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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778008/plasma-metabolic-changes-in-chinese-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-treatment-implications-for-hiv-precision-therapy
#1
Xiaolin Li, Tong Wu, Yongjun Jiang, Zining Zhang, Xiaoxu Han, Wenqing Geng, Haibo Ding, Jing Kang, Qi Wang, Hong Shang
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to profile the metabolic changes in the plasma of HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) relative to their treatment-naïve phase, aimed to identify precision therapy for HIV for improving prognosis and predicting dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r. METHODS: 38 longitudinal plasma samples were collected from 19 HIV-infected patients both before and after antiretroviral therapy, and 18 samples from healthy individuals were used as controls...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777923/diagnosis-and-management-of-pulmonary-infection-due-to-rhodococcus-equi
#2
REVIEW
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777462/a-composite-of-multisystem-injury-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection-association-with-everyday-functioning
#3
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777448/triad-of-the-ischemic-cardiovascular-disease-in-people-living-with-hiv-association-between-risk-factors-hiv-infection-and-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Maria Odila Gomes Douglas, Leandro Teixeira Paranhos Lopes, Leonardo Roever, Alexandre Gonçalves, Elmiro Santos Resende
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is focused on cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected people. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly increased the life expectancy of HIV-infected people. Thus, this population has experienced non-HIV-related diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases. Thus, in our review, we intend to understand the cardiovascular risk factors that trigger this situation. We have demonstrated that both ART and traditional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected people...
May 18, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777162/hiv-and-vertebral-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-metanalysis
#5
Thales A S H Ilha, Fabio V Comim, Rafaela M Copes, Juliet E Compston, Melissa O Premaor
The survival of HIV-infected patients has increased with the advent of antiretroviral therapy with the emergence of new comorbidities. Vertebral fracture is a manifestation of reduced bone strength and osteoporosis. This study aims to assess the frequency of spine fractures in HIV-positive men and women aged over 18 years. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. Studies that evaluated morphometric and/or clinical vertebral fracture were included...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775551/pharmacogenetic-associations-with-cytochrome-p450-in-antiretroviral-therapy-what-does-the-future-hold
#6
Gabriel Stillemans, Leila Belkhir, Dennis A Hesselink, Vincent Haufroid, Laure Elens
Several antiretroviral drugs used to treat infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are substrates of enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, which are polymorphically expressed. It may therefore be useful to take into account the genetic variation in these enzymes to predict the likelihood of anti-HIV treatment success, toxicity and the potential for drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic associations between CYP and all major antiretrovirals, as well as the importance of these associations...
May 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775467/interactions-among-poverty-gender-and-health-systems-affect-women-s-participation-in-services-to-prevent-hiv-transmission-from-mother-to-child-a-causal-loop-analysis
#7
Jennifer Yourkavitch, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Valerie L Flax, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali, James C Thomas
Retention in care remains an important issue for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs according to WHO guidelines, formerly called the "Option B+" approach. The objective of this study was to examine how poverty, gender, and health system factors interact to influence women's participation in PMTCT services. We used qualitative research, literature, and hypothesized variable connections to diagram causes and effects in causal loop models. We found that many factors, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, service design and quality, stigma, disclosure, spouse/partner influence, decision-making autonomy, and knowledge about PMTCT, influence psychosocial health, which in turn affects women's participation in PMTCT services...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775399/dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infection
#8
Jose L Casado, Marta Monsalvo, Aurora M Rojo, María Fontecha, Miguel A Rodriguez-Sagrado
Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts concerning the use of a dual therapy with DTG plus RPV as a switching strategy in patients with viral suppression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773933/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-prediabetes-in-patients-infected-with-hiv
#9
Syed Arafath, Tavajay Campbell, Jameela Yusuff, Roopali Sharma
Background: The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic decrease in morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. Components of HAART (e.g., protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), as well as HIV infection itself, can have significant effects on developing new-onset diabetes. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence of prediabetes and to assess risk factors associated with prediabetes in a cohort of HIV-infected patients...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773527/acceptability-and-feasibility-of-real-time-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-interventions-in-rural-uganda-mixed-method-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Angella Musiimenta, Esther C Atukunda, Wilson Tumuhimbise, Emily E Pisarski, Melanie Tam, Monique A Wyatt, Norma C Ware, Jessica E Haberer
BACKGROUND: Wireless electronic adherence monitors can detect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence lapses and trigger interventions in real time, thus potentially avoiding unnecessary HIV viremia. Evidence about the acceptability and feasibility of these monitors and associated interventions, however, is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of real-time adherence monitoring linked to text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders and notifications to support adherence among individuals living with HIV who are taking ART in rural southwestern Uganda...
May 17, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772664/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-response-and-the-role-of-macrophages-in-hiv-induced-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Manuel Delgado-Vélez, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Macrophages are phagocytic immune cells that protect the body from foreign invaders and actively support the immune response by releasing anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. A seminal finding revolutionized the way macrophages are seen. The expression of the neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) in macrophages led to the establishment of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response (CAR) in which the activation of this receptor inactivates macrophage production of proinflammatory cytokines...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772601/hollow-mesoporous-structured-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-as-adsorbent-in-pipette-tip-solid-phase-extraction-for-the-determination-of-antiretrovirals-from-plasma-of-hiv-infected-patients
#12
Nathália Soares Simões, Hanna Leijoto de Oliveira, Ricky Cássio Santos da Silva, Leila Suleimara Teixeira, Thaís Lorenna Souza Sales, Whocely Victor de Castro, Maria José Nunes de Paiva, Cristina Sanches, Keyller Bastos Borges
In this work a hollow mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymer was synthetized and used as adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for the determination of lamivudine (3TC), zidovudine (AZT) and efavirenz (EFZ) from plasma of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All parameters that influence the recovery of the pipette tip based on hollow mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (PT-HM-MIP-SPE) method were systematically studied and discussed in detail...
