towards-an-understanding-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-persistence-in-swine
#9
Sheila K Patterson, Hyeun Bum Kim, Klaudyna Borewicz, Richard E Isaacson
Salmonella enterica is an important food borne pathogen that is frequently carried by swine. Carrier animals pose a food safety risk because they can transmit S. enterica to finished food products in the processing plant or by contamination of the environment. Environmental contamination has become increasingly important as non-animal foods (plant-based) have been implicated as sources of S. enterica. The prevalence of S. enterica in swine is high and yet carrier animals remain healthy. S. enterica has developed a highly sophisticated set of virulence factors that allow it to adapt to host environments and to cause disease...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139080/two-cultivated-legume-plants-reveal-the-enrichment-process-of-the-microbiome-in-the-rhizocompartments
#10
Xiao Xiao, Weimin Chen, Le Zong, Jun Yang, Shuo Jiao, Yanbing Lin, Entao Wang, Gehong Wei
The microbiomes of rhizocompartments (nodule endophytes, root endophytes, rhizosphere and root zone) in soybean and alfalfa were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing to investigate the interactions among legume species, microorganisms and soil types. A clear hierarchical filtration of microbiota by plants was observed in the four rhizocompartments-the nodule endosphere, root endosphere, rhizosphere and root zone-as demonstrated by significant variations in the composition of the microbial community in the different compartments...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134326/effects-of-jasmonic-acid-signalling-on-the-wheat-microbiome-differ-between-body-sites
#11
Hongwei Liu, Lilia C Carvalhais, Peer M Schenk, Paul G Dennis
Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling helps plants to defend themselves against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects and has been shown to influence the root microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we determined whether JA signalling influences the diversity and functioning of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) microbiome and whether these effects are specific to particular parts of the plant. Activation of the JA pathway was achieved via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and was confirmed by significant increases in the abundance of 10 JA-signalling-related gene transcripts...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133942/microbiome-engineering-current-applications-and-its-future
#12
REVIEW
Jee Loon Foo, Hua Ling, Yung Seng Lee, Matthew Wook Chang
Microbiomes exist in all ecosystems and are composed of diverse microbial communities. Perturbation to microbiomes brings about undesirable phenotypes in the hosts, resulting in diseases and disorders, and disturbs the balance of the associated ecosystems. Engineering of microbiomes can be used to modify structures of the microbiota and restore ecological balance. Consequently, microbiome engineering has been employed for improving human health and agricultural productivity. The importance and current applications of microbiome engineering, particularly in humans, animals, plants and soil is reviewed...
January 30, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133586/possible-health-impacts-of-bt-toxins-and-residues-from-spraying-with-complementary-herbicides-in-genetically-engineered-soybeans-and-risk-assessment-as-performed-by-the-european-food-safety-authority-efsa
#13
REVIEW
Christoph Then, Andreas Bauer-Panskus
BACKGROUND: MON89788 was the first genetically engineered soybean worldwide to express a Bt toxin. Under the brand name Intacta, Monsanto subsequently engineered a stacked trait soybean using MON89788 and MON87701-this stacked soybean expresses an insecticidal toxin and is, in addition, tolerant to glyphosate. After undergoing risk assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the stacked event was authorised for import into the EU in June 2012, including for use in food and feed...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097828/pollen-has-a-microbiome-implications-for-plant-reproduction-insect-pollination-and-human-allergies
#14
Michael Zasloff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095877/deciphering-composition-and-function-of-the-root-microbiome-of-a-legume-plant
#15
Kyle Hartman, Marcel Ga van der Heijden, Valexia Roussely-Provent, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including agricultural systems. Legumes form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia bacteria and thereby account for large, natural nitrogen inputs into soils. Here, we describe the root bacteria microbiome of the legume Trifolium pratense combining culture-dependent and independent methods...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095208/tale-of-the-huanglongbing-disease-pyramid-in-the-context-of-the-citrus-phytobiome
#16
Nian Wang, Lukasz Stelinski, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Jim H Graham, Yunzeng Zhang
The Huanglongbing (HLB) disease pyramid is composed of Liberibacters, psyllid vectors, citrus hosts and the environment. The epidemiological outcomes for Liberibacter-associated plant diseases are collectively determined by the inherent relationships between plant-Liberibacters and psyllids, and how various environment factors affect plant-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions. Citrus-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions occur in a complex microbiome system. In this review, we focus on the progress in understanding the HLB disease pyramid, and how the microbiome affects the HLB disease pyramid including the interaction between HLB and the citrus microbiome; the interaction between Liberibacters and psyllids; the interaction between Liberibacters and gut microbiota in psyllids, and the effect of HLB on selected above- and belowground citrus pathogens...
