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Peter F Rebeiro, Tristan D McPherson, Kathryn M Goggins, Megan Turner, Sally S Bebawy, William B Rogers, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Anna K Person, Timothy R Sterling, Sunil Kripalani, April C Pettit
Studies evaluating the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continuum of care outcomes [antiretroviral (ART) adherence, retention in care, viral suppression] and health literacy have yielded conflicting results. Moreover, studies from the southern United States, a region of the country disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic and low health literacy, are lacking. We conducted an observational cohort study among 575 people living with HIV (PLWH) at the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (Nashville, Tennessee)...
March 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
David Etoori, Bernhard Kerschberger, Nelly Staderini, Mpumelelo Ndlangamandla, Bonisile Nhlabatsi, Kiran Jobanputra, Simangele Mthethwa-Hleza, Lucy Anne Parker, Sifiso Sibanda, Edwin Mabhena, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Serge Mathurin Kabore, Barbara Rusch, Christine Jamet, Iza Ciglenecki, Roger Teck
BACKGROUND: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant/ breastfeeding women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), known as Prevention of mother-to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Option B+ (PMTCTB+), is being scaled up in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the transition to PMTCTB+, many countries face challenges with proper implementation of the HIV care cascade. We aimed to describe the feasibility of a PMTCTB+ approach in the public health sector in Swaziland...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Suzanne Ramírez, Fernando Mejía, Marlene Rojas, Carlos Seas, Patrick Van der Stuyft, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Larissa Otero
BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the Peruvian National TB program (NTP) recommends voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for all tuberculosis (TB) patients. Responding to the differential burden of both diseases in Peru, TB is managed in peripheral health facilities while HIV is managed in referral centers. This study aims to determine the coverage of HIV screening among TB patients and the characteristics of persons not screened. METHODS: From March 2010 to December 2011 we enrolled new smear-positive pulmonary TB adults in 34 health facilities in a district in Lima...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Stevenson K Chea, Tabitha W Mwangi, Kennedy K Ndirangu, Osman A Abdullahi, Patrick K Munywoki, Amina Abubakar, Amin S Hassan
BACKGROUND: Home delivery, referring to pregnant women giving birth in the absence of a skilled birth attendant, is a significant contributor to maternal mortality, and is encouragingly reported to be on a decline in the general population in resource limited settings. However, much less is known about home delivery amongst HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). We described the prevalence and correlates of home delivery among HIV-infected women attending care at a rural public health facility in Kilifi, Coastal Kenya...
2018: PloS One
Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sergio Torres-Rueda, Mwita Wambura, Helen A Weiss, Marya Plotkin, Katharine Kripke, Joseph Chilongani, Hally Mahler, Evodius Kuringe, Maende Makokha, Augustino Hellar, Carl Schutte, Kokuhumbya J Kazaura, Daimon Simbeye, Gerry Mshana, Natasha Larke, Gissenge Lija, John Changalucha, Anna Vassall, Richard Hayes, Jonathan M Grund, Fern Terris-Prestholt
BACKGROUND: Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, demand for services is lower among men in most at-risk age groups (ages 20-34 years). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of locally-tailored demand creation activities (including mass media, community mobilisation and targeted service delivery) in increasing uptake of campaign-delivered VMMC among men aged 20-34 years. We conducted an economic evaluation to understand the intervention's cost and cost-effectiveness...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Margaret R Caplan, Eric S Daar, Katya C Corado
Treatment options for patients with HIV-1 infection have grown over the past two decades to include multiple fixed-dose combination pharmacotherapies that have greatly simplified administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both patients and providers. Effective virologic control can often be achieved with once-daily use of a single-tablet regimen. Over the past three years, ART drug development has focused on the next generation of fixed-dose combinations for initial and maintenance therapy with improved efficacy, safety and tolerability...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Guneet K Jasuja, Shalender Bhasin, Adam J Rose, Joel I Reisman, Avy Skolnik, Dan R Berlowitz, Allen L Gifford
Testosterone supplementation has been widely used in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for hypogonadism, and wasting. But with effective antiretroviral therapy and increasing recognition of atherosclerotic disease and adults infected with HIV, the risks of inappropriate testosterone use in HIV-infected patients are far better recognized than previously. Testosterone use has expanded among U.S. males, but few studies have examined prescribing in those infected with HIV. In a national cohort of males with at least one outpatient prescription in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we examined 9475 HIV-infected males, including 2484 who had received testosterone and a randomly selected 6991 who had not...
March 19, 2018: AIDS Care
Moisés Uriarte-Pinto, Herminia Navarro-Aznarez, Natalia De La Llama-Celis, Piedad Arazo-Garcés, Ana María Martínez-Sapiña, María Reyes Abad-Sazatornil
Background HIV-HCV coinfection produces high morbi-mortality. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have shown high efficacy, although special attention should be paid to the risk of drug interactions. However, due to the lack of representativeness of coinfected patients in clinical trials, it is important to know real-world results. Objective To evaluate DAA treatment effectiveness in coinfected patients. We also analyse safety profile of DAA treatment and drug interactions between HCV and HIV therapy. Setting Descriptive study carried in a tertiary hospital of Spain Method HIV-HCV coinfected patients treated with DAAs between November 2014 and June 2016 were included...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Jiehua Zhou, Daniel Lazar, Haitang Li, Xin Xia, Sangeetha Satheesan, Paige Charlins, Denis O'Mealy, Ramesh Akkina, Sheena Saayman, Marc S Weinberg, John J Rossi, Kevin V Morris
Gene-based therapies represent a promising therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of HIV-1, as they have the potential to maintain sustained viral inhibition with reduced treatment interventions. Such an option may represent a long-term treatment alternative to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: We previously described a therapeutic approach, referred to as transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), whereby small noncoding RNAs directly inhibit the transcriptional activity of HIV-1 by targeting sites within the viral promoter, specifically the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR)...
