Read by QxMD icon Read


Milly Marston, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Sylvia Kusemererwa, Mark Urassa, Denna Michael, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between HIV natural history and fertility by duration of infection in East and Southern Africa before the availability of antiretroviral therapy, and assess potential biases in estimates of age-specific sub-fertility when using retrospective birth histories in cross-sectional studies. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of prospective population-based HIV cohort studies in Masaka (Uganda) Kisesa (Tanzania), and Manicaland (Zimbabwe)...
October 20, 2016: AIDS
Alana T Brennan, Mary-Ann Davies, Jacob Bor, Gilles Wandeler, Kathryn Stinson, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Frank Tanser, Geoffrey Fatti, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kara Wool-Kaloustian, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Valériane Leroy, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy(ART) in accordance with World Health Organization 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS)(substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(NRTI) in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis (IeDEA-Multiregional) including ART-naïve, HIV-infected patients ≥16 years initiating ART between January 2005-December 2012...
October 20, 2016: AIDS
Collins C Iwuji, Nuala McGrath, Tulio de Oliveira, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay, Martin Fisher, Melanie Newport, Marie-Louise Newell
INTRODUCTION: Remarkable strides have been made in controlling the HIV epidemic, although not enough to achieve epidemic control. More recently, interest in biomedical HIV control approaches has increased, but substantial challenges with the HIV cascade of care hinder successful implementation. We summarise all available HIV prevention methods and make recommendations on how to address current challenges. DISCUSSION: In the early days of the epidemic, behavioural approaches to control the HIV dominated, and the few available evidence-based interventions demonstrated to reduce HIV transmission were applied independently from one another...
November 30, 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Sara Gianella, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Michelli F Oliveira, Konrad Scheffler, Matt C Strain, Antonio De la Torre, Scott Letendre, Davey M Smith, Ronald J Ellis
To design effective eradication strategies, it may be necessary to target HIV reservoirs in anatomic compartments other than blood. This study examined HIV RNA rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) might serve as an independent source of resurgent viral replication. Paired blood and CSF samples were collected longitudinally from 14 chronically HIV-infected individuals undergoing ART interruption...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
Halima Dawood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Trevor Peter, Dennis Ellenberger, Andrea A Kim, Debrah Boeras, Tsehaynesh Messele, Teri Roberts, Wendy Stevens, Ilesh Jani, Alash'le Abimiku, Nathan Ford, Zachary Katz, John N Nkengasong
Scaling up access to HIV viral load testing for individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings is a global health priority, as emphasised by research showing the benefits of suppressed viral load for the individual and the whole population. Historically, large-scale diagnostic test implementation has been slow and incomplete because of service delivery and other challenges. Building on lessons from the past, in this Personal View we propose a new framework to accelerate viral load scale-up and ensure equitable access to this essential test...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Kathleen O Degnan, Emily A Blumberg
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer, healthier lives on highly active antiretroviral therapy and, as a result, interest in kidney transplantation for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease has increased. HIV is no longer considered a contraindication to solid-organ transplantation and the number of kidney transplants performed in HIV-infected patients each year is increasing steadily. HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients have had excellent outcomes overall, but there are still significant challenges, including high rates of acute rejection, drug-drug interactions, and poor outcomes in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Massimiliano Berretta, Raffaele Di Francia, Brigida Stanzione, Gaetano Facchini, Arben LLeshi, Paolo De Paoli, Michele Spina, Umberto Tirelli
The introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) into clinical practice has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV-infected patients by prolonging their survival. The increase in life expectancy has led to an increased risk of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity, including cardiovascular diseases, neurocognitive diseases, neuroendocrine dysfunctions and cancer. Areas Covered: The GICAT (Italian Cooperation Group on AIDS and Tumors) has demonstrated that patients who receive a multidisciplinary approach with the combination of anticancer agents (AC) and HAART can achieve better responses and survival rates than patients who receive AC alone...
October 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ira Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
October 19, 2016: Lancet HIV
Henry J Whittle, Kartika Palar, Hilary K Seligman, Tessa Napoles, Edward A Frongillo, Sheri D Weiser
RATIONALE: Food-insecure people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) consistently exhibit worse clinical outcomes than their food-secure counterparts. This relationship is mediated in part through non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-optimal engagement in HIV care, and poor mental health. An in-depth understanding of how these pathways operate in resource-rich settings, however, remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the relationship between food insecurity and HIV health among low-income individuals in the San Francisco Bay Area using qualitative methods...