January 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091525/a-fibrolytic-potential-in-the-human-ileum-mucosal-microbiota-revealed-by-functional-metagenomic
#17
Orlane Patrascu, Fabienne Béguet-Crespel, Ludovica Marinelli, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Anne-Laure Abraham, Marion Leclerc, Christophe Klopp, Nicolas Terrapon, Bernard Henrissat, Hervé M Blottière, Joël Doré, Christel Béra-Maillet
The digestion of dietary fibers is a major function of the human intestinal microbiota. So far this function has been attributed to the microorganisms inhabiting the colon, and many studies have focused on this distal part of the gastrointestinal tract using easily accessible fecal material. However, microbial fermentations, supported by the presence of short-chain fatty acids, are suspected to occur in the upper small intestine, particularly in the ileum. Using a fosmid library from the human ileal mucosa, we screened 20,000 clones for their activities against carboxymethylcellulose and xylans chosen as models of the major plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides from dietary fibres...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068396/effects-of-pulp-and-na-bentonite-amendments-on-the-mobility-of-trace-elements-soil-enzymes-activity-and-microbial-parameters-under-ex-situ-aided-phytostabilization
#18
Daniel Wasilkowski, Anna Nowak, Grażyna Płaza, Agnieszka Mrozik
The objective of this study was to explore the potential use of pulp (by-product) from coffee processing and Na-bentonite (commercial product) for minimizing the environmental risk of Zn, Pb and Cd in soil collected from a former mine and zinc-lead smelter. The effects of soil amendments on the physicochemical properties of soil, the structural and functional diversity of the soil microbiome as well as soil enzymes were investigated. Moreover, biomass of Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (cultivar Asterix) and the uptake of trace elements in plant tissues were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056814/competition-assays-and-physiological-experiments-of-soil-and-phyllosphere-yeasts-identify-candida-subhashii-as-a-novel-antagonist-of-filamentous-fungi
#19
Maja Hilber-Bodmer, Michael Schmid, Christian H Ahrens, Florian M Freimoser
BACKGROUND: While recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have enabled researchers to readily identify countless microbial species in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere microbiomes, the biological functions of the majority of these species are unknown. Functional studies are therefore urgently needed in order to characterize the plethora of microorganisms that are being identified and to point out species that may be used for biotechnology or plant protection. Here, we used a dual culture assay and growth analyses to characterise yeasts (40 different isolates) and their antagonistic effect on 16 filamentous fungi; comprising plant pathogens, antagonists, and saprophytes...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051350/can-plant-microbiome-studies-lead-to-effective-biocontrol-of-plant-diseases
#20
Jeffrey Ellis
In this commentary I question the wisdom and efficacy of studies seeking disease attenuating microbes and microbiomes only in healthy plant communities and posit the alternative view that success in biocontrol of crop diseases may come also come from studies of microbiota, or at least individual species isolates, associated with diseased plants. In support of this view I summarise the current extensive knowledge of the biology behind what is probably the most successful biocontrol of a plant disease, namely the biocontrol of crown gall of stone fruit using non-pathogenic Rhizobium rhizogenes strain K84 (New and Kerr, 1972; Kerr, 2016) where the biocontrol agent itself came from a diseased plant...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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