May 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772068/risk-factors-associated-with-preterm-delivery-and-low-delivery-weight-among-hiv-exposed-neonates-in-china
#13
Liming Wang, Hongxin Zhao, Weiping Cai, Jie Tao, Qingxia Zhao, Lijun Sun, Qingbo Fan, Athena P Kourtis, Colin Shepard, Fujie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and preterm delivery (PTD) or low delivery weight among pregnant Chinese women with HIV. METHODS: The present retrospective cross-sectional medical chart review enrolled pregnant women with HIV who delivered at five tertiary hospitals in China between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to explore PTD (<37 weeks of pregnancy) and low delivery weight (<2500 g) risk factors...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771871/trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-and-coverage-among-children-aged-15-years-with-hiv-infection-20-pepfar-supported-sub-saharan-african-countries-2012-2016
#14
Amanda Burrage, Monita Patel, Kelsey Mirkovic, Eric Dziuban, Wondimu Teferi, Laura Broyles, Emilia Rivadeneira
Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2)...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771791/a-successful-model-of-expedited-antiretroviral-therapy-for-clinically-stable-patients-living-with-hiv-in-haiti
#15
Colette Guiteau Moise, Vanessa R Rivera, Kelly A Hennessey, Clovy Bellot, Chris Nicholas, Anna P Fang, Rose Irène Verdier, Patrice Severe, Alix Sainvil, Benedict Charles, Derothy Dorval, Juseline St Amour, Jean W Pape, Serena P Koenig
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) have greatly increased the number of HIV-infected patients who qualify for treatment, particularly with early clinical disease. Less intensive models of care are needed for clinically stable patients. SETTING: A Rapid Pathway (RP) model of expedited outpatient care for clinically stable patients was implemented at the Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) Center, Port-au-Prince, Haiti...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771788/body-mass-index-and-the-risk-of-serious-non-aids-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-treated-hiv-positive-individuals-d-a-d-cohort-analysis
#16
Amit C Achhra, Caroline Sabin, Lene Ryom, Camilla Hatleberg, Antonella d'Aminio Monforte, Stephane de Wit, Andrew Phillips, Christian Pradier, Rainer Weber, Peter Reiss, Wafaa El-Sadr, Fabrice Bonnet, Amanda Mocroft, Jens Lundgren, Matthew G Law
BACKGROUND: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/ height(m)) and serious non-AIDS events is not well understood. METHODS: We followed D:A:D study participants on antiretroviral therapy from their first BMI measurement to the first occurrence of the endpoint or end of follow-up (N=41,149 followed for 295,147 person-years). The endpoints were cardiovascular disease (CVD); diabetes; non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) and BMI-NADCs (cancers known to be associated with BMI in general population); and all-cause mortality...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771785/cutaneous-melanoma-risk-among-people-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#17
Elizabeth L Yanik, Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez, Li Qin, Haiqun Lin, Wendy Leyden, Romain S Neugebauer, Michael A Horberg, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Amy C Justice, Nancy A Hessol, Angel M Mayor, M John Gill, John T Brooks, Jing Sun, Keri N Althoff, Eric A Engels, Michael J Silverberg, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma incidence may be modestly elevated in people with HIV (PWH) versus people without HIV. However, little is known about the relationship of immunosuppression, HIV replication, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) with melanoma risk. METHODS: PWH of white race in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design were included. A standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated comparing risk with the white general population, standardizing by age, sex, and calendar period...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771783/hiv-1-drug-resistance-among-ugandan-adults-attending-an-urban-out-patient-clinic
#18
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Nadine Bachmann, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandra U Scherrer, Maria Nanyonjo, Anne Kapaata, Pontiano Kaleebu, Huldrych F Günthard, Barbara Castelnuovo, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
BACKGROUND: Little is known about prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-infected Ugandans, a setting with over 15 years of public-sector access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and where virological monitoring was only recently introduced. SETTING: This study was conducted in the adults' out-patient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: HIV genotyping was performed in ART naïve patients and in treatment experienced patients on ART for ≥ six months with virological failure (≥1000 copies/mL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771780/biomarkers-of-aging-in-hiv-infected-children-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Jing Shen, Avy Violari, Faeezah Patel, Afaaf Liberty, Marc Foca, Shuang Wang, Mary Beth Terry, Michael T Yin, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen M Arpadi, Louise Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Data on accelerated aging in HIV-infected children are limited. In this study we assess two biomarkers of aging - telomere length and DNA methylation (DNAm) age - in a cohort of early-treated HIV-infected children and compare these aging biomarkers to HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children. SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 120 HIV-infected, 33 HEU, and 25 HUU children enrolled in a cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771694/fostemsavir-a-new-cd4-attachment-inhibitor
#20
Pedro Cahn, Valeria Fink, Patricia Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Even in the era of modern HAART, antiretroviral (ARV) failure and emergence of drug resistance is still a problem worldwide. New classes with different mechanisms of action are needed to overcome this challenge. After the integrase inhibitors were launched, more than a decade ago, no new classes were added to the ARV armamentarium. RECENT FINDINGS: Fostemsavir (FTR) is an attachment inhibitor, active regardless of viral tropism, without cross-resistance to any of the existing ARV compounds...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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