2018: Theranostics
Nicolas Noël, Béatrice Jacquelin, Nicolas Huot, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research...
March 9, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Laurelle Jackson, Jessica Hunter, Sandile Cele, Isabella Markham Ferreira, Andrew C Young, Farina Karim, Rajhmun Madansein, Kaylesh J Dullabh, Chih-Yuan Chen, Noel J Buckels, Yashica Ganga, Khadija Khan, Mikael Boulle, Gila Lustig, Richard A Neher, Alex Sigal
HIV has been reported to be cytotoxic in vitro and in lymph node infection models. Using a computational approach, we found that partial inhibition of transmissions of multiple virions per cell could lead to increased numbers of live infected cells. If the number of viral DNA copies remains above one after inhibition, then eliminating the surplus viral copies reduces cell death. Using a cell line, we observed increased numbers of live infected cells when infection was partially inhibited with the antiretroviral efavirenz or neutralizing antibody...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Hannah F Löchel, Mona Riemenschneider, Dmitrij Frishman, Dominik Heider
Motivation: The V3 loop of the gp120 glycoprotein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is considered to be responsible for viral coreceptor tropism. gp120 interacts with the CD4 receptor of the host cell and subsequently V3 binds either CCR5 or CXCR4. Due to the fact that the CCR5 coreceptor is targeted by entry inhibitors, a reliable prediction of the coreceptor usage of HIV-1 is of great interest for antiretroviral therapy. Although several methods for the prediction of coreceptor tropism are available, almost all of them have been developed based on only subtype B sequences, and it has been shown in several studies that the prediction of non-B sequences, in particular subtype A sequences, are less reliable...
March 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Kanes Sucharitakul, Marie-Claude Boily, Dobromir Dimitrov, Kate M Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Many mathematical models have investigated the population-level impact of expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART), using different assumptions about HIV disease progression on ART and among ART dropouts. We evaluated the influence of these assumptions on model projections of the number of infections and deaths prevented by expanded ART. METHODS: A new dynamic model of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) was developed, which incorporated each of four alternative assumptions about disease progression used in previous models: (A) ART slows disease progression; (B) ART halts disease progression; (C) ART reverses disease progression by increasing CD4 count; (D) ART reverses disease progression, but disease progresses rapidly once treatment is stopped...
2018: PloS One
Hsin-Yun Sun, Sui-Yuan Chang, Chien-Ching Hung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With prolonged life expectancy in HIV-positive patients on combination antiretroviral therapy, the quest for reducing lifelong drug exposure and minimizing or avoiding the toxicities of combination antiretroviral therapy while maintaining viral suppression has emerged when coformulations of antiretroviral agents with improved convenience, and better tolerability and efficacy became available. This review aims to update the current experience with the novel two-drug combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV) and elucidate the possible applications and limitations of coformulated DTG-RPV in the future...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Tian Zhou, Zhiyi Lin, Pavan Puligujja, Diana Palandri, James Hilaire, Mariluz Araínga, Nathan Smith, Nagsen Gautam, JoEllyn McMillan, Yazen Alnouti, Xinming Liu, Benson Edagwa, Howard E Gendelman
AIM: While the  therapeutic potential for current long-acting (LA) antiretroviral therapy (ART) is undeniable, ligand-decorated nanoformulated LA-ART could optimize drug delivery to viral reservoirs. The development of decorated ART hinges, however, on formulation processes and manufacture efficiencies. To this end, we compared manufacture and purification techniques for ligand-decorated antiretroviral drug nanocrystals. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ligand-decorated nanoparticle manufacturing was tested using folic acid (FA) nanoformulated cabotegravir...
March 19, 2018: Nanomedicine
Cecilia T Costiniuk, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Christina de Castro, Natale Wasef, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Syim Salahuddin, Bertrand Lebouché, Joseph Cox, Jason Szabo, Marina Klein, Larry Lands, Adam J Shapiro
Introduction: Low levels of nasal NO have been associated with increased propensity to rhinosinusitis and respiratory tract infections. Our objective was to describe nasal NO levels in HIV-infected individuals versus healthy controls and determine possible risk factors for reduced nasal NO levels. Materials and Methods: HIV-infected individuals and healthy controls were recruited. Participants underwent nasal NO testing by standardized methods using a CLD88 chemiluminescence analyzer and completed the Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20) on symptoms of rhinosinusitis...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Caitlin Milligan, Jennifer A Slyker, Julie Overbaugh
HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents a success story in the HIV/AIDS field given the significant reduction in number of transmission events with the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment and other prevention methods. Nevertheless, MTCT still occurs and better understanding of the basic biology and immunology of transmission will aid in future prevention and treatment efforts. MTCT is a unique setting given that the transmission pair is known and the infant receives passively transferred HIV-specific antibodies from the mother while in utero...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Thai Hoang, Hong Nguyen, Ray W Shiraishi, Mai Nguyen, Trista Bingham, Diep Nguyen, Tam Nguyen, Hao Duong, Sheryl Lyss, Hien Tran
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is highly effective for reducing heroin use and HIV transmission among people who inject opioids. We sought to measure and understand factors associated with continued heroin use, a critical factor affecting treatment outcome among MMT patients in Vietnam. METHOD: We collected data from medical charts of a nationally representative sample of patients who were on MMT from May 2008 to December 2013. We selected 10 MMT clinics using probability proportional to size and 50 patients/clinic by systematic random sampling...
March 15, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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