October 4, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Ameya R Kirtane, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
The human immunodeficiency virus has infected millions of people and the epidemic continues to grow rapidly in some parts of the world. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has provided improved treatment and prolonged the life expectancy of patients. Moreover, there is growing interest in using ARVs to protect against new infections. Hence, ARVs have emerged as our primary strategy in combating the virus. Unfortunately, several challenges limit the optimal performance of these drugs. First, ARVs often require life-long use and complex dosing regimens...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Roman Shrestha, Pramila Karki, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Michael Copenhaver
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and treatment engagement (TE) have been shown to significantly predict antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but no studies have explored the ways and the extent to which similar outcomes might occur when these factors operate together, particularly for people who use drugs (PWUDs). We sought to discover whether TE moderated the effect of NCI on adherence to ART in HIV-infected individuals. One hundred sixteen HIV-infected, methadone-maintained people who reported HIV risk behaviors were enrolled in the study...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Zachary Tanner, Nathan Lachowsky, Erin Ding, Hasina Samji, Mark Hull, Angela Cescon, Sophie Patterson, Jason Chia, Alia Leslie, Janet Raboud, Mona Loutfy, Curtis Cooper, Marina Klein, Nima Machouf, Christos Tsoukas, Julio Montaner, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to dramatically decrease progression to AIDS, premature death and HIV transmission. However, there are no comprehensive data regarding combination antiretroviral therapy outcomes among this population. We sought to identify socio-demographic and clinical correlates of viral suppression and rebound. METHODS: Our analysis included MSM participants in the Canadian Observational Cohort, a multi-site cohort of HIV-positive adults from Canada's three most populous provinces, aged ≥18 years who first initiated combination antiretroviral therapy between 2000 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Minh D Pham, Paul A Agius, Lorena Romero, Peter McGlynn, David Anderson, Suzanne M Crowe, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing increases patient accessibility to assessment of antiretroviral therapy eligibility. This review evaluates field performance in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) of currently available POC CD4 technologies. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were searched for field studies published between January 2005 and January 2015 of six POC CD4 platforms: PointCare NOW™, Alere Pima™ CD4, Daktari™ CD4 Counter, CyFlow® CD4 miniPOC, BD FACSPresto™, and MyT4™ CD4...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marco Gelpi, Hans J Hartling, Kristina Thorsteinsson, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic primary HIV infection is associated with an adverse prognosis, and immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, little is known about immunological predictors of immune recovery. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that promotes CD4+ T cells homeostatic polyclonal proliferation and regulates Th17/regulatory T-cell balance, immunological functions known to be affected during primary HIV infection. The aim of this study was to describe immune recovery in primary and chronic HIV infection and possible impact of TSLP...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Helga Naburi, Phares Mujinja, Charles Kilewo, Till Bärnighausen, Nicola Orsini, Karim Manji, Gunnel Biberfeld, David Sando, Pascal Geldsetzer, Guerino Chalamila, Anna Mia Ekström
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major source of new HIV infections in children. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) using lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV (Option B+) is the major strategy for eliminating paediatric HIV. Ensuring that patients are satisfied with PMTCT services is important for optimizing uptake, adherence and retention in treatment. METHODS: We conducted a facility based quantitative cross-sectional survey in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between March and April 2014, when the country was transitioning to the implementation of PMTCT Option B+...
2016: PloS One
Diane Gu, Yurong Mao, Zhenzhu Tang, Julio Montaner, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Roger Detels, Xia Jin, Ran Xiong, Juan Xu, Walter Ling, Lynda Erinoff, Robert Lindblad, David Liu, Paul Van Veldhuisen, Albert Hasson, Zunyou Wu
BACKGROUND: Patients who are newly screened HIV positive by EIA are lost to follow-up due to complicated HIV testing procedures. Because this is the first step in care, it affects the entire continuum of care. This is a particular concern in rural China. OBJECTIVE(S): To assess the routine HIV testing completeness and treatment initiation rates at 18 county-level general hospitals in rural Guangxi. METHODS: We reviewed original hospital HIV screening records...
2016: PloS One
Nathan R Unger, Marylee V Worley, Jamie J Kisgen, Elizabeth M Sherman, Lindsey M Childs-Kean
Current antiretrovirals (ARVs) have demonstrated the ability to prolong the life of an HIV infected individual via suppression of the virus and subsequent restoration of immune function. Despite significant advancement, there remains an opportunity for improvement. One ARV that attempts to fill global HIV therapeutic needs by balancing convenience, safety, and efficacy is elvitegravir (EVG). Areas covered: Using MEDLINE/PubMed, a literature search was conducted for published articles on the safety and efficacy of EVG in the treatment of HIV infection